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2022 | Buch

Advances in Design, Simulation and Manufacturing V

Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Design, Simulation, Manufacturing: The Innovation Exchange, DSMIE-2022, June 7–10, 2022, Poznan, Poland – Volume 1: Manufacturing and Materials Engineering

herausgegeben von: Prof. Vitalii Ivanov, Dr. Justyna Trojanowska, Prof. Ivan Pavlenko, Dr. Erwin Rauch, Prof. Dragan Peraković

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Buchreihe: Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering


Über dieses Buch

This book reports on topics at the interface between manufacturing and materials engineering, with a special emphasis on smart and sustainable manufacturing. It describes innovative research in design engineering and manufacturing technology, covering the development and characterization of advanced materials alike. It also discusses key aspects related to ICT in engineering education. Based on the 5th International Conference on Design, Simulation, Manufacturing: The Innovation Exchange (DSMIE-2022), held on June 7-10, 2022, in Poznan, Poland, this first volume of a 2-volume set provides academics and professionals with extensive information on trends and technologies, and challenges and practice-oriented experience in all the above-mentioned areas.



Smart and Sustainable Manufacturing

Mechatronic Actuator for Adaptive Machining Control

The paper discusses the principles of operation and fundamentals of the theory of a lineal mechatronic actuator for adaptive machining control (cutting, grinding, polishing, etc.). Structurally, the actuator is made according to the scheme of a linear DC electric motor containing a fixed stator field winding and a movable armature winding. Both windings (fixed and movable) are located coaxially on one cylindrical ferromagnetic core and interact in such a way that the movable armature is in a dynamic equilibrium state under the action of two oppositely directed forces: electromagnetic and electrodynamic ones. The electromagnetic force is due to the non-symmetrical arrangement of the armature winding on the ferromagnetic core relative to the center of its mass. The electrodynamic force is caused by the action of the magnetic field of the field winding on the armature winding through which the regulated current flows. The armature winding is rigidly connected to an axially displaced actuating element carrying a cutting or pressing tool, including a rotating one. It is established that the electromagnetic force is proportional to the difference in the magnetic permeability of the ferromagnetic core and the vacuum, and the electrodynamic force is proportional to the magnitude of the currents in the field and armature windings. The mechatronic actuator operating characteristics showing the effect of the regulated currents on the axial force are experimentally constructed.

Anatoly Gushchin, Vasily Larshin, Oleksandr Lysyi, Igor Dudarev
Design and Validation of a Feeding System for the Systematic Production of Needle Beds

With the increasing quality standards of the electronic industry, especially in Printed Circuit Boards, the In-Circuit-Test Machines are becoming one of the most important systems on the production lines. Higher requirements are being set, pressing the In-Circuit-Test Machines production process to meet the necessary quality parameters, mainly precision and reliability. One of the possible approaches to update the manufacturing process of the In-Circuit-Test Machines is to automatize the process from a technological point of view. The automation of the process was divided into several sub-functions, one of them and the paper’s focus, the feeding system. To achieve a desirable solution, the problem was analyzed, several solutions were studied within the state of the art, and two original solutions were proposed to solve the problem. The decision process followed engineering criteria through simulation and efficiency parameters, and it culminated in the proposal of a final solution. A prototype for the final solution was tested, and the results were presented.

Luis Freitas, Divo Pinto, José Vicente, Katarzyna Antosz, José Machado
An Increase in the Efficiency of Selected Production Processes Using Lean Tools

The uncertainty of today’s globalized economy requires prompt responses by companies, responding to rapid changes in customer demand. The last thing a company wants is an inflexible production system that cannot respond quickly. Companies’ situation largely depends on reacting promptly to changing customer requirements. Of course, all these activities must also generate some profit for society. In achieving its objectives, the company must pay particular attention to reducing production costs. Therefore, improving production processes is becoming increasingly important. The improvement consists in identifying and eliminating losses that occur in production. Managing and improving business processes is a regular part of a successful company, no matter which segment the company operates. With increasing competition in a market economy, it is essential to optimize production processes. The textile market is oversaturated, supply exceeds demand, and companies have to put an even bigger stop on streamlining internal processes. It is mainly a matter of eliminating waste from various sources and does not add value for consumers’ willingness to pay. This paper aims to use selected lean manufacturing tools to minimize inefficient work activities and time losses.

Lucia Knapčíková, Matúš Martiček, Jozef Husár, Jakub Kaščak
Quality Control Monitoring in 3D Printing

Online monitoring of the 3D printing process is one of the keys to ensuring product quality and improving the efficiency of the printing process. The technological system of 3D printing presented in the paper can be considered as an information system that has basic parameters: input, state, and output. The analysis of sensors and devices of online monitoring systems was summarized in two directions, as their state parameters or output parameters. In contrast to the first one, the second direction has excellent prospects since it allows direct monitoring of the object quality parameters. Still, the decision-making algorithms must be fast and reliable. A computer vision approach has become widespread to implement the direction of online monitoring of surface quality. The detection of defects using computer vision at various stages of the printing process, especially at the initial stage (the formation of the first layer), will help to take timely corrective measures and prevent the printing of low-quality parts. A defect “stringy first layer” is often observed in the FDM method. Computer vision method to detect this defect has been investigated. The method allows determining the defect presence quickly and quantifying it by the number of detected pixels. This method can successfully serve the purpose of real-time quality monitoring of a 3D printing process.

Natalia Lishchenko, Peter Lazorik, Jakub Demčák, Ján Pitel’, Kamil Židek
Motorcycle Rider Assistance System for Obstacle Detection with Visualization in the Rider’s Visual Area

This work describes a design study of motorcycle rider’s assistant system. The main reason was to design affordable and useful safety devices for every motorcycle rider. The study includes a detailed design of a sensory unit placed on the motorcycle and a visualization unit with HUD (Head-Up Display) placed on the rider’s helmet. The sensory unit contains an infrared sensor for range detection of vehicles in front of the motorcycle, a camera for pedestrian detection and traffic sign recognition, and a combination of IMU (inertial measurement unit) and GPS (global positioning system) sensors for independent speed determination both in open and enclosed areas. Displaying unit contains two displays and a head-up display with a single combiner without a collimating lens. The microcontroller of the sensory unit is Raspberry Pi 3b+ and of displaying unit is ESP 32. Mutual communication is via Bluetooth connection. Work contains stress analysis and fatigue analysis of stress parts, and modal analysis of sensory unit. An ergonomic study of the rider’s field of view is also included. The general software design of control software is also described.

Václav Mašek, Roman Čermák
Surface Defects Detection on Pressure Die Castings by Machine Learning Exploiting Machine Vision Features

Detection of surface defects in high-pressure aluminum die castings is of paramount importance for maintaining product quality. Visual inspection by humans is time-consuming and subject to errors and oversights. A machine vision system has been set up to capture part surface images in this work. Afterimage quality enhancement using standard transformations and filtering Regions of Interest were defined in the areas where defects are expected to appear. Noise elimination extended edge extraction followed. Corresponding descriptors were employed to identify statistical features associated with defective parts. An advanced learning process has been developed to classify parts as defective or normal, based on Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), which were compared to typically used Support Vector Machines. Different combinations of descriptors were tried as input to determine the best four ANNS, which were used as an ensemble to enhance robustness at overall positive recognition rates of the order of 90% despite the restricted dataset.

Zoe Papagianni, George-Christopher Vosniakos
Cybersecurity Validation in the Online Gambling Industry

With the development of information and communication technologies and their application in the field of the gambling industry, consequently, there is a development and expansion of the electronic form of this type of service, better known as online gambling, which can be observed as a part of Industry 4.0 concept. Significant progress in online gambling has been monitored during the COVID-19 pandemic and numerous lockdowns worldwide. In such conditions, this form of service is growing in popularity, accompanied by a sharp increase in users. This also increases the risk of numerous cyber-attacks, the successful implementation of which can cause several negative consequences for end-users and the service provider. One example of maintaining security is penetration testing, in which an expert is placed in the role of an attacker to find security vulnerabilities within the system. This research aims to establish a straightforward penetration testing process applicable in the online gaming environment. Periodic and high-quality defined penetration testing can timely detect cyber vulnerabilities, mitigate cyber threats and reduce cybersecurity risks.

Dragan Peraković, Leon Cetinić, Ivan Cvitić, Marko Periša
8D Methodology for Solving Problems in the Production of PVC Pipes

The paper aims to apply the 8D methodology in problem-solving in the production process. The research project has been carried out at a manufacturing site of PVC pipes. The authors propose a methodology that eliminates deviations from the company’s work standards and helps achieve a new target state. The 8D methodology, extended by additional steps, was proposed to find effective solutions based on the lean management concept. Extension of the 8D methodology with additional steps has facilitated the building of a team with key competencies necessary for solving the identified problem, clear definition of goals, and analysis of the sequence in which the proposed solutions have been implemented, to ensure that the return on investment is achieved within the shortest possible time. The implemented solutions improve the pipe extrusion process by reducing the amount of generated waste by 12.6% and shortening the extrusion head gap adjustment process during the start-up of the manufacturing line by 16.5%.

Marta Popowska, Natalia Marzec, Justyna Trojanowska
Towards Sustainable Manufacturing: A Case Study for Sustainable Packaging Redesign

In the past decades, research was predominantly conducted to increase the operational efficiency and productivity of production processes. Currently, from a global perspective, a profound change in values in society is discernible. Starting from purely economic objectives of the last years, preserving the environment and a human-oriented design of socio-technical systems such as factories are becoming more and more important. In the future, this change emanating from society will also represent a major challenge for manufacturing companies to design processes and systems more sustainably. The organization’s objectives are changing so that manufacturing should be more resource-efficient, generate less or no waste, and allow a safe, ergonomic, and ethically correct work environment for employees. In this article, the authors show an example of the future symbiosis between economic, ecological, and social sustainability using the example of a case study from a real SME manufacturer. This case study aims to identify more sustainable alternatives for polystyrene-based packaging and thus contribute to more sustainable manufacturing.

Erwin Rauch, Matthias Rofner, Cristian Cappellini, Dominik T. Matt
An Automated Diagnostic and Surveillance System for Eliminating the Community Spread of Infectious Respiratory Diseases in the Industry

The article focuses on the definition of risk management in industry, which is linked to developing an automated diagnostic and inspection system based on artificial intelligence designed to eliminate risks in industrial companies. The thesis outlines the risk management process according to the current ISO standard, and the following section of the article summarizes the risk management options available to businesses. The article also discusses the numerous strategies that can be used to lessen the risk of working with automated systems in industrial settings. A critical element in the spread of COVID-19 is the failure to maintain a sufficient distance between people (workers) and the late detection of the symptoms of this disease. Monitoring unjustifiable aggregation of workers and early detection of symptoms such as characteristic cough and temperature makes it possible to reduce or significantly eliminate the spread of this disease in the engineering company.

Milan Sága, Michal Bartoš, Ivan Zajačko, Ivana Klačková, Dariusz Wiecek
Correlation Between Accidents on Selected Roads as Fundamental for Determining the Safety Level of Road Infrastructure

The objective of the present publication was to determine whether the application of a statistical tool, analysis of the correlation between accidents that occur on roads before and after their modernization, can constitute the basis for creating a method for assessing the safety level of road infrastructure. It constitutes an entirely new approach to the methods used so far, aiming to determine high-risk zones/sections based solely on the number of accidents in the area covered by the analysis. Due to the general availability of data, the presented method can be both widely applied in practice and a tool to verify the correctness of specific risk factors contributing to the occurrence of undesirable road incidents. The conducted research allowed us to determine the correlation between the average number of accidents on alternative roads before the expressways/motorways were constructed and the average number of accidents on alternative routes after their completion is high. The situation is different in the case of the correlation between the average annual number of accidents on an alternative road before the completion of an expressway/motorway and the yearly average number of accidents on newly constructed sections. The results of our research suggest that the analysis of the correlation between accidents may constitute the basis for the development of a new method for assessing the level of road infrastructure safety.

Piotr Trojanowski, Aleksandra Trusz, Borys Stupin
Principles of Forming the Organizational Structure of the Enterprise Energy Management System

The paper describes the problems and contradictions description in the formation of the organizational structure of energy management systems. This work covers the Ukrainian regulatory acts and international standards that are providing methodologies of implementation and evaluation of effective energy management systems. Problems of implementation of these systems are highlighted. The effectiveness of enterprise energy management is provided by the common use of information systems, which can only increase through flexible data management and adopting the basic principles of organizational methods. To reduce the influence of the ‘human’ factor, it is necessary to transfer to the lower level the issues of monitoring or control and the issues of decision-making, thereby changing the concept of building and developing the system. In such conditions, the energy management process does not become a unique process established to achieve specific goals - it becomes an integral part of any production, technological, social process in which energy resources are directly or indirectly involved. Modern trends in energy management demand integration between the existing informational subsystems providing support to the decision-making process at the operational level and at the strategic management level to create a comprehensive Enterprise Energy Management System.

Liudmyla Kamenska, Valentyn Moiseenko, Vira Shendryk, Sergii Shendryk, Oleksandr Shendryk
Intelligent Mechatronic Systems Applications in Engineering

This paper presents some experimental applications using intelligent systems such as sensors, controller, robotic systems, and crane systems. A Mobile robot design, path planning, and applications in real-time is proposed for blind people. A proposed A* algorithm is used for path planning of the mobile robot. Moreover, an image processing structure predicts the path without touching obstacles. An industrial robot is used with image processing to classify universal materials. On the other hand, a new walking performance six-legged mobile robot control is proposed to analyze the stability and walking conditions of the robot by using an open dynamic engine solution. Furthermore, a designed and controlled crane system is proposed for vibration and amplitude analysis of the double bridge crane system. On the system, a prosed neural predictor is used to analyze performance. Analysis and control of the welding position of an industrial robot are also utilized to compare with operator-based welding process structure. The results improved that all the proposed analyze has superior performance in real-time applications for all approaches.

Sahin Yildirim

Design Engineering

An Element Deletion Algorithm for an Open-Source Finite Element Software

In a fracture analysis, predicting the fracture location and the progression of the failure is of high importance. An element deletion algorithm is a powerful tool used to visualize the failure evolution and get rid of the distorted elements that prevent the simulation from converging. Primarily, such an algorithm is only found in commercial software such as Abaqus. A similar algorithm was developed and implemented into the Code_Aster platform in this work. The algorithm's effectiveness was tested through a non-linear analysis on a Cor-Ten specimen with notches under uniaxial tension. The element deletion functionality was implemented by defining a virtual material with low stiffness to the deleted elements. The results obtained demonstrated the code's capability in accurately representing the failure progress along the notches. Moreover, by assigning a virtual material to the deleted elements, a complete fracture of the specimen is observed without facing any convergence issues. Overall, the shape of the fracture for a notched specimen conforms well to the physical failure of a ductile material such as Cor-Ten.

Zaki Alomar, Cristian Cappellini, Franco Concli
Conceptual Design of an Automated Workstation for the Control of Manufactured Products in Single-Purpose Machines

The article describes the solution of an automated line for the industrial company, where there was a requirement for inspection of manufactured parts and inspection of assembly of parts, including the design of an automated workstation (robotic workcells, assembly stations, inspection stations, operators, etc.). Camera systems that use artificial intelligence to determine the contour can check the shape of the gears involved. The main requirement to control production by camera systems arose because of human resources’ time-consuming nature of the visual inspection. The article provides an overview of camera systems used in engineering companies that capture images of objects, and then these images are further processed in detail through software tools. Properly designing the automated workplace inspection through cameras consisted of collecting data from the company - lighting in production, material reflectivity, etc. Based on the obtained data, specific types of cameras from specific manufacturers were selected and placed at the necessary locations in the automated production.

Martin Bohušík, Vladimír Bulej, Ivan Kuric, Milan Sága, Vladimír Stenchlák
The Anti-collapse Safety System for Hydraulically Operated Docking Levelers

During the crossing of the docking leveler by the logistics equipment, there is a risk that the truck stationed in the docking station will advance far enough so that the support lip of the leveler will no longer be in contact with the floor of the truck causing the leveler to fall while being crossed by the forklift. The paper focuses on sizing a security system that eliminates the risk presented. This system consists of installing a safety valve that blocks the flow of fluid through the hydraulic motors that operate the leveler. Valve blockage occurs when a limit flow is reached. The maximum drop at the tip of the leveler’s lip is h = 6% of the docking leveler platform length (in the vertical plane) until the valve is blocked. It must be taken into consideration that the safety valve should not be actuated during the operation of the leveler not to influence its operating sequences. The paper presents the kinematic diagram of the docking leveler, its functional sequences, the calculation of the actuation and sizing of the safety valve, and the indication of a type of valve recommended following the sizing calculations of the safety system. This paper aims to solve a problem in the industry of docking levelers and their operation in safe warehouses.

Bogdan Dorel Cioroagă, Vasile George Cioată
Development of the Disk Tool Magazine with Modified Gear Drive

The problems of modeling and research of disk tool magazines of drilling-milling-boring machining centers are considered. Three-dimensional modeling of the tool magazine structures and auto operator devices (manipulator) as the main components of the automatic tool change system during processing body parts has been carried out. The integrated computer-aided design system and specialized applied libraries in the express mode of 3D modeling were used. A new approach to improving the drive device of the tool magazine is proposed, based on the modification of the gear drive design using an incline-arched profile of the teeth. The design technique of its closest analogue – a cylindrical gear transmission with helical teeth according to the criterion of contact endurance of the teeth as the main method for the calculation was adopted. An experiment is carried out to assess the main kinetic-geometric parameters of spur gears with incline-arched teeth. The relationship between the engagement parameters and the size of the gear cutting head has been established. The extreme values of the inclination angles for the incline-arched teeth for the given basic dimensions of the transmission have been determined. Dependences for calculating the longitudinal curvature and length of the cut teeth are obtained to research the bending strength of the transmission teeth.

Oleg Krol, Volodymyr Sokolov
Improvement of the Computer-Aided Design for Interference Fit Based on the Generalized Design Selection Criteria

The paper proposes an improved approach to finding a rational combination of numerical values of geometric parameters (diameter and working length) of interference fit in the process of their analysis based on a scientifically grounded universal criterion in the automated design of the test joint. The mentioned search was carried out within the analytically described mathematical model, which is the most important in practical terms, of the area of existence of the fit parameters of the multiparametric complex, developed by the authors in previous publications. In this case, the object of the study is geometric spatial images, which are volumetric bodies of the specified complex in the quadrants of three-dimensional space. The influence of the values of the required parameters on other values of the specified complex of models was thoroughly studied. For the first time, a generalized criterion for selecting the final design solution (standard interference fit) for a shroud joint during its thermal assembly and operation was formulated. For the selected criteria, the mathematical apparatus of the theory of R-functions was used together with the authors’ computer software that plays the role of an effective research tool. The specific numerical and analytical results presented in work can be used to modernize the software for the computer-aided design of interference fits.

Vladimir Nechiporenko, Valentin Salo, Petro Litovchenko, Vladislav Yemanov, Stanislav Horielyshev
Substantiation of the Design Calculation Method for the Vibroturning Device

The method of design calculation of the hydropulse device for radial vibration turning with the built-in generator of pressure pulses is presented in work. The structure is built based on a hydropulse vibrating drive, which provided a large specific power on the cutting tool and high compactness of the construction. The device’s design calculation method is based on the results of experimental and theoretical studies of vibrating machines. The proposed method of construction calculation provides the ability to calculate the basic power, geometric, and energy parameters of the device for vibratory turning and can be used to calculate similar hydropulse devices for vibratory cutting and deformation hardening surfaces of machine parts. Based on the dependencies used in the proposed design calculation method, it is possible to optimize the design for a particular parameter, such as the speed of operation of the pressure pulse generator or the device’s dimensions.

Roman Obertyukh, Andrii Slabkyi, Oleksandr Petrov, Dmytro Bakalets, Sergey Sukhorukov
Compositional Interpolation of Spatial Discretely Presented Curves by Harmonizing Pointed Polynomials

This study defines the point calculus Balyuba-Naidysh (point BN-calculus). The principle of the geometric interpolation method, which is carried out only based on harmonized point polynomials, is explained. A record of the characteristic function is given in general. The sequence of transition from the characteristic function to BN-coordinates, which are components of harmonized point polynomials, is presented. To solve the problem of global interpolation of spatial discrete represented curves (DPC), the definition of the metric operator of three points (MOTP), the geometric scheme of its calculation, and one of its properties, which is the basis for calculating the length of segments in space, is provided. An interpretation of the terms composition and geometric composition is given. They define how they should be understood and applied in this study. Using the MOTP, a generalized record for determining the length of the section is shown, a record of the length of the section is shown in point form, and calculation formulas are given in the coordinate form, using which its length is calculated. It is indicated that the interpolation nodes are the vertices of the accompanying broken line (ABL), which is built on the basic points of the DPC through which the interpolation curve will pass in the form of a point polynomial. The CF harmonization method for forming a harmonized point polynomial continuously interpolates the spatial DPC.

Victor Vereshchaga, Andrii Naydish, Yevhen Adoniev, Oleksandr Pavlenko, Kseniia Lysenko

Manufacturing Technology

A New Method for the Monitoring Cutters States in Finishing Turning of Hard Materials

To the quality of parts finishing turning are presented high requirements. The process of hard materials finishing turning is characterized by the emergence of different cutters defects. That’s why necessary to monitor cutters’ states. The scientific novelty consists of creating a new method for monitoring cutters states in finishing turning of hard materials. This method makes it possible to detect a complex of defects in the cutting part of the tool, which appeared as a result of its wear and making tolls adjusting: formation of cutting tools adjusting on the wear value; formation correction, taking into account nose radius changing; formation and analysis of a section of cutting layer and calculation the necessary correction the feed value (S); estimation the state of flank face, estimate the distance from the extreme groove to the top, calculation the necessary termination of processing. The practical usefulness of the developed method consists of providing the possibility of adjusting the cutting toll and correction of cutting conditions (following results of monitoring cutters states) by the Computer Numerical Control (CNC) system of the machine tool.

Oleksandr Derevianchenko, Oleksandr Fomin, Natalia Skrypnyk
A Special Feature of Turbine Blade Deformation During Machining

Significant obstacles in machining surfaces of thin-walled parts are their deformation and oscillatory processes directly during machining. The same parameters subsequently determine the intensity of noise from aircraft engines and, accordingly, the amount of noise at airports. The work aimed to study the influence of the conditions of fixing the blade in the fixture during finishing machining on the change in its natural vibration frequencies. The article developed an approach to analyzing this problem based on the comparison of analytical and digital models. Computer simulation and determination of natural vibration frequencies of a turbine blade are carried out when fixed in the turbine disk lock and fixed to flat surfaces in a fixture. The distributions of stresses and deflections are determined by the distributed load increase. It turned out that the discrepancy between analytical and digital models calculations reaches 12–15%. It is concluded that the natural vibrations of the blade airfoil during machining strongly depend on the conditions of its fixation in the clamping device and differ significantly from the natural vibrations of the blade fixed in the turbine lock. Therefore, at the stage of creating a manufacturing process, it is necessary to determine the natural vibration frequencies and maximum deviations of the blade airfoil to avoid the occurrence of resonance vibrations when the machining conditions change and to carry out machining within the tolerance.

Sergey Dobrotvorskiy, Yevheniia Basova, Serhii Kononenko, Ludmila Dobrovolska, Abou Samra Youseff Mounif
Ensuring the Quality of Conical Mating Surfaces Processing by Diamond Honing

Diamond honing is the dimensional treatment of various surfaces using honing heads that rotate and reciprocate while simultaneously feeding stones in a radial direction. The high durability of diamond stones, low temperatures in the cutting zone, and low cutting forces can improve the accuracy and productivity of processing, reduce the roughness of the machined surface, apply active control, automate the honing process and increase the durability of the machine parts and mechanisms. In contrast to the processing of cylindrical surfaces, honing of tapered holes takes place with a constant change in the contact area of the tool with the machined surface, which leads to uneven removal of the allowance. This work aims to ensure the quality of tapered surface processing by honing. The experiments were carried out on industrial equipment. Considering the influence of contact pressures on the surface quality, the correction factor of the generatrix of the conical hole was experimentally determined, and the dependences of the change in the depth of penetration of the cutting grains were obtained.

Eshreb Dzhemilov, Alper Uysal, Chingiz Yakubov, Ruslan Dzhemalyadinov
Prediction of Remaining Lifetime of the Mold for the Composite Manufacturing

Performance capabilities of the structures made of polymeric composite materials depend on the manufacturing accuracy of the part contour. To give the specified contour to the part, it is necessary to ensure the constancy of the shape and dimensions of the tools throughout their operation, considering the peculiarity of accumulation of residual stresses by shaping surface during service. The refined model of the temperature stress-strain behavior of the tools in the process of composite products’ molding to determine the equipment lifetime was developed, with the determination of the impact of properties of the material, dimensions, and shape of the shape-generating molding tools on their life. Composites provide a longer equipment lifetime at equal dimensions of the shape-generating molding tools made of different materials. A twofold increase in the thickness of the shaping surface ensures higher stiffness and, as a result, four times and three times the longer lifetime of molding tools for the metallic shaping surfaces and composites, accordingly. It was found that the physical and mechanical characteristics of the molded composite package may have a significant effect on the stiffness of the shaping surface and reduce the lifetime of extensive tools by more than three times. Based on the obtained results, the methods for increasing the lifetime can be developed for composite manufacturing.

Andrii Kondratiev, Svitlana Purhina, Anton Tsaritsynskyi, Maryna Shevtsova, Tetyana Nabokina
Finite Element Simulation of Diamond Grinding

The paper focused on the static and dynamic modeling of difficult-to-machine materials’ multi-parameter diamond grinding process. The simulation was carried out using SolidWorks Simulation, ANSYS, and LS-DYNA software packages. The influence of diamond wheels’ qualitative and quantitative indicators on the stress-strain state in the cutting zone of the “bond – metal phase – grain – processed material” system was studied. The simulation considered the diamond grains’ characteristics (concentration, size, depth in a bond, wear area, composition, shape, and size of metal inclusions) and the wheels bond (composition and porosity). The equivalent stresses σeq were determined depending on the total thermal and force loading. The propagation volumes of destruction stresses in the grain and the bond were analyzed according to the selected criteria. Simulation of the diamond grinding process allowed determining the optimal combinations of physical and mechanical properties of the bond, as well as the required characteristics of diamond grains. The conditions for rational grinding modes ensuring the self-sharpening of the wheel grains were determined. The concentration of diamond grains Cg in the diamond-bearing layer was identified as one of the most influencing factors. The Cg value should be limited to 50% to improve the process stability and reduce the cost of diamond abrasive tools.

Janos Kundrak, Vladimir Fedorovich, Dmitriy Fedorenko, Yevheniy Ostroverkh, Larisa Pupan
Discontinuous Generating Gear Grinding Optimization

Gear grinding on the MAAG machines allows obtaining a high degree of accuracy of gears but is characterized by a considerable investment of time. In contrast to the copying method, with MAAG discontinuous generating gear grinding, the contact zone of a grinding wheel with a flank of a tooth has a small area. As a consequence, a large number of gear grinding strokes are required to remove the unevenly spaced gear grinding stock allowance. Any the operation is forcing increases the possibility of grinding burns. In this regard, there is a need to optimize the gear grinding parameters, i.e., to increase these parameters so that the resulting burn layer does not exceed the remaining stock allowance for gear grinding. An optimization model is created and studied for two successive stages of the life cycle of gear: at the pre-production stage (gear grinding operation designing) and at the stage of production itself, i.e., at the gear grinding with optimal parameters - both mode parameters (grinding depths) and gear grinding power ones. The primary attention is paid to the pre-production stage, where optimization is a method of operation design. The MAAG machine is equipped with an automatic gear grinding power control system at the production stage. As the input of this system, the specified gear grinding power setpoints were found at the pre-production stage. Automatic robust gear grinding power control allows “continuing optimization” at the production stage to consider random factors that cannot be considered at the pre-production stage. Therefore, such optimization continuing at the production stage is a control method.

Vasily Larshin, Olga Babiychuk, Oleksandr Lysyi, Sergey Uminsky
An Analytical and Experimental Study of the Grinding Process of Thermal Barrier Coatings with Highly Porous Wheels of Cubic Boron Nitride

Thermal barrier coatings are widely used to protect heat-resistant alloys from high-temperature oxidation. Under the requirements arising during operation, practical application found a coating of ZrO2. Zirconia-based ceramics are highly durable and crack resistant. In the grinding process, high contact temperatures arise, which are comparable to operating temperatures or slightly higher than these temperatures. The task in the design of the grinding process is primarily to control the thermal treatment mode to maintain it within such limits when the residual stresses have values that do not pose a danger to the durability of the sprayed layer. In addition, if the contact temperature of grinding reaches 1200 ℃, the sintering of the sprayed layer begins, leading to the loss of thermal barrier properties. The main results of this work are – when grinding with highly porous CBN wheels with a structure 26 and 40, the unit cutting forces are 15–20% higher, the total cutting forces are 7–10% lower, contact temperatures are 10–15% lower. The residual stresses arising under the action of contact temperatures on the surface during grinding of pure zirconium oxide and stabilized with yttrium oxide reach values of the order of 60 MPa. However, these values are much lower than the tensile strength of the thermal barrier layer and do not lead to cracks, an increase in roughness by 1 category can be expected, grinding modes can be increased by 20–25%.

Vladimir Lebedev, Olga Frolenkova, Tatiana Chumachenko, Alla Bespalova, Olha Dashkovska
Preliminary Abrasive Blasting Surface Layer and Quality Assurance of Detonation Coatings of Aircraft Engine Parts

Analysis shows that one of the most rational methods of cleanings and strengthening is abrasive blasting because, in this case, a comprehensive solution to the problem occurs: developed surface relief is created, and the density of active centers increases. The urgent problem determining solid particle velocity in the Laval nozzle and beyond is solved by analytical methods in the theoretical part of the work. Expressions are obtained that make it possible to calculate velocity and particle energies when it collides with a substrate based on the kinematics of theoretical investigation studies particle propelled by a gas flow in a nozzle. The simulation of the interaction process of a particle with a substrate is carried out. Influence of energy parameters abrasive processing on the surface quality of titanium alloys parts was held in the experimental part of the work. It can be concluded that the gas flow rate and the processing time significantly affect the value of microhardness and roughness surface. Recommendations have been developed for expanding the technological capabilities of the titanium alloys’ gas detonation processing.

Tetiana Loza, Serhii Nyshnyk, Anatolii Dolmatov, Oleksandr Skachkov
Improvement of the Milling Effectiveness by Application of Composite Milling Heads

The problem of providing the possibility of processing flat surfaces of large-sized workpieces with different widths was considered. An alternative option for multi-pass milling is the use of composite milling heads. They were designed with three face-milling cutters with intersecting blade paths. The spindle block of composite milling heads with face face-milling cutters has the ability to rotate to any angle, so it is possible to change and set the required milling width. The authors proposed a scheme for obtaining a symmetrical milling width. The rotation of the spindle unit was carried out around the central face-milling cutter, so the milling width changes symmetrically, which simplifies the preparation of the machining process. The article provides an example of a dependency of the milling width on the angle of indexing (0°–360°) of the spindle carrier of composite milling heads containing three face mills with a diameter of Dmill = 315 mm. The use of the proposed composite milling head makes it possible to increase the effectiveness of the milling process based on the same cutting modes.

Pavlo Kushnirov, Yuliia Denysenko, Bohdan Ostapenko, Dmytro Zhyhylii, Borys Stupin
Deformation Zone Scheme Clarification During Deforming Broaching

The deformation zone scheme during deforming broaching is considered and clarified. It is shown that the theoretical model of the deformation zone makes it possible to reliably calculate the area dimensions of the deformation zone only for a workpiece with a wall thickness less than the critical one. It is proved that in the presence of critical contact pressures in the contact zone, zones of local plastic deformation appear at the joints of non-contact zones, considering the contact. Moreover, the front zone is an influx that increases the length of the contact area, and the rear – a step of the processed material flowing from the contact zone under the action of critical contact pressures. Experimental confirmations of these zones’ presence are presented. It was found that in the presence of pressures in the contact zone less than critical, the deformation zone scheme corresponds to the scheme, which includes a contact area and two non-contact zones adjacent to it. It is shown that the local zones formation of plastic deformation has a negative effect on such parameters of processed products quality as the accuracy of the processed product, especially on the axis bending when processing parts of increased length, as well as on the resource of residual plasticity, which is especially important when processing products from low-plastic materials.

Ihor Shepelenko, Yakiv Nemyrovskyi, Mykhailo Chernovol, Andrii Kyrychenko, Ivan Vasylenko
Impact of the Tool’s Flank Clearance Angle on the Pitch Diameter Accuracy of the Tool-Joint Tapered Thread

The profiling of high-precision tool-joint tapered threads is inextricably linked with technological aspects of their turning. It includes the geometric parameters of the turning cutting tool. Among these parameters, there is one that depends on the design of the thread. This parameter is called the cutting-edge inclination angle, and it corresponds to the helix angle of inclination of the thread. The accuracy of the threads is mainly regulated by three parameters: the accuracy of the profile, the accuracy, the pitch’s accuracy, of the pitch diameter. The precision of the pitch diameter is investigated in this article in its functional dependence on the geometric parameter of the cutting tool – the cutting-edge inclination angle. Studies have shown that the magnitude of the change in the pitch diameter increases with an increasing parameter of the cutter and the helix angle of inclination. In turn, the helix angle of the inclination of the thread depends on its diameter, which means that for tool-joint tapered threads of small sizes, the change in the pitch diameter is more apparent. Theoretical research and predictive algorithms based on them have shown that for lock threads of small diameters, the deviation from the value of the pitch diameter can reach 8% of its tolerance. For the largest drilling tool-joint, this deviation is zero.

Oleh Onysko, Vitalii Panchuk, Yaroslav Kusyi, Zenovii Odosii, Tetiana Lukan
Improvement of the Efficiency of Fine Boring for Stepped Holes with a Large Diameter Range

The results of experimental studies of the efficiency of boring two-step holes with a large difference in diameters are described in this paper. Boring was carried out with unique cantilever boring bars, ensuring recommended cutting speed at different steps. These machining conditions increase the boring efficiency due to the same wear rate of cutters with the recommended geometry. The unique boring bar has steps of the same length, which results in an average value of the influence coefficients between the cutters. The results of studies of conventional and stepped boring bars are compared. The paper is devoted to the possibility of fine boring of stepped holes with a large difference in step diameters and unique boring bars providing the same recommended cutting speed. Due to such boring, the wear of the cutters is practically the same, which leads to an increase in boring accuracy, the stability of the roughness values and deviations from roundness, as well as boring at one setup, which makes it possible to reduce the time for adjusting the cutters.

Alexandr Orgiyan, Gennadii Oborskyi, Vitalii Ivanov, Anna Balaniuk, Vasyl Kolesnik
Simulation Studies of High-Speed Machining

The research described in the article aims to analyze high-speed machining processes by carrying out cutting simulations in DEFORM 2D software using the finite-element method. The simulation of high-speed cutting processes is very complex because the dimensionality of the modelling problem increases tenfold compared to medium-speed cutting processes! Therefore, the solution of this problem is characterized primarily by methodological novelty. The proposed approach enables a comprehensive analysis of force and thermodynamic processes occurring in the tool and chip formation zone during high-speed cutting. The results of cutting force dynamics and thermal loads at different machining speeds are described in the article. The analysis of tool wear rate for different geometrical designs of a cutting edge is carried out. The correct geometry of the cutting edge reduces friction load on the tool rake face and thus reduces cutting force and tool wear. The phenomenon of excessive growth of cutting force with the increase of machining speed is explained. Guidelines for selecting cutting parameters are described.

Vadym Stupnytskyy, Oleh Prodanchuk, Nataliya Stupnytska
Influence of Turning Operations on Waviness Characteristics of Working Surfaces of Rolling Bearings

The formation of micro and macro geometric parameters of conjugate cylindrical surfaces of parts is technological movements of equipment that provide the specified quality characteristics of parts. The waviness of the part's surface is one of the critical geometric characteristics, which provides the functional features of the unit as a whole, as it affects the vibration processes that occur during operation. The ripple is formed under the influence of dynamic processes of processing of details which are characteristic of metalworking machines, depending on changes in system machine-tool (cutting)-part (MTP). Mechanical perturbations during cutting occur due to forced oscillations, self-oscillations, deformation of the rings due to the action of cutting forces. Self-oscillations occur due to the loss of properties of a given motion during cutting and forced oscillations due to external factors. The undulation of the surface is formed due to forced oscillations of the metal-cutting system due to periodic perturbations that occur due to disbalances of the MTP system’s parts. The ratio of the oscillation frequency for relative motions of the tool and the part can change the law of oscillating motion and the shape of the surface. The decisive factor influencing the formation of geometric errors of the part is the ratio of the frequency of harmonic oscillations of the tool and the workpiece to the frequency of rotation of the machine tool’s spindle.

Valentyn Zablotskyi, Anatolii Tkachuk, Serhii Prozorovskyi, Valentyna Tkachuk, Marek Waszkowiak
Investigation of the Surface Layer Hardness When Grinding Sintered Porous Workpieces

The essential properties of sintered powder materials are porosity and hardness. It is established that a part made through powder metallurgy methods is exposed to external factors during the finishing stages. It leads to changes in the surface layer’s characteristics of the part. The experimental research program provided definitions of the influence of transverse feed, cutting speed, and porosity on the hardness of a surface layer and its consolidation. The optimal modes of grinding porous workpieces acquired by isostatic pressing of powder materials with further sintering were obtained. Their surface layers are compacted mainly due to the grinding of porous workpieces. The treatment of porous iron parts by grinding increases the microhardness of the surface layer, yet increasing the transverse feed reduces it. Also, it was found that increasing the hardness of the surface layer of the porous workpiece after grinding is possible because of additional movements of the tool without transverse feed.

Oleg Zabolotnyi, Tetiana Bozhko, Tetiana Halchuk, Olha Zaleta, Dagmar Cagáňová

Advanced Materials

Control of the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Mixtures Based on Liquid Glass with Various Fillers

The paper presents the results of a study of the main properties of mixtures with liquid glass (LG) and furfuryl oxypropyl cyclocarbonate (FOPCC) for mixtures based on various fillers (chromite compounds, mixtures of quartz sand with chromite and quartz sands). The parameters such as gas generation ability, compressive strength, gas permeability, friability, and residual strength were studied and determined by standard methods. The optimum content of the FOPCC multi-purpose additive in a mixture based on chromite and quartz sands was evaluated. The experimental results showed that the chromite sand-based mixture's compressive strength and gas generation ability is higher than those of the quartz sand-based mixture. The friability and gas permeability is higher with respect to quartz sand-based mixtures. It was found that the breakdown ability of chromite sand-based mixtures is better than that of quartz sand-based mixtures. According to the mixture process sample, the compressive strength value is 2,1 MPa; the gas generation ability of the mixture is about 11,7 cm3/g; the friability of the mixtures is in 0,045%; the gas permeability is more than 400 units; the residual strength is 0,47 MPa for chromite-based mixtures. For mixtures based on quartz sands, the compressive strength is 2,074 MPa; the gas generation ability of the mixture is about 10,5 cm3/g; the friability of the mixtures is 0,045%; the gas permeability is 500 units, and the residual strength is 0,97 MPa. A technological process for preparing cold hardening mixtures (CHM) based on chromite and quartz sands was developed. As a result, the surface quality of the molds was improved, and burn marks on the castings were reduced.

Tetiana Berlizieva, Olga Ponomarenko, Igor Grimzin, Nataliia Yevtushenko, Oleg Кhoroshylov
Catalytic Growth of Carbon Nanostructures in Glow Discharge

Glow discharge ignited between a graphite cathode and a copper anode was applied to conduct a process of carbon nanostructure growth in an argon atmosphere. During the first stage of the experiment, the samples mounted on the cathode were heated up till turning red, which significantly increased the thermionic emission and caused the formation of cathode arc spots on the sample surface. The arcing with a period of 3 to 5 s was maintained for 5 more minutes. As a result, a number of craters were observed on the samples, which were investigated using the SEM technique. Carbon nanotubes and bundles of them were found along the whole surface of the samples, and the tips of the nano- and microsized structures were capped by the copper particles, which states in favor of the catalytic growth. The yield of the carbon structures was richer in the craters and the regions at the proximity to them. In addition, a carbon deposit was taken from the anode and studied by use of TEM. In this case, typical nanostructures resemble the branches of spruce trees or balls of rolled nanotubes with a diameter of about 15 to 30 nm; at that, the anode nanostructures do not show any traces of the copper catalyst. Thus, the proposed setup is suitable to grow various carbon nanostructures in a catalytic process in the presence of copper.

Andrii Breus, Sergey Abashin, Ivan Lukashov, Oleksii Serdiuk, Oleg Baranov
Metallographic Determination of the Number and Sizes of Grains Depending on Structural and Phase Changes in the Metal of Welded Steam Pipe Joints

Research results of the number and size of structural components grains in a metallographic analysis of metal samples of welded steam pipe joints considering the operating life are presented. The number of grains and their sizes were determined based on a statistical analysis of their boundaries intersections with given measured lines (cutting lines method according to ISO 643:2019) on metallographic images. Software implementation of the statistical analysis of features obtained due to the intersection of conditional boundaries of structural components in the images of microsections by straight lines is carried out. The computer system was tested for a number of samples cut from sections of steam pipes with different operating times under creep and low-cycle fatigue conditions. Required number of measured lines was found to obtain the statistical characteristics necessary for comparative analysis of metallographic images of various samples. Comparative analysis of features for images of microsections of various metal sections with different operating times of steam pipes is carried out. The research was carried out for the heat-affected zone areas, base metal, weld, and substrate. As a result, an influence of operating life on the changes in boundaries of structural components in the metal of welded steam pipe joints was confirmed. This is based on analyzing statistical characteristics of research features distribution obtained by cutting lines.

Olena Harashchenko, Vitaly Dmytryk, Viacheslav Berezutskyi, Tetiana Syrenko
Influence of Additives Processed by Physical Fields on Tribotechnical Properties of Polymer Composites

The influence of specific load on the intensity of weight and linear wear is determined in the article. The coefficient of friction and temperature in the zone of tribocontact of polymer composites, the components of which were processed in physical fields, were studied. The study of polymer composites with different content of components carried out at a constant sliding speed of 0.5 m/s. Epoxy resin and polyethylene polyamine hardener were used as a matrix to form polymer composites. To ensure increased heat resistance of the polymer matrix, a modifying additive (organosilicon varnish) was used. For the first time, the processing of organosilicon varnish in an electromagnetic field was applied, which allowed removing part of the solvent. Discrete aramid and glass fibers were used as reinforcing additives. For the first time, ultrasonic treatment of fibers in acetone was used, which allowed cleaning the surface of the fibers from contaminants and lubrications. Because of the use of the modifying additive and treated discrete fibers, the wear resistance of polymer composites increased by 30% due to the improvement of the adhesive interaction between the components of the system and the reduction of structural defects of the material. Removal of lubrication from the surface of the fibers and the solvent from the modifying additive increased by 0.1–0.15 the coefficient of friction of the polymer composites and will improve their service life. Friction polymer composite materials with high density and improved tribotechnical properties are designed for manufacturing brake systems of scooters.

Vitalii Kashytskyi, Oksana Sadova, Mykola Melnychuk, Petro Savchuk, Oleksandr Liushuk
Impact of Thermomechanical Phenomena in the Surface Layer of Functional-Gradient Materials on Quality Considering Hereditary Defects

When studying the mechanical properties of wear-resistant coatings, it was assumed that during dimensional processing with a technological tool, the occurrence of defects of technological origins, such as chips and cracks, occurs directly in the localized area of processing with the tool under the influence of thermomechanical stresses. In this regard, a mathematical model was proposed to determine the separation conditions for the exfoliated coating depending on the properties of materials and considering previous types of processing. In this case, hereditary inhomogeneities were formed that affected the crack resistance of the treated surfaces and were based on a quantitative analysis of the thermal and stress state. The dependences obtained in the article allowed us to simulate the process of machining parts with a wear-resistant coating, considering the requirements for the quality of the treated surfaces. As a result, criteria relations were obtained that link the grinding temperature, the intensity of the heat flow, the stress-strain state of the processed surface of the products with technological parameters that allow controlling the quality of processing to prevent peeling of the coating from the main matrix. The results can be used to process materials containing structural inhomogeneities and having low crack resistance characteristics. The prospects of using the model are associated with expanding the scope of application. For example, the models constructed in this article can be used to analyze the development of defects in welded joints and not only.

Maksym Kunitsyn, Anatoly Usov, Yulia Sikirash
Mechanisms of the Structure Formation of Soldered Seams When Using Composite Solders

This study shows the results of experimental studies of the mechanism of formation of the structure of soldered joints during high-frequency heating (49 kHz). The magnetic-dynamic effect of a high-frequency electromagnetic field on iron-nickel particles can lead to a redistribution of iron particles in suspensions flux - phosphorous copper, copper - iron, flux - copper-phosphorus melt - iron due to the movement of iron particles to the surface of the holder. The heating of iron particles under a high-frequency electromagnetic field changes the mechanism of dissolving particles in a copper-zinc melt. An increase in the particle temperature increases the solubility of iron in the melt of the diffuse boundary layer and, at the same time, the solubility of copper and zinc in iron. A diffusion boundary layer with an iron concentration exceeding the value of iron solubility in the surrounding melt is formed around the particles. It is shown that the main factors affecting the structure of a brazed joint are the heating rate of the composite solder and the solubility of more refractory components.

Vladimir Lebedev, Ivan Vegera, Eshreb Dzhemilov, Ruslan Dzhemalyadinov
Mathematical Modeling of Processes and Equipment for the Manufacture of Electrode Carbon Graphite Products

Production of electrode carbon-graphite products is one of the most energy-intensive chemical and metallurgical industries. One of the ways to reduce the energy intensity of electrode carbon-graphite products is to improve the energy efficiency of the furnace equipment of its main processes. A mathematical model of the combustion process of synthesis gas and natural gas in the working space of a rotary kiln was formulated. Two numerical models were developed. The first one is to study the heat-hydrodynamic state of a rotary kiln during natural or synthetic gas. The second one is to study the thermal parameters of a rotary kiln during the combustion of synthesis gas together with natural gas. Calculations were carried out to determine the synthesis gas consumption as a substitute for natural gas. It was established that at the expense of partial or complete replacement of natural gas by synthesis gas during operation of a calcining rotary kiln, it is possible to decrease natural gas consumption up to 100%. A complete replacement of natural gas with synthetic gas instead of 192 nm3/h of natural gas, it is necessary to burn 908 nm3/h of synthetic gas, which is significantly less than the synthetic gas capacity of the rotary kiln cooling drum.

Serhii Leleka, Anton Karvatskii, Ihor Mikulionok, Victor Vytvytskyi, Olena Ivanenko
Influence of Multi-pin Ultrasonic Impact Treatment on Microrelief, Structure, and Residual Stress of AISI O2 Tool Steel

AISI O2 tool steel specimens were hardened by an ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) technique to increase the surface integrity. This paper focuses on studying the effect of the multi-pin UIT treatment on the surface layer characteristics of the peened surface. The UIT treatment with a seven-pin impact head was performed by varying vibration amplitude of the ultrasonic horn and ultrasonic peening time. Surface roughness/waviness, hardness, and residual stress in the UIT-peened specimens were measured. The effect of vibration amplitude and UIT duration on the 3D surface texture and hardening intensity of tool steel was also examined. The results demonstrated that the multi-pin UIT treatment induced the high-dislocated and fine-grained structure fixed by nanoscale vanadium carbides and compressive residual stress. The multi-pin UIT process formed the wavy microrelief on the surface with average surface waviness Wa parameter ~0.7 μm at optimum regimes. The UIT promotes a significant reduction in surface roughness. An increase in the vibration amplitude or UIT duration adversely affected surface roughness.

Dmytro Lesyk, Walid Alnusirat, Vitaliy Dzhemelinskyi, Andrii Burmak, Bohdan Mordyuk
New Technology for Producing Castings from Magnesium Alloys with Increased Corrosion Resistance

In this work, the schemes of production of magnesium alloy AZ91 using flux-free gas protection of alloys based on sulfur dioxide are investigated. A series of experiments were performed to determine the effect of a mixture of shielding gases on magnesium alloys’ oxidation (corrosion resistance). Flux-free smelting of magnesium alloys is not used in the foundries of Ukraine. In Europe, almost all responsible parts of magnesium alloys for aerospace, power tools, electronic devices use flux-free melting. Therefore, the paper compared these two types of protection. Also, this method of protecting magnesium alloys from ignition helped reduce the consumption of protective gases. This has greatly improved the economic efficiency and quality of the metal. The paper presents the results of atmospheric tests on samples of magnesium alloy ML5 with dimensions of 40 × 40 × 1 mm, obtained by two technologies: in a protective environment of a mixture based on protective gases and under a layer of protective flux VI2.

Tatiana Lysenko, Kyryll Kreitser, Evgeny Kozishkurt, Vadym Dotsenko, Olga Ponomarenko
Protection of Paper Surface from Water Wetting by Two-Layer Siloxane (TEOS/PEHS) Coating

The scheme of forming protective two-layer coatings for paper based on siloxanes containing Si-O groups as an adhesive sublayer and polyethylhydridesiloxane as the primary protective layer is proposed. The mechanism of formation and interaction between the coating components was investigated by the methods of IR spectroscopy and complex thermal analysis. It was found that the presence of a chemical interaction involving the ≡ Si – H bond of PEHS with – OH and ≡Si – OC2H5 groups in the TEOS and the fundamental possibility of regulating the level of completion of these processes. It is shown that the maximum of the main exothermic effect of the thermal oxidation process can be shifted from 350–570 to 630–650 °C. The influence of treatment with two-layer siloxane coatings on the reaction efficiency of paper concerning water is investigated. A quantitative assessment of the application (by the nature of thermal destruction, the edge angle of wetting the surface with water, the degree of shielding) of such coatings for paper protection in wet conditions is provided. The efficiency of using a two-layer organosilicon coating for a paper operated in high humidity conditions has been proven. Two-layer siloxane-based coatings applied to the surface of unbleached cellulose paper have a higher degree of shielding and, as a result, water repellency.

Nina Merezhko, Volodymyr Komakha, Olga Komakha, Valentyna Tkachuk, Oksana Rechun
Axial and Lateral Buckling Characteristics of Basalt/Carbon Hybrid Composite Laminates

The objective of this work was an experimental investigation of the buckling performance of basalt/carbon hybrid composite laminates. To this end, the laminates fabricated via vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding were prepared at five different stacking sequences (B6, B5C1, B3C3, B1C5, and C6). To perform the hybridization process, carbon layers were replaced with basalt ones from inner to outer layers. The samples with twelve layers were subjected to axial and lateral buckling loads, applying fixed-fixed and fixed-free boundary conditions. Furthermore, failure modes were discussed to analyze the damage mechanisms of the samples. The findings demonstrated that the buckling performance of basalt composites was improved with the introduction of carbon layers. B6 samples showed the lowest values in critical loads, while the samples with totally carbon fiber reinforced samples (C6) had the highest values for both buckling experiments. The maximum critical buckling loads in axial and lateral directions were 1560 N and 76.7 N, respectively, which were 358.8% and 200.6% higher than B6 samples. Hybrid configurations exhibited critical loads between the results of the non-hybrid carbon and non-hybrid basalt fiber-reinforced composites. Furthermore, failure modes were observed as matrix fragmentation and delamination from the microscopic views of the samples.

Özkan Özbek, Ömer Yavuz Bozkurt, Ahmet Erkliğ
The Effect of Deposition Conditions and Irradiation on the Structure, Substructure, Stress-Strain State, and Mechanical Properties of TiN Coatings

The influence of the displacement potential and the radiation factor on the features of the formation and mechanical properties of titanium nitride coatings obtained by the vacuum-arc method has been established. Important indicators of the process of bombardment by charged ions of the coating surface and the growing surface itself are determined, namely, at the maximum penetration depth of ions reaches (1.5–5 nm) and the number of vacancies (0.45–1.35). The simulation results are compared with actual experiments, and it is established that the above changes do occur. The hardness of TiN coatings was 42–45 GPa. The relaxation process of residual stresses is observed at Ui = −1200 V. As a result, the level of microdeformation is reduced to the value of 0.61%, the size of the crystallites reaches 23 nm. The analysis of the reasons for the observed structural changes is carried out based on the mechanism of formation of surface layers of vacuum-arc coverings in the conditions of the implantation processes stimulated by giving negative potential on a substrate. Irradiation with accelerated argon ions leads to a decrease in the physicomechanical characteristics of the coating (a decrease in the hardness (22–29 GPa) and elastic modulus (~410 GPa)). The changes are more pronounced in coatings TiN applied under high-voltage pulsed conditions.

Nataliia Pinchuk, Mykola Tkachuk, Mariia Zhadko, Hanna Kniazieva, Andriy Meilekhov
Calculation of Thermal Stresses in Oxide Layers Synthesized on Cu Substrates

The paper presents the results of analyzing the nature and magnitude of residual thermal stresses in the oxide layer of Cu2O synthesized on a substrate of pure copper using a known analytical model for calculating thermal stresses in multilayer and single-layer coatings. The operating temperatures of the formation of thin-film oxide layers are the main technological parameter on which the values of thermal stresses depend. After the synthesis, the coated substrates are cooled to ambient temperature. A significant difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of the oxide layer materials and the coating leads to compressive residual stresses. The stress-strain state during the cooling of the substrate-coating system free from external forces was investigated. The mathematical model assumed that the resulting deformations do not exceed the elastic limit, i.e., the residual stresses lie in the region of elastic deformations, and the temperature in the thickness of the material does not change. It should also be noted that the values of thermal expansion coefficients, elastic modulus, and Poisson’s ratios are constant, i.e., they do not depend on temperature changes. The paper presents the main analytical dependences of thermal stresses on the physical and mechanical properties of coating materials and the substrate and their thicknesses.

Oleksandr Shorinov
Erosion Processes on Copper Electrodes Applied to Growth of Nanostructures in Plasma

The paper describes a theoretical model of erosion processes in electrode spots during vacuum discharge. The proposed model considers the sources and drains of heat in the electrode spots. Temperature fields near the spots and the rate of evaporation of the material during the life of the spot are determined. In turn, this made it possible to determine the erosion coefficient for the electrode spot. To verify the adequacy of the model, calculations were performed for copper electrodes. The dependence of the erosion coefficient on the lifetime of the spot and the current density at the electrodes is obtained. When the current density is more than 109 A/m2, the probability of material emission in the liquid state increases, preventing nanostructures’ appearance. For both the stationary and moving spots, the dependences of the erosion coefficient on the lifetime are obtained. The dependencies reveal a significant decrease in the erosion rate with increasing the velocity of the spots. The calculated values of the arc current density coincide in order with the experimental values. The model can be used to find the critical values of technological parameters in obtaining nanostructures for different electrode materials.

Yurii Shyrokyi, Gennadiy Kostyuk
An Increase in Tribocharacteristics for Highly Loaded Friction Units of Modern Equipment

The paper highlights the methodological problem of neglecting the presence of air microbubbles in the oil film during the study of the contact of tribological pairs. This phenomenon is usually explained as hydrodynamic bubbling. To eliminate this effect, special additives are used. An installation for research of a two-phase oil-vapor-gas mixture modified by a diffuser pump-generator has been developed. An express method of testing lubricants is proposed. The device for controlling an aggregate-phase condition of an oil environment is made. Comparative tribological tests of homogeneous liquid oil and its oil-vapor-gas suspension are carried out. The ways of controlling the current aggregate-phase state of lubricating media are revealed. The presence of low-pressure microbubbles in the lubricating medium, which occur in the diffuser areas and are delivered to all friction nodes, leads to their setting and damping of currents in the confusing areas and their easy expansion - in the diffuser areas of tribocontact. The study opens the way for the production of high-performance two-phase lubricants and methods to control their current physical and phase state in circulating lubrication systems, which is still an unresolved and urgent problem of the new field of knowledge about unstable environments such as two-phase oil-vapor mixture.

Alexander Stelmakh, Ruslan Kostunik, Volodymyr Radzievskyi, Sergii Shymchuk, Natalia Zaichuk
Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Properties of Porous Permeable Materials Obtained from Industrial Waste

This article theoretically and experimentally investigates the scientific and technical problem of using multilayer porous permeable materials from industrial waste with controlled functional and technological characteristics by predicting the composition, structure, properties using computer information technology. These porous permeable materials (PPM) from industrial waste are suitable for the purification of technical liquids and gases, which has increased the efficiency of using products in various fields of mechanical engineering. The method of computer modeling proposed by the authors will allow not only to determine the porosity distribution of the filter material but also to determine the relationship between technological and structural parameters. The results of this scientific work are used to develop porous permeable products - filters - for the purification of technical, industrial water, lubricants, and fuels from mechanical impurities contaminants. Developed multilayer porous permeable materials have a higher coefficient of permeability, resource, and dirt capacity with similar single-layer.

Oleksandr Povstyanoy, Nataliya Imbirovich, Valentyna Tkachuk, Rostyslav Redko, Olga Priadko

ICT for Engineering Education

Development of Materials Science Virtual Laboratory Work for the Metal Grains Calculation

In a global pandemic, distance learning is becoming increasingly important. In this aspect, virtual laboratory work and simulators in teaching by creating electronic software products make it possible to conduct classes at a higher level in the educational environment. The paper describes developing a virtual laboratory work «Methods for Detection and Determination of Grain Size», used in both classroom and distance education. The methodology for the development and implementation of virtual laboratory work on three methods for determining the grain size in steels is described in detail, following the relevant current standard of Ukraine. The C# programming language is the choice of most developers working with applications of this type. Visual Studio was chosen among the development environments, one of the best among competing analogs used to develop these technology applications. The program designed for materials science students to perform laboratory work to determine the size of the grain of metals was created to calculate the grain score and avoid random errors in mathematical calculations more conveniently and accurately.

Kristina Berladir, Tetiana Hovorun, Oleksandr Gusak, Vita Pavlenko, Anatoliy Ruban
Integration of End-to-End and Dual Learning as a Guarantee of Quality Professional Training for Future Power Engineers

This article substantiates the organization of end-to-end learning in combination with dual learning in the professional education of future power engineers to ensure the competence and competitiveness of future specialists in the dynamic labour market. Theoretical and empirical methods (monographic analysis, synthesis, modeling, experiment, observation, forecasting) were used in the research. An applied model of end-to-end professional training in combination with dual education for future specialists of the agricultural sector at master’s level is proposed through the example specific topic in which an important role belongs to the research work of higher education learners. In order to more fully assess the depth of such an organization of professional training of future power engineers at Mykolayiv National Agrarian University, based on end-to-end training in combination with dual learning, the established level of readiness of higher education learners for future professional activity is analysed which will provide the labour market with highly qualified and competent specialists for the fuel and energy complex of Ukraine. Research results confirmed the acceptability of the model of the professional competence forming process of power engineering students during their professional training. Implementation of the model of end-to-end training in combination with dual training provides visualization of pedagogical conditions of activating didactic processes, along with organizational and technological procedures and, as a result, improves the quality characteristics of specialists’ training.

Karine Gorbunova, Viktor Nagayev, Svitlana Litvinchuk, Kateryna Ulitina, Tetiana Gannichenko
The Design of Workplaces with Augmented Reality in Engineering Education

The article deals with the possibility of using augmented reality on the principle of marker target for student education. The whole proposed concept consists of the principle of displaying 3D models of machines, equipment, robots, conveyors, and accessories above the markers depicting an actual device. The first part of the article was focused on the 3D model software tools and was presented a step-by-step procedure for creating an AR application. We will describe a specific strategy for building a 3D model, creating a marker in the Vuforia engine interface. Subsequently, the procedure for working in the Unity development interface up to the final export of the final application was presented. The second part of the article was focused on the developed application and the possibilities of its deployment in the educational process. The initial tests were used by university students on the subject “Digitalisation of Production and Services”. The gained results show the innovativeness of the proposed solution. In this article, an AR application was implemented in the educational process as a new distance education tool during the COVID-19 pandemic. This new way of presenting 3D models using AR falls under the concept of Industry 4.0, which is becoming a necessity today and brings many benefits in education and practice.

Jozef Husár, Lucia Knapčíková, Stella Hrehova, Michal Balog
Using Telegram Bots for Personalized Financial Advice for Staff of Manufacturing Engineering Enterprises

This paper covers the research on using instant messengers’ chatbots to provide automated financial advice to manufacturing engineering enterprises employees in the scope of a chatbot application, which helps to calculate personal savings programs to ensure a constant level of consumption. The paper aims to develop telegram bots for personalized financial advice of manufacturing engineering enterprises staff. The application uses a model of life-cycle hypothesis and generates a customized saving plan based on the information provided by a user. The factors affecting decisions regarding advice include previous satisfaction with decision-making, investors’ preferences, perceived difficulty, the relationship between financial literacy, expertise, and confidence. Different approaches to developing messengers’ bots have been compared. The paper also gives a brief overview of the life-cycle approach, which suggests that finance managers plan consumption and savings behavior over the whole life cycle of their personnel. The research is focused on the Telegram platform and includes an overview of Telegram Bot API and the process of chatbot development using Java programming language.

Vitaliy Kobets, Serhii Savchenko
Advances in Design, Simulation and Manufacturing V
herausgegeben von
Prof. Vitalii Ivanov
Dr. Justyna Trojanowska
Prof. Ivan Pavlenko
Dr. Erwin Rauch
Prof. Dragan Peraković
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    Die im Laufe eines Jahres in der „adhäsion“ veröffentlichten Marktübersichten helfen Anwendern verschiedenster Branchen, sich einen gezielten Überblick über Lieferantenangebote zu verschaffen.