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Über dieses Buch

The three-volume proceedings LNCS 10210-10212 constitute the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the 36th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, EUROCRYPT 2017, held in Paris, France, in April/May 2017.

The 67 full papers included in these volumes were carefully reviewed and selected from 264 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections named: lattice attacks and constructions; obfuscation and functional encryption; discrete logarithm; multiparty computation; universal composability; zero knowledge; side-channel attacks and countermeasures; functional encryption; elliptic curves; symmetric cryptanalysis; provable security for symmetric cryptography; security models; blockchain; memory hard functions; symmetric-key constructions; obfuscation; quantum cryptography; public-key encryption and key-exchange.



Lattice Attacks and Constructions I


Revisiting Lattice Attacks on Overstretched NTRU Parameters

In 2016, Albrecht, Bai and Ducas and independently Cheon, Jeong and Lee presented very similar attacks to break the NTRU cryptosystem with larger modulus than in the NTRUEncrypt standard. They allow to recover the secret key given the public key of Fully Homomorphic Encryption schemes based on NTRU ideas. Hopefully, these attacks do not endanger the security of the NTRUEncrypt, but shed new light on the hardness of the NTRU problem. The idea consists in decreasing the dimension of the NTRU lattice using the multiplication matrix by the norm (resp. trace) of the public key in some subfield instead of the public key itself. Since the dimension of the subfield is smaller, so is the dimension of the lattice and better lattice reduction algorithms perform.
In this paper, we first propose a new variant of the subfield attacks that outperforms both of these attacks in practice. It allows to break several concrete instances of YASHE, a NTRU-based FHE scheme, but it is not as efficient as the hybrid method on smaller concrete parameters of NTRUEncrypt. Instead of using the norm and trace, the multiplication by the public key in a subring allows to break smaller parameters and we show that in \(\mathbb {Q}(\zeta _{2^n})\), the time complexity is polynomial for \(q=2^{\mathrm {\Omega }(\sqrt{n\log \log n})}\). Then, we revisit the lattice reduction part of the hybrid attack of Howgrave-Graham and analyze the success probability of this attack using a new technical tool proposed by Pataki and Tural. We show that, under some heuristics, this attack is more efficient than the subfield attack and works in any ring for large q, such as the NTRU Prime ring. We insist that the improvement on the analysis applies even for relatively small modulus; although if the secret is sparse, it may not be the fastest attack. We also derive a tight estimation of security for (Ring-) LWE and NTRU assumptions and perform many practical experiments.
Paul Kirchner, Pierre-Alain Fouque

Short Generators Without Quantum Computers: The Case of Multiquadratics

Finding a short element g of a number field, given the ideal generated by g, is a classic problem in computational algebraic number theory. Solving this problem recovers the private key in cryptosystems introduced by Gentry, Smart–Vercauteren, Gentry–Halevi, Garg–Gentry–Halevi, et al. Work over the last few years has shown that for some number fields this problem has a surprisingly low post-quantum security level. This paper shows, and experimentally verifies, that for some number fields this problem has a surprisingly low pre-quantum security level.
Jens Bauch, Daniel J. Bernstein, Henry de Valence, Tanja Lange, Christine van Vredendaal

Computing Generator in Cyclotomic Integer Rings

A Subfield Algorithm for the Principal Ideal Problem in and Application to the Cryptanalysis of a FHE Scheme
The Principal Ideal Problem (resp. Short Principal Ideal Problem), shorten as PIP (resp. SPIP), consists in finding a generator (resp. short generator) of a principal ideal in the ring of integers of a number field. Several lattice-based cryptosystems rely on the presumed hardness of these two problems. In practice, most of them do not use an arbitrary number field but a power-of-two cyclotomic field. The Smart and Vercauteren fully homomorphic encryption scheme and the multilinear map of Garg, Gentry, and Halevi epitomize this common restriction. Recently, Cramer, Ducas, Peikert, and Regev showed that solving the SPIP in such cyclotomic rings boiled down to solving the PIP. In this paper, we present a heuristic algorithm that solves the PIP in prime-power cyclotomic fields in subexponential time \(L_{|\varDelta _\mathbb {K}|}\left( 1/2\right) \), where \(\varDelta _\mathbb {K}\) denotes the discriminant of the number field. This is achieved by descending to its totally real subfield. The implementation of our algorithm allows to recover in practice the secret key of the Smart and Vercauteren scheme, for the smallest proposed parameters (in dimension 256).
Jean-François Biasse, Thomas Espitau, Pierre-Alain Fouque, Alexandre Gélin, Paul Kirchner

Obfuscation and Functional Encryption


Robust Transforming Combiners from Indistinguishability Obfuscation to Functional Encryption

Indistinguishability Obfuscation (iO) has enabled an incredible number of new and exciting applications. However, our understanding of how to actually build secure iO remains in its infancy. While many candidate constructions have been published, some have been broken, and it is unclear which of the remaining candidates are secure.
This work deals with the following basic question: Can we hedge our bets when it comes to iO candidates? In other words, if we have a collection of iO candidates, and we only know that at least one of them is secure, can we still make use of these candidates?
This topic was recently studied by Ananth, Jain, Naor, Sahai, and Yogev [CRYPTO 2016], who showed how to construct a robust iO combiner: Specifically, they showed that given the situation above, we can construct a single iO scheme that is secure as long as (1) at least one candidate iO scheme is a subexponentially secure iO, and (2) either the subexponential DDH or LWE assumptions hold.
In this work, we make three contributions:
  • (Better robust iO combiners.) First, we work to improve the assumptions needed to obtain the same result as Ananth et al.: namely we show how to replace the DDH/LWE assumption with the assumption that subexponentially secure one-way functions exist.
  • (Transforming Combiners from iO to FE and NIKE.) Second, we consider a broader question: what if we start with several iO candidates where only one works, but we don’t care about achieving iO itself, rather we want to achieve concrete applications of iO? In this case, we are able to work with the minimal assumption of just polynomially secure one-way functions, and where the working iO candidate only achieves polynomial security. We call such combiners transforming combiners. More generally, a transforming combiner from primitive A to primitive B is one that takes as input many candidates of primitive A, out of which we are guaranteed that at least one is secure and outputs a secure candidate of primitive B. We can correspondingly define robust transforming combiners. We present transforming combiners from indistinguishability obfuscation to functional encryption and non-interactive multiparty key exchance (NIKE).
  • (Correctness Amplification for iO from polynomial security and one-way functions.) Finally, along the way, we obtain a result of independent interest: Recently, Bitansky and Vaikuntanathan [TCC 2016] showed how to amplify the correctness of an iO scheme, but they needed subexponential security for the iO scheme and also require subexponentially secure DDH or LWE. We show how to achieve the same correctness amplification result, but requiring only polynomial security from the iO scheme, and assuming only polynomially secure one-way functions.
Prabhanjan Ananth, Aayush Jain, Amit Sahai

From Minicrypt to Obfustopia via Private-Key Functional Encryption

Private-key functional encryption enables fine-grained access to symmetrically-encrypted data. Although private-key functional encryption (supporting an unbounded number of keys and ciphertexts) seems significantly weaker than its public-key variant, its known realizations all rely on public-key functional encryption. At the same time, however, up until recently it was not known to imply any public-key primitive, demonstrating our poor understanding of this extremely-useful primitive.
Recently, Bitansky et al. [TCC ’16B] showed that sub-exponentially-secure private-key function encryption bridges from nearly-exponential security in Minicrypt to slightly super-polynomial security in Cryptomania, and from sub-exponential security in Cryptomania to Obfustopia. Specifically, given any sub-exponentially-secure private-key functional encryption scheme and a nearly-exponentially-secure one-way function, they constructed a public-key encryption scheme with slightly super-polynomial security. Assuming, in addition, a sub-exponentially-secure public-key encryption scheme, they then constructed an indistinguishability obfuscator.
We show that quasi-polynomially-secure private-key functional encryption bridges from sub-exponential security in Minicrypt all the way to Cryptomania. First, given any quasi-polynomially-secure private-key functional encryption scheme, we construct an indistinguishability obfuscator for circuits with inputs of poly-logarithmic length. Then, we observe that such an obfuscator can be used to instantiate many natural applications of indistinguishability obfuscation. Specifically, relying on sub-exponentially-secure one-way functions, we show that quasi-polynomially-secure private-key functional encryption implies not just public-key encryption but leads all the way to public-key functional encryption for circuits with inputs of poly-logarithmic length. Moreover, relying on sub-exponentially-secure injective one-way functions, we show that quasi-polynomially-secure private-key functional encryption implies a hard-on-average distribution over instances of a PPAD-complete problem.
Underlying our constructions is a new transformation from single-input functional encryption to multi-input functional encryption in the private-key setting. The previously known such transformation [Brakerski et al., EUROCRYPT ’16] required a sub-exponentially-secure single-input scheme, and obtained a scheme supporting only a slightly super-constant number of inputs. Our transformation both relaxes the underlying assumption and supports more inputs: Given any quasi-polynomially-secure single-input scheme, we obtain a scheme supporting a poly-logarithmic number of inputs.
Ilan Komargodski, Gil Segev

Projective Arithmetic Functional Encryption and Indistinguishability Obfuscation from Degree-5 Multilinear Maps

In this work, we propose a variant of functional encryption called projective arithmetic functional encryption (PAFE). Roughly speaking, our notion is like functional encryption for arithmetic circuits, but where secret keys only yield partially decrypted values. These partially decrypted values can be linearly combined with known coefficients and the result can be tested to see if it is a small value.
We give a degree-preserving construction of PAFE from multilinear maps. That is, we show how to achieve PAFE for arithmetic circuits of degree d using only degree-d multilinear maps. Our construction is based on an assumption over such multilinear maps, that we justify in a generic model. We then turn to applying our notion of PAFE to one of the most pressing open problems in the foundations of cryptography: building secure indistinguishability obfuscation (\(\mathsf {i}\mathcal {O}\)) from simpler building blocks.
\(\mathsf {i}\mathcal {O}\) from degree-5 multilinear maps. Recently, the works of Lin [Eurocrypt 2016] and Lin-Vaikuntanathan [FOCS 2016] showed how to build \(\mathsf {i}\mathcal {O}\) from constant-degree multilinear maps. However, no explicit constant was given in these works, and an analysis of these published works shows that the degree requirement would be in excess of 30. The ultimate “dream” goal of this line of work would be to reduce the degree requirement all the way to 2, allowing for the use of well-studied bilinear maps, or barring that, to a low constant that may be supportable by alternative secure low-degree multilinear map candidates. We make substantial progress toward this goal by showing how to leverage PAFE for degree-5 arithmetic circuits to achieve \(\mathsf {i}\mathcal {O}\), thus yielding the first \(\mathsf {i}\mathcal {O}\) construction from degree-5 multilinear maps.
Prabhanjan Ananth, Amit Sahai

Discrete Logarithm


Computation of a 768-Bit Prime Field Discrete Logarithm

This paper reports on the number field sieve computation of a 768-bit prime field discrete logarithm, describes the different parameter optimizations and resulting algorithmic changes compared to the factorization of a 768-bit RSA modulus, and briefly discusses the cryptologic relevance of the result.
Thorsten Kleinjung, Claus Diem, Arjen K. Lenstra, Christine Priplata, Colin Stahlke

A Kilobit Hidden SNFS Discrete Logarithm Computation

We perform a special number field sieve discrete logarithm computation in a 1024-bit prime field. To our knowledge, this is the first kilobit-sized discrete logarithm computation ever reported for prime fields. This computation took a little over two months of calendar time on an academic cluster using the open-source CADO-NFS software.
Our chosen prime p looks random, and \(p-1\) has a 160-bit prime factor, in line with recommended parameters for the Digital Signature Algorithm. However, our p has been trapdoored in such a way that the special number field sieve can be used to compute discrete logarithms in \(\mathbb {F}_p^*\), yet detecting that p has this trapdoor seems out of reach. Twenty-five years ago, there was considerable controversy around the possibility of backdoored parameters for DSA. Our computations show that trapdoored primes are entirely feasible with current computing technology. We also describe special number field sieve discrete log computations carried out for multiple conspicuously weak primes found in use in the wild.
As can be expected from a trapdoor mechanism which we say is hard to detect, our research did not reveal any trapdoored prime in wide use. The only way for a user to defend against a hypothetical trapdoor of this kind is to require verifiably random primes.
Joshua Fried, Pierrick Gaudry, Nadia Heninger, Emmanuel Thomé

Multiparty Computation I


Improved Private Set Intersection Against Malicious Adversaries

Private set intersection (PSI) refers to a special case of secure two-party computation in which the parties each have a set of items and compute the intersection of these sets without revealing any additional information. In this paper we present improvements to practical PSI providing security in the presence of malicious adversaries.
Our starting point is the protocol of Dong, Chen & Wen (CCS 2013) that is based on Bloom filters. We identify a bug in their malicious-secure variant and show how to fix it using a cut-and-choose approach that has low overhead while simultaneously avoiding one the main computational bottleneck in their original protocol. We also point out some subtleties that arise when using Bloom filters in malicious-secure cryptographic protocols.
We have implemented our PSI protocols and report on its performance. Our improvements reduce the cost of Dong et al.’s protocol by a factor of \(14-110{\times }\) on a single thread. When compared to the previous fastest protocol of De Cristofaro et al., we improve the running time by \(8-24{\times }\). For instance, our protocol has an online time of 14 s and an overall time of 2.1 min to securely compute the intersection of two sets of 1 million items each.
Peter Rindal, Mike Rosulek

Formal Abstractions for Attested Execution Secure Processors

Realistic secure processors, including those built for academic and commercial purposes, commonly realize an “attested execution” abstraction. Despite being the de facto standard for modern secure processors, the “attested execution” abstraction has not received adequate formal treatment. We provide formal abstractions for “attested execution” secure processors and rigorously explore its expressive power. Our explorations show both the expected and the surprising.
On one hand, we show that just like the common belief, attested execution is extremely powerful, and allows one to realize powerful cryptographic abstractions such as stateful obfuscation whose existence is otherwise impossible even when assuming virtual blackbox obfuscation and stateless hardware tokens. On the other hand, we show that surprisingly, realizing composable two-party computation with attested execution processors is not as straightforward as one might anticipate. Specifically, only when both parties are equipped with a secure processor can we realize composable two-party computation. If one of the parties does not have a secure processor, we show that composable two-party computation is impossible. In practice, however, it would be desirable to allow multiple legacy clients (without secure processors) to leverage a server’s secure processor to perform a multi-party computation task. We show how to introduce minimal additional setup assumptions to enable this. Finally, we show that fair multi-party computation for general functionalities is impossible if secure processors do not have trusted clocks. When secure processors have trusted clocks, we can realize fair two-party computation if both parties are equipped with a secure processor; but if only one party has a secure processor (with a trusted clock), then fairness is still impossible for general functionalities.
Rafael Pass, Elaine Shi, Florian Tramèr

Lattice Attacks and Constructions II


One-Shot Verifiable Encryption from Lattices

Verifiable encryption allows one to prove properties about encrypted data and is an important building block in the design of cryptographic protocols, e.g., group signatures, key escrow, fair exchange protocols, etc. Existing lattice-based verifiable encryption schemes, and even just proofs of knowledge of the encrypted data, require parallel composition of proofs to reduce the soundness error, resulting in proof sizes that are only truly practical when amortized over a large number of ciphertexts.
In this paper, we present a new construction of a verifiable encryption scheme, based on the hardness of the Ring-LWE problem in the random-oracle model, for short solutions to linear equations over polynomial rings. Our scheme is “one-shot”, in the sense that a single instance of the proof already has negligible soundness error, yielding compact proofs even for individual ciphertexts. Whereas verifiable encryption usually guarantees that decryption can recover a witness for the original language, we relax this requirement to decrypt a witness of a related but extended language. This relaxation is sufficient for many applications and we illustrate this with example usages of our scheme in key escrow and verifiably encrypted signatures.
One of the interesting aspects of our construction is that the decryption algorithm is probabilistic and uses the proof as input (rather than using only the ciphertext). The decryption time for honestly-generated ciphertexts only depends on the security parameter, while the expected running time for decrypting an adversarially-generated ciphertext is directly related to the number of random-oracle queries of the adversary who created it. This property suffices in most practical scenarios, especially in situations where the ciphertext proof is part of an interactive protocol, where the decryptor is substantially more powerful than the adversary, or where adversaries can be otherwise discouraged to submit malformed ciphertexts.
Vadim Lyubashevsky, Gregory Neven

Short Stickelberger Class Relations and Application to Ideal-SVP

The worst-case hardness of finding short vectors in ideals of cyclotomic number fields (Ideal-SVP) is a central matter in lattice based cryptography. Assuming the worst-case hardness of Ideal-SVP allows to prove the Ring-LWE and Ring-SIS assumptions, and therefore to prove the security of numerous cryptographic schemes and protocols — including key-exchange, digital signatures, public-key encryption and fully-homomorphic encryption.
A series of recent works has shown that Principal Ideal-SVP is not always as hard as finding short vectors in general lattices, and some schemes were broken using quantum algorithms — the Soliloquy encryption scheme, Smart-Vercauteren fully homomorphic encryption scheme from PKC 2010, and Gentry-Garg-Halevi cryptographic multilinear-maps from Eurocrypt 2013.
Those broken schemes were using a special class of principal ideals, but these works also showed how to solve SVP for principal ideals in the worst-case in quantum polynomial time for an approximation factor of \(\exp (\tilde{O}(\sqrt{n}))\). This exposed an unexpected hardness gap between general lattices and some structured ones, and called into question the hardness of various problems over structured lattices, such as Ideal-SVP and Ring-LWE.
In this work, we generalize the previous result to general ideals. Precisely, we show how to solve the close principal multiple problem (CPM) by exploiting the classical theorem that the class-group is annihilated by the (Galois-module action of) the so-called Stickelberger ideal. Under some plausible number-theoretical hypothesis, our approach provides a close principal multiple in quantum polynomial time. Combined with the previous results, this solves Ideal-SVP in the worst case in quantum polynomial time for an approximation factor of \(\exp (\tilde{O}(\sqrt{n}))\).
Although it does not seem that the security of Ring-LWE based cryptosystems is directly affected, we contribute novel ideas to the cryptanalysis of schemes based on structured lattices. Moreover, our result shows a deepening of the gap between general lattices and structured ones.
Ronald Cramer, Léo Ducas, Benjamin Wesolowski

Universal Composability


Concurrently Composable Security with Shielded Super-Polynomial Simulators

We propose a new framework for concurrently composable security that relaxes the security notion of UC security. As in previous frameworks, our notion is based on the idea of providing the simulator with super-polynomial resources. However, in our new framework simulators are only given restricted access to the results computed in super-polynomial time. This is done by modeling the super-polynomial resource as a stateful oracle that may directly interact with a functionality without the simulator seeing the communication. We call these oracles “shielded oracles”.
Our notion is fully compatible with the UC framework, i.e., protocols proven secure in the UC framework remain secure in our framework. Furthermore, our notion lies strictly between SPS and Angel-based security, while being closed under protocol composition.
Shielding away super-polynomial resources allows us to apply new proof techniques where we can replace super-polynomial entities by indistinguishable polynomially bounded entities. This allows us to construct secure protocols in the plain model using weaker primitives than in previous Angel-based protocols. In particular, we only use non-adaptive-CCA-secure commitments as a building block in our constructions.
As a feasibility result, we present a constant-round general MPC protocol in the plain model based on standard polynomial-time hardness assumptions that is secure in our framework. Our protocol can be made fully black-box. As a consequence, we obtain the first black-box construction of a constant-round concurrently secure general MPC protocol in the plain model based on polynomial-time hardness assumptions.
Brandon Broadnax, Nico Döttling, Gunnar Hartung, Jörn Müller-Quade, Matthias Nagel

Unconditional UC-Secure Computation with (Stronger-Malicious) PUFs

Brzuska et. al. (Crypto 2011) proved that unconditional UC-secure computation is possible if parties have access to honestly generated physically unclonable functions (PUFs). Dachman-Soled et. al. (Crypto 2014) then showed how to obtain unconditional UC secure computation based on malicious PUFs, assuming such PUFs are stateless. They also showed that unconditional oblivious transfer is impossible against an adversary that creates malicious stateful PUFs.
  • In this work, we go beyond this seemingly tight result, by allowing any adversary to create stateful PUFs with a-priori bounded state. This relaxes the restriction on the power of the adversary (limited to stateless PUFs in previous feasibility results), therefore achieving improved security guarantees. This is also motivated by practical scenarios, where the size of a physical object may be used to compute an upper bound on the size of its memory.
  • As a second contribution, we introduce a new model where any adversary is allowed to generate a malicious PUF that may encapsulate other (honestly generated) PUFs within it, such that the outer PUF has oracle access to all the inner PUFs. This is again a natural scenario, and in fact, similar adversaries have been studied in the tamper-proof hardware-token model (e.g., Chandran et. al. (Eurocrypt 2008)), but no such notion has ever been considered with respect to PUFs. All previous constructions of UC secure protocols suffer from explicit attacks in this stronger model.
In a direct improvement over previous results, we construct UC protocols with unconditional security in both these models.
Saikrishna Badrinarayanan, Dakshita Khurana, Rafail Ostrovsky, Ivan Visconti

Lattice Attacks and Constructions III


Private Puncturable PRFs from Standard Lattice Assumptions

A puncturable pseudorandom function (PRF) has a master key k that enables one to evaluate the PRF at all points of the domain, and has a punctured key \(k_x\) that enables one to evaluate the PRF at all points but one. The punctured key \(k_x\) reveals no information about the value of the PRF at the punctured point x. Punctured PRFs play an important role in cryptography, especially in applications of indistinguishability obfuscation. However, in previous constructions, the punctured key \(k_x\) completely reveals the punctured point x: given \(k_x\) it is easy to determine x. A private puncturable PRF is one where \(k_x\) reveals nothing about x. This concept was defined by Boneh, Lewi, and Wu, who showed the usefulness of private puncturing, and gave constructions based on multilinear maps. The question is whether private puncturing can be built from a standard (weaker) cryptographic assumption.
We construct the first privately puncturable PRF from standard lattice assumptions, namely learning with errors (LWE) and 1 dimensional short integer solutions (1D-SIS), which have connections to worst-case hardness of general lattice problems. Our starting point is the (non-private) PRF of Brakerski and Vaikuntanathan. We introduce a number of new techniques to enhance this PRF, from which we obtain a privately puncturable PRF. In addition, we also study the simulation based definition of private constrained PRFs for general circuits, and show that the definition is not satisfiable.
Dan Boneh, Sam Kim, Hart Montgomery

Constraint-Hiding Constrained PRFs for NC from LWE

Constraint-hiding constrained PRFs (CHCPRFs), initially studied by Boneh, Lewi and Wu (PKC 2017), are constrained PRFs where the constrained key hides the description of the constraint. Envisioned with powerful applications such as searchable encryption, private-detectable watermarking and symmetric deniable encryption, the only known candidates of CHCPRFs are based on indistinguishability obfuscation or multilinear maps with strong security properties.
In this paper we construct CHCPRFs for all NC\(^1\) circuits from the Learning with Errors assumption. The construction draws heavily from the graph-induced multilinear maps by Gentry, Gorbunov and Halevi (TCC 2015), as well as the existing lattice-based PRFs. In fact, our construction can be viewed as an instance of the GGH15 approach where security can be reduced to LWE.
We also show how to build from CHCPRFs reusable garbled circuits (RGC), or equivalently private-key function-hiding functional encryptions with 1-key security. This provides a different approach of constructing RGC from that of Goldwasser et al. (STOC 2013).
Ran Canetti, Yilei Chen

Zero Knowledge I


Amortized Complexity of Zero-Knowledge Proofs Revisited: Achieving Linear Soundness Slack

We propose a new zero-knowledge protocol for proving knowledge of short preimages under additively homomorphic functions that map integer vectors to an Abelian group. The protocol achieves amortized efficiency in that it only needs to send O(n) function values to prove knowledge of n preimages. Furthermore we significantly improve previous bounds on how short a secret we can extract from a dishonest prover, namely our bound is a factor O(k) larger than the size of secret used by the honest prover, where k is the statistical security parameter. In the best previous result, the factor was \(O(k^{\log k} n)\).
Our protocol can be applied to give proofs of knowledge for plaintexts in (Ring-)LWE-based cryptosystems, knowledge of preimages of homomorphic hash functions as well as knowledge of committed values in some integer commitment schemes.
Ronald Cramer, Ivan Damgård, Chaoping Xing, Chen Yuan

Sublinear Zero-Knowledge Arguments for RAM Programs

We describe a new succinct zero-knowledge argument protocol with the following properties. The prover commits to a large data-set M, and can thereafter prove many statements of the form \(\exists w : \mathcal {R}_i(M,w)=1\), where \(\mathcal {R}_i\) is a public function. The protocol is succinct in the sense that the cost for the verifier (in computation & communication) does not depend on |M|, not even in any initialization phase In each proof, the computation/communication cost for both the prover and the verifier is proportional only to the running time of an oblivious RAM program implementing \(\mathcal {R}_i\) (in particular, this can be sublinear in |M|). The only costs that scale with |M| are the computational costs of the prover in a one-time initial commitment to M.
Known sublinear zero-knowledge proofs either require an initialization phase where the work of the verifier is proportional to |M| and are therefore sublinear only in an amortized sense, or require that the computational cost for the prover is proportional to |M| upon each proof.
Our protocol uses efficient crypto primitives in a black-box way and is UC-secure in the global, non-programmable random oracle, hence it does not rely on any trusted setup assumption.
Payman Mohassel, Mike Rosulek, Alessandra Scafuro

Side-Channel Attacks and Countermeasures


Parallel Implementations of Masking Schemes and the Bounded Moment Leakage Model

In this paper, we provide a necessary clarification of the good security properties that can be obtained from parallel implementations of masking schemes. For this purpose, we first argue that (i) the probing model is not straightforward to interpret, since it more naturally captures the intuitions of serial implementations, and (ii) the noisy leakage model is not always convenient, e.g. when combined with formal methods for the verification of cryptographic implementations. Therefore we introduce a new model, the bounded moment model, that formalizes a weaker notion of security order frequently used in the side-channel literature. Interestingly, we prove that probing security for a serial implementation implies bounded moment security for its parallel counterpart. This result therefore enables an accurate understanding of the links between formal security analyses of masking schemes and experimental security evaluations based on the estimation of statistical moments. Besides its consolidating nature, our work also brings useful technical contributions. First, we describe and analyze refreshing and multiplication algorithms that are well suited for parallel implementations and improve security against multivariate side-channel attacks. Second, we show that simple refreshing algorithms (with linear complexity) that are not secure in the continuous probing model are secure in the continuous bounded moment model. Eventually, we discuss the independent leakage assumption required for masking to deliver its security promises, and its specificities related to the serial or parallel nature of an implementation.
Gilles Barthe, François Dupressoir, Sebastian Faust, Benjamin Grégoire, François-Xavier Standaert, Pierre-Yves Strub

How Fast Can Higher-Order Masking Be in Software?

Higher-order masking is widely accepted as a sound countermeasure to protect implementations of blockciphers against side-channel attacks. The main issue while designing such a countermeasure is to deal with the nonlinear parts of the cipher i.e. the so-called s-boxes. The prevailing approach to tackle this issue consists in applying the Ishai-Sahai-Wagner (ISW) scheme from CRYPTO 2003 to some polynomial representation of the s-box. Several efficient constructions have been proposed that follow this approach, but higher-order masking is still considered as a costly (impractical) countermeasure. In this paper, we investigate efficient higher-order masking techniques by conducting a case study on ARM architectures (the most widespread architecture in embedded systems). We follow a bottom-up approach by first investigating the implementation of the base field multiplication at the assembly level. Then we describe optimized low-level implementations of the ISW scheme and its variant (CPRR) due to Coron et al. (FSE 2013) [14]. Finally we present improved state-of-the-art polynomial decomposition methods for s-boxes with custom parameters and various implementation-level optimizations. We also investigate an alternative to these methods which is based on bitslicing at the s-box level. We describe new masked bitslice implementations of the AES and PRESENT ciphers. These implementations happen to be significantly faster than (optimized) state-of-the-art polynomial methods. In particular, our bitslice AES masked at order 10 runs in 0.48 megacycles, which makes 8 ms in presence of a 60 MHz clock frequency.
Dahmun Goudarzi, Matthieu Rivain

Functional Encryption I


Multi-input Inner-Product Functional Encryption from Pairings

We present a multi-input functional encryption scheme (MIFE) for the inner product functionality based on the k-Lin assumption in prime-order bilinear groups. Our construction works for any polynomial number of encryption slots and achieves adaptive security against unbounded collusion, while relying on standard polynomial hardness assumptions. Prior to this work, we did not even have a candidate for 3-slot MIFE for inner products in the generic bilinear group model. Our work is also the first MIFE scheme for a non-trivial functionality based on standard cryptographic assumptions, as well as the first to achieve polynomial security loss for a super-constant number of slots under falsifiable assumptions. Prior works required stronger non-standard assumptions such as indistinguishability obfuscation or multi-linear maps.
Michel Abdalla, Romain Gay, Mariana Raykova, Hoeteck Wee

Simplifying Design and Analysis of Complex Predicate Encryption Schemes

Wee (TCC’14) and Attrapadung (Eurocrypt’14) introduced predicate and pair encodings, respectively, as a simple way to construct and analyze attribute-based encryption schemes, or more generally predicate encryption. However, many schemes do not satisfy the simple information theoretic property proposed in those works, and thus require much more complicated analysis. In this paper, we propose a new simple property for pair encodings called symbolic security. Proofs that pair encodings satisfy this property are concise and easy to verify. We show that this property is inherently tied to the security of predicate encryption schemes by arguing that any scheme which is not trivially broken must satisfy it. Then we use this property to discuss several ways to convert between pair encodings to obtain encryption schemes with different properties like small ciphertexts or keys. Finally, we show that any pair encoding satisfying our new property can be used to construct a fully secure predicate encryption scheme. The resulting schemes are secure under a new q-type assumption which we show follows from several of the assumptions used to construct such schemes in previous work.
Shashank Agrawal, Melissa Chase

Elliptic Curves


Twisted -Normal Form for Elliptic Curves

We introduce the twisted \(\varvec{\mu }_4\)-normal form for elliptic curves, deriving in particular addition algorithms with complexity \(9{\mathbf {M}}+ 2{\mathbf {S}}\) and doubling algorithms with complexity \(2{\mathbf {M}}+ 5{\mathbf {S}}+ 2{\mathbf {m}}\) over a binary field. Every ordinary elliptic curve over a finite field of characteristic 2 is isomorphic to one in this family. This improvement to the addition algorithm, applicable to a larger class of curves, is comparable to the \(7{\mathbf {M}}+ 2{\mathbf {S}}\) achieved for the \(\varvec{\mu }_4\)-normal form, and replaces the previously best known complexity of \(13{\mathbf {M}}+ 3{\mathbf {S}}\) on López-Dahab models applicable to these twisted curves. The derived doubling algorithm is essentially optimal, without any assumption of special cases. We show moreover that the Montgomery scalar multiplication with point recovery carries over to the twisted models, giving symmetric scalar multiplication adapted to protect against side channel attacks, with a cost of \(4{\mathbf {M}}+ 4{\mathbf {S}}+ 1{\mathbf {m}}_t + 2{\mathbf {m}}_c\) per bit. In characteristic different from 2, we establish a linear isomorphism with the twisted Edwards model over the base field. This work, in complement to the introduction of \(\varvec{\mu }_4\)-normal form, fills the lacuna in the body of work on efficient arithmetic on elliptic curves over binary fields, explained by this common framework for elliptic curves in \(\varvec{\mu }_4\)-normal form over a field of any characteristic. The improvements are analogous to those which the Edwards and twisted Edwards models achieved for elliptic curves over finite fields of odd characteristic and extend \(\varvec{\mu }_4\)-normal form to cover the binary NIST curves.
David Kohel

Efficient Compression of SIDH Public Keys

Supersingular isogeny Diffie-Hellman (SIDH) is an attractive candidate for post-quantum key exchange, in large part due to its relatively small public key sizes. A recent paper by Azarderakhsh, Jao, Kalach, Koziel and Leonardi showed that the public keys defined in Jao and De Feo’s original SIDH scheme can be further compressed by around a factor of two, but reported that the performance penalty in utilizing this compression blew the overall SIDH runtime out by more than an order of magnitude. Given that the runtime of SIDH key exchange is currently its main drawback in relation to its lattice- and code-based post-quantum alternatives, an order of magnitude performance penalty for a factor of two improvement in bandwidth presents a trade-off that is unlikely to favor public-key compression in many scenarios.
In this paper, we propose a range of new algorithms and techniques that accelerate SIDH public-key compression by more than an order of magnitude, making it roughly as fast as a round of standalone SIDH key exchange, while further reducing the size of the compressed public keys by approximately 12.5%. These improvements enable the practical use of compression, achieving public keys of only 330 bytes for the concrete parameters used to target 128 bits of quantum security and further strengthens SIDH as a promising post-quantum primitive.
Craig Costello, David Jao, Patrick Longa, Michael Naehrig, Joost Renes, David Urbanik


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