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## Über dieses Buch

This book is a compilation of research work in the interdisciplinary areas of electronics, communication, and computing. This book is specifically targeted at students, research scholars and academicians. The book covers the different approaches and techniques for specific applications, such as particle-swarm optimization, Otsu’s function and harmony search optimization algorithm, triple gate silicon on insulator (SOI)MOSFET, micro-Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, high-k dielectric gate oxide, spectrum sensing in cognitive radio, microstrip antenna, Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) with conducting surfaces, and digital image forgery detection. The contents of the book will be useful to academic and professional researchers alike.

## Inhaltsverzeichnis

### Analysis of Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA) Protocols in Long-Term Evolution (LTE) Access Network

Mobile communications systems have evolved considerably in recent years. Fourth generation networks (4G) allow to expand cellular coverage while improving accessibility to Internet services. Network access security includes security features that provide the subscriber with secure access to services of the EPS, and protects particularly against several attacks on the radio link. This area is the largest and most vulnerable among all EPS security domains since it ensures the security of the radio link, the weakest link of all mobile telephone networks. In the LTE architecture, Evolved Packet System Authentication and Key Agreement (EPS-AKA) procedure is used to realize mutual authentication between the subscriber and the network. However, the current authentication and key agreement protocol 3GPP LTE-AKA has some issues, including bandwidth consumption, traffic overload due to control message and vulnerabilities. Several protocols have been proposed to solve these problems. In this paper, we will analyze and compare several existing protocols: EPS-AKA, SE-AKA, EC-AKA, and EC-AKA2 according to different factors in order to estimate the performances in terms of security, cost, and delay of each one of these protocols.

Mariya Ouaissa, A. Rhattoy, M. Lahmer

### Impact of M2M Traffic in Random Access Channel over LTE Networks

Nowadays, humanity is surrounded by many technological devices that are connected to the Internet (sensors, smart meters, etc.). These devices can transmit and receive data automatically via interfaces for wireless transmission of data, thus generating Machine-to-Machine (M2M) traffic. This massive connectivity provides attractive new services, usually transmitting fragments of small data. This is especially true for Long-Term Evolution (LTE), which was originally optimized for users Human-to-Human (H2H). The main problem caused by the introduction of M2M applications is the congestion that occurs at the access network because of the tremendous number of devices that attempt to simultaneously access the network. This article provides M2M communication methods based on the 3GPP standard. In this paper we consider concurrent access to radio resources in a M2M/H2H coexistence scenario based on a dynamic random access algorithm for LTE network. This work studies the impact of M2M terminals massively and simultaneously attempting to have a random access to LTE. First, we emphasize the problem of resources sharing by MTC devices. Then we assess the impact of the introduction of M2M services on the performance of applications H2H according to throughput metric.

Mariyam Ouaissa, M. Benmoussa, A. Rhattoy, M. Lahmer, I. Chana

### Predictive Modeling of Students Performance Through the Enhanced Decision Tree

Prognostic of student performance is one of the major issues in many institutions. The student’s performance is based on many factors such as internal examinations, grade obtained in university examination, Academic, Extra Curricular and Co-Curricular activities and also concern with their activities in learning environment. Student performance prediction is used to model the students into any one of the four categories as excellent, good, average, and poor performance student. The category selection was determined using supervised classifiers. Academic institution can easily able to identify any academic problems and the corresponding solutions for their students through this predictive modeling approach. We have collected real world dataset related to student’s academic performance from leading academic institution in India which consists of details about the students such as CGPA, Lab performance, History of arrears and so on. We have applied various supervised classifiers such as DT, SVM, KNN, NB, NN and Improved DT on student’s academic performance dataset. Besides, the conventional decision tree is further improved by the use of normalized factor and Association Function. By comparing the accuracy of these two methods, the best result is exposed for Improved Decision Tree than all other supervised classifiers in the literature.

Subitha Sivakumar, Rajalakshmi Selvaraj

### A New Pulse Width Modulation Technique with Hybrid Carrier Arrangement for Multilevel Inverter Topology

This article introduces a new reduced switch multilevel inverter topology that operates in asymmetric state. The advantage of proposed multilevel inverter is utilizing the lower device count when compared to traditional configuration. This paper depicts a hybrid pulse width modulation which includes three different carriers and unipolar references. The three different carriers are saw-tooth, triangular, inverted unipolar sine which is arranged in phase disposition technique. The effectiveness of proposed hybrid pulse width modulation (HPWM) technique is tested with a new reduced switch topology using MATLAB/Simulink. The different parameters are calculated with various modulation indices.

N. Prabaharan, V. Arun, K. Palanisamy, P. Sanjeevikumar

### Watershed-Matching Algorithm: A New Pathway for Brain Tumor Segmentation

Brain tumor detection through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a very challenging task even in today’s modern medical image processing research. To form images of the soft tissue of the human body, surgeons use MRI analysis. They segment the images manually by partitioning into two distinct regions which is erroneous and at the same time, may be time-consuming. So, it is a must be better the MRI images segmentation. This paper outlines a new finding to detect brain tumor for better accuracy than earlier techniques. We segment the tumor area from the MR image and then to find the area of the segmented region, we use another algorithm to match the segmented part with the input image. In addition, the paper concludes with the status checking of the tumor and provides a necessary diagnosis of brain tumor. Lastly, we compare our proposed model with other techniques and get a far better result.

S. M. Kamrul Hasan, Yugoshree Sarkar, Mohiudding Ahmad

### A Compact Slotted Textile Patch Antenna for Ultra-wide Band Application

In this article a compact slotted textile patch antenna for Ultra-Wideband applications with enhanced bandwidth is presented. The optimized antenna is intended on textile substrate with dielectric constant of 1.7. The compact size of antenna is 50 × 50 × 1 mm. This presented rectangular-shaped antenna that has been simulated using CST tool. The presented antenna resonates at frequency 3.98 GHz with the reflection coefficient of −34.12. It covers a bandwidth of 6.27 GHz extending from 2.86 to 9.13 GHz. It has maximum directivity of 2.969 dBi.

Nikhil Kumar Singh, Vinod Kumar Singh, Anurag Saxena, Akash Kumar Bhoi, Amik Garg, K. S. Sherpa

### Optimization of Hodgkin–Huxley Conductance-Based Model Using Particle Swarm Optimization and Firefly Method

Hodgkin–Huxley have developed a neuron model describing the biophysical nature of a neuron in 1952. The model describes the ionic exchange taking place in the neuron mathematically. In this paper, the values of the parameters of the H-H model are optimized. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) and Firefly algorithm (FA) methods are used here and both the methods are compared for optimal solution. These methods are metaheurestic methods and they follow the nature’s law of flocking in PSO and flashing pattern in FA. The optimized parameters are found keeping in reference the signals generated directly from the nonlinear equations given by Hodgkin–Huxley. Estimation of parameters has its own importance in biomedical field for determination of relation between parameters.

Rashmi Deka, Kuntala Boruah, Jiten Ch. Dutta

### A Model to Demonstrate the Universality of DNA-NAND Gate

A model is proposed to demonstrate the universality of DNA-NAND gate at molecular level. NAND gate is one of the universal logic gates as any other gates can be obtained from it alone. A theoretical proof of principle simulation is presented in this paper to derive other basic logic gates with the help of DNA-NAND gate. Well established DNA operations are used as tools during the entire simulation.

Kuntala Boruah, Rashmi Deka, Jiten Ch. Dutta

### Micro-Raman and FTIR Analysis of Silicon Carbo-Nitride Thin Films at Different H2 Flow Rate

Silicon carbo-nitride thin films were deposited on Si (100) substrate by thermal chemical vapour deposition using C2H2 and Si powder precursors. The thin films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra reveals the presence of vibration signature of various bonds at 512, 1135, 1688, 2444, 3032, 3550 cm−1 which correspond to Si–N, SiC–N, C–N, Si–H, C–H and N–H, respectively, in the SiCN thin films. Raman spectra reveal the presence of three prominent stoke shifts at 617, 1141 and 1648 cm−1 corresponding to Si–H, SiC–N and C–C respectively. The vibrational signature of SiC–N shifted from 1126 to 1050 cm−1 with increase in H2 flow rate indicates formation of nanosized cluster in deposited thin film .

Dhruva Kumar, Umesh Rizal, Soham Das, Bhabani S. Swain, Bibhu Prasad Swain

### Applying Classification Methods for Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks: An Empirical Study

Spectrum sensing is the paramount aspect of cognitive radio network where a secondary user is able to utilize the idle channels of the licensed spectrum band in an opportunistic manner without interfering the primary (license) users. The channel (band) is considered to be idle (free) when primary signal is absent. The channel accessibility (free) and non-accessibility (occupied) can be modeled as a classification problem where classification techniques can determine the status of the channel. In this work supervised learning techniques is employed for classification on the real-time spectrum sensing data collected in test bed. The power and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels measured at the independent CR device in our test bed are treated as the features. The classifiers construct its learning model and give a channel decision to be free or occupied for unlabelled test instances. The different classification technique’s performances are evaluated in terms of average training time, classification time, and F1 measure. Our empirical study clearly reveals that supervised learning gives a high classification accuracy by detecting low-amplitude signal in a noisy environment.

Nayan Basumatary, Nityananda Sarma, Bhabesh Nath

### Highly Negative Dispersive, Low Loss Single-Mode Photonic Crystal Fiber

In this paper a new five-layer circular air holes photonic crystal fiber (PCF) having low dispersion and confinement loss is analyzed. A full-vector finite-element method approach is used . Due to proper selection of air-fill fraction, it has been made possible to obtain the two required properties of PCF for wide range of wavelengths, that is, low (nearly zero and high negative) dispersion and ultralow confinement loss of the order of 10−7 dB/km. It has been found that the proposed fiber is single mode. The confinement loss and dispersion is demonstrated for wavelength range which are 1–2 µm. Thus highly negative dispersion of PCFs useful for application in optical communication links as dispersion compensating fibers.

Shahiruddin, Dharmendra K. Singh, Sneha Singh

### Triple Gate SOI MOSFET

Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (MOSFET) had been one of the best devices designed for integrated circuits over the decades. Due to continuous downscaling of the transistor the short-channel effects comes into play and further scaling becomes difficult. So, Multi-gate devices have been proposed so as to reduce these effects. Analytical modeling of Tri-gate MOSFET by solving Poisson’s equation and necessary boundary condition is proposed in this paper. Surface potential for Tri-gate SOI MOSFET has been obtained and the effects of the device parameters like oxide thickness, different oxide material, channel length, gate voltage and drain voltage are plotted using MATLAB simulator.

Amit Agarwal, P. C. Pradhan, Bibhu Prasad Swain

### Wearable Antennas for Medical Application: A Review

Wearable devices for monitoring different biological signals are now gaining huge interest now a day. Use of textile material as substrate material for antenna design is growing rapidly. In order to reduce the effect of human body the performance of antenna several different antenna structures have been proposed. This article reveals research on different designs and development of wearable antennas for biomedical application at different frequency bands.

Shreema Manna, Tanushree Bose, Rabindranath Bera

### Characterization of Silicon Carbo-Nitride Thin Films

This review paper intends to through a light on different characterization techniques used for silicon carbonitride (SiCN). During the recent years, the interest in silicon carbo-nitride developed remarkably. The structural and chemical network of SiCN thin films are characterized by XRD, Raman and FTIR characterization respectively. Nanoindentation is used for analysing mechanical properties of thin film.

Dhruva Kumar, Bibhu Prasad Swain

### Improved Normalization Approach for Iris Image Classification Using SVM

With the rapid improvement of information technology, security and authentication of individuals has become a greater significance. Iris recognition is one of the best solutions in providing unique authentication for individuals based on their IRIS structure. Iris normalization meant to extract the iris region and represent it in spatial domain, Daughman’s rubber sheet model is so far a standard and efficient method of implementing this process. In this paper, a low complex, simpler and improved version of rubber sheet model is proposed. The main aim of this method is to minimize the complex computations that were involved in the conventional rubber sheet model and to provide an equivalent performing approach with very less computations. Classification performance is evaluated with CASIA and IIT Delhi IRIS databases using SVM classifier.

Mahaboob Shaik

### Investigation of Titanium Aluminium Nitride (TiAlN): A Review

Titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) thin films are now commonly used as protective layer in various fields as these films have high thermal stability and sound corrosion resistance. Due to high hardness and wear resistance at elevated temperature, it is one of the most important thin film coating material for cutting tools. Various deposition methods such as physical vapour deposition (PVD), chemical vapour deposition (CVD), sputtering technique, etc., are used by many researchers to synthesize TiAlN coatings. To analyse morphological, structural, and mechanical characteristics, various tests such as SEM, AFM, xrd, Raman, and nanoindentation have been carried out by many researchers. This paper basically summarizes the properties of TiAlN monolayer, nanolayer, and multilayer thin films.

Soham Das, Bibhu Prasad Swain

### The Study of GPR with Conducting Surfaces to Determine the Operating Frequency in Single-Fold Reflection Profiling

Mapping of different soil surfaces is possible by the means of ground penetrating radar (GPR). To optimise the interpretation of such radar surveys carried out at various sites, we turned our attention to the accuracy of GPR on different geophysical surfaces. The properties of soil significantly influence the GPR performance, modifying, in particular, the propagation velocity, skin depth, phase constant and attenuation. Thus, setting the parameters for a GPR survey is not easy. Also, it is difficult to decide the right operating frequency for GPR operations. In order to get a higher penetration depth, the user will have to compromise with the resolution of the GPR or vice versa. Here, we try to estimate an appropriate operating frequency for GPR survey, if the properties of the soil are known.

Amitansu Pattanaik, Rajat Sharma

### Investigation of Titanium Silicon Nitride: A Review

Nano-tribological studies are required to develop in-depth understanding on interfacial phenomena of different materials that are used in different industrial (e.g. aerospace industry, coatings, tool hardening electronics devices etc.) applications. In a recent year, tribological studies on transition metals increase because of their promising mechanical properties, hardness, oxidation resistant and wear resistant characteristics. Titanium silicon nitride is considered to be one of the most prominent materials among all the transition metals. Silicon provides excellent resistance to oxidation and titanium guarantees hard coatings. So, combination of two can be developed a useful coating material which can provide wear resistance even at elevated temperature.

Spandan Guha, Asish Bandyopadhyay, Santanu Das, Bibhu Prasad Swain

### An Efficient MOS Class-E Power Amplifier for Wireless LAN Applications

In the present scenario, use of wireless communication devices is increasing drastically for communication. Because of huge wireless communication, there are chances for loss of signal strength. Power amplifier helps in increasing the strength of week RF signal of transmitter of wireless communication. There is a demand for high quality, low cost and low power consumption power amplifier for wireless devices. This project proposes a design of an efficient MOS Class-E power amplifier at low power consumption either by reducing the input DC power level or by scaling the MOS device using 180 nm technology for wireless applications such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi application.

M. Ananda, A. B. Kalpana

### Security in Cloud Computing-Based Mobile Commerce

Cloud computing is a burgeoning technology shift impact in gall industries. Due to rapid development in Internet and wireless technology, electronic business transaction has exploded around the world. In brief Mobile commerce or M-commerce means accessing the Internet for business transaction using handheld devices. Cloud integrated mobile application provides the functions for building and consuming the future of M-commerce applications. Nowa ays explosive growth has been taken place in M-commerce due to drastic use of handheld devices like mobile, smartphone, tablet, etc., as it provides user mobility, portability. But some important challenge faced by M-commerce is security, limited storage and processing power, complex device configuration, low network band width, etc. By incorporating cloud computing in mobile commerce will give lots of advantage for business industry as well as the user with lower cost and high benefits, security, flexibility, scalability, mobility, and efficiency.

Ferdousi Khatun, Md. Ruhul Islam

### From FET to SET: A Review

Scaling has played an important role in reducing the size of the transistor so as to govern the Moore’s law, but we cannot always simply scale down the size of the transistor without some deterioration in the performance of the transistor. These effects are termed as short-channel effects such as drain-induced barrier lowering, threshold voltage shift, leakage current, gate-induced drain lowering, hot carrier effect, etc. In this paper, we have reviewed different gated structures such as single gate, double gate, triple gate and gate all around which will control the electrostatic potential in the channel and reduce these short-channel effects. A molecular transistor, i.e., single electron transistor (SET) is also reviewed in this paper; SET shows better performance and reduced short-channel effects. In this molecular structure, either coulomb blockade or tunneling takes place, due to which it has better control over the flow of the electron.

Amit Agarwal, P. C. Pradhan, Bibhu Prasad Swain

### Important Factors for Designing Assamese Prosody with Festival Frame Work

Prosody is a term related with literature as well as speech technology. It is one of the primary parts for design of any natural sounding text to speech synthesis. Prosody is a broad as well as complex way of expressing meaning of a text segment in terms of pitch means fundamental frequency of utterance, loudness or intensity, intonation, and rhythm. The term is related to phonology and used to convey meaning as well as structure or configuration of a speech unit. This paper discusses about the important issues to design a well-versed prosody with respect to above-mentioned properties. Though our aim is to design an Assamese prosody in festival framework, yet we are highlighting the features which must be taken care of regardless of any specific language.

Parismita Sarma, Shikhar Kumar Sarma

### Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Anonymity

A sensor network comprised of multiple devices with sensing abilities and communications technologies. Location privacy is crucial in WSN. Information on the position of the events or location of the sink node can be an initial attention of the enemy. The location privacy aims to cover the position of the sensor that senses the data and makes it tough for an attacker to discover back to the node or location. Location privacy is sorted into two categories, i.e., source node privacy and sink node privacy. Anonymous communication is a core feature of location privacy in WSN because it used to hide the identity of critical sensor nodes. The proposed location privacy schemes provide a solution for node anonymity and location privacy in WSNs.

Shriya Kesharwani, Manisha R. Dhage

### A Compact CPW-Fed Defected Ground Microstrip Antenna for Ku Band Application

A simple, compact, wide band microstrip antenna for Ku band application is proposed. The defected ground and CPW feeding is used to achieve wideband antenna. The presented antenna is designed on FR-4 substrate with dielectric constant of 4.4. The overall size of antenna is 25 × 23 × 1.6 mm. This Ku band antenna has been simulated using an Ansoft HFSS, electromagnetic simulation tool. The designed antenna resonates at three frequencies 11.2, 12.5, and 14.3 GHz with the return loss of −27.2191, −34.2027, and −35.896, respectively. It covers a bandwidth of 5.9 GHz extending from 10.5 to 16.4 GHz. It has maximum gain of 1.6 dB. Antenna has stable radiation pattern and group delay.

Rashmi Singh, Vinod Kumar Singh, Puneet Khanna

### A Study on Different Normalization Approaches of Word

With the advancing of social media communication, people communicate with each other through SMS (Short Message Service), tweets, and chats messages. But the texts used in such medium are quite different from the standard text such as in limitation of character length, misspelling, and some in abbreviated form also called as Non-Standard Form (NSF) which will not be found on dictionaries. The aim of this paper is to study the different existing approaches used for normalizing such kind of texts.

N. Chitrapriya, Md. Ruhul Islam, Minakshi Roy, Sujala Pradhan

### Duplicate Resource Detection in RDF Datasets Using Hadoop and MapReduce

In the Semantic Web community many approaches have been evolved for generating RDF (Resource Description Framework) resources. However, they often capture duplicate resources, that are stored without elimination. In consequence, duplicate resources reduce the data quality as well as increase unnecessary size of the dataset. We propose an approach for detecting duplicate resources in RDF datasets using Hadoop and MapReduce framework. RDF resources are compared using similarity metrics defined at resource level, RDF statement level as well as object level. The performance is evaluated with the evaluation metrics and the experimental evaluation showed the accuracy, effectiveness, and efficiency of the proposed approach.

Kumar Sharma, Ujjal Marjit, Utpal Biswas

### TEECS: A Time-Based Energy Efficient Clustering Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

The main challenge of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is to conserve energy of sensor nodes and to increase network’s lifetime. The energy efficient protocol is one of the most focused research issues in WSNs. Network layer routing protocols are proven to be more energy efficient when it uses clustering schemes. In this paper, with an objective to prolong the network’s lifetime we have proposed a timer-based, distributed, energy efficient clustering scheme for wireless sensor network and we have also presented the implementation details and comparison of the TEECS protocol with existing LEACH protocol. In the results, we found out that, the TEECS protocol was more energy efficient than the LEACH protocol.

Nirnaya Pradhan, Kalpana Sharma, Vikash Kumar Singh, Nima Donka Tamang

### Packet Sniffing and Network Traffic Analysis Using TCP—A New Approach

Due to the rapid development of Internet the size of computer network are continue to grow in size. Thus the network traffic are increasing drastically. To keep the data transfer smooth and faster in the network the monitoring, and management of network traffic is an important factor in field of computer network. The data, information are communicated via TCP or UDP Internet protocol between nodes in the network. These transport layer protocol carry the packet or datagram from source-to-destination site. The packet analysis or packet sniffing is process of capturing the packet and analyze the log traffic passes over the network or a part of network. Packet sniffer is used for wired or wireless network. A tool is developed to accomplish the monitoring task that removes deficiency of existing tool. The packet sniffer is used to capture the traffic and analyzed those captured traffic. The report is generated based on analyzed captured traffic. Various transport layer protocol like TCP, UDP, etc., can be implemented for analysis and filtering can be done based on protocol used. A new approach of packet sniffing and network traffic analysis over TCP connection oriented network using Wireshark software has been discussed in this paper.

Aishwarya Bhandari, Samala Gautam, Tawal K. Koirala, Md. Ruhul Islam

### Passive Techniques of Digital Image Forgery Detection: Developments and Challenges

Photographs and images play an important role in our lives but, in this technology era, equipped with powerful, low cost, and easy to use photo editing tools, people often forge photographs. This practice has posed a question mark on the trustworthiness of images necessitating separation of original images from the tampered lot. Because carefully edited and forged images are very hard to be distinguished from their genuine copies therefore, forgery detection and separation of the forged images from the innocent and genuine ones has become a challenging issue for image analysts. Image forgery detection procedures are generally classified into two broad categories; the active and the passive detection techniques. This paper presents a state of the art review of different passive forgery detection techniques those are proposed by different authors over time.

Santoshini Panda, Minati Mishra

### m-GeoEduNet: Mobile SDI Model for Education Information Infrastructure Network

This paper represents scope for development and implementation of m-GeoEduNet prototype to share educational institute information infrastructure framework in India. It uses modern innovation on cloud computing, mobile technology, API technology, and spatial technology. The established prototype facilitates interface to collect the information related to institutes particularly IITs, NITs, and IIITs in terms of geo-spatial data. It can be attained by interacting between the users and mobile platform to achieve mobile-based Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) model. The collected data being documented and uploaded in Cloud database server. The present paper uses Firebase for storing of cloud database services and NOSQL database used for storing geo-spatial data. It has also been underlying third-party API, i.e., GeoFire; for efficiently handling queries on geo-spatial data.

R. K. Barik, R. K. Lenka, A. B. Samaddar, J. Pattnaik, B. Prakash, V. Agarwal

### Investigation of Structural and Electronic Environments of Nitrogen-Doped CVD-Grown DLC Films

Nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) films were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition technique by varying the nitrogen flow rate at a constant C2H2 flow. The influence of nitrogen incorporation on the microstructure and structural electronic properties of N-DLC films were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). SEM images reveal the DLC nanoparticles formation and carbon nanowires formations for 70 and 130 sccm nitrogen flow rate respectively. The Raman spectra of N-DLC investigated D and G peaks at 1300 and 1600 cm−1 respectively. X-ray diffraction of N-DLC indicated the crystallite sizes 1.74 and 8.78 nm at different peak position. Due to nitrogen incorporation in DLC thin films the core orbital spectra of C(1s) shifted from 284 to 286 eV for nitrogen flow increased from 70 to 130 sccm. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to synthesize nitrogen incorporated DLC films using thermal chemical vapor deposition technique to study their structural and microstructural properties.

Ranjan Kr. Ghadai, Soham Das, Subhash Chandra Mondal, Bibhu Prasad Swain

### A Novel Region Growing Based Method to Remove Pectoral Muscle from MLO Mammogram Images

Digital Mammography is the most efficient screening technique for early detection of breast abnormalities. Automated computer aided methods have been very effective in identifying subtle signs of breast cancer like microcalcification and masses. However such methods for detection of masses are highly affected by the presence of pectoral muscle in mediolateral oblique view. So it is highly recommended to remove pectoral muscle as a preprocessing step. In this paper, a novel method for pectoral muscle removal from Mediolateral Oblique mammogram images is presented. The method has three main phases. In the first phase a triangular region is defined over the mammogram that separates the pectoral muscle from the rest of the tissue. In the second phase, a local region growing method is applied within the triangular area defined to suppress the pectoral muscle. In the last phase, the pectoral edge is refined using gradient information of the edge. Results and Conclusion: The system is tested over 150 images taken from Mini-MIAS dataset. Hand-drawn segmentation masks are used to compare the segmentation accuracy for the proposed method.

Manasi Hazarika, Lipi B. Mahanta

### Microstrip Patch Antenna: A Review

Technology is getting advanced day by day. Antennas used in earlier days were generally larger in size. Now days in most of the applications, larger antennas are replaced by patch antennas. There are different shapes of patch antennas like triangular, circular, rectangular, fractal, etc. Each has its own characteristics, limitations, advantages, and disadvantages. Apart from this, the feed technique also has a great impact on performance of the antenna. In this paper a review is done on the basis of feed techniques, shape and the dielectrics used during the design process of the antenna.

Arun Kumar Singh, Rabindranath Bera, Bansibadan Maji

### A Comparison Study of Face, Gait and Speech Features for Age Estimation

With the growing importance of age estimation in the recent years, Researchers have been trying to use different human body biometrics to estimate the age of a person. Face, gait and speech are the three main biometric traits which have been reported to investigate the human age successfully. Each feature has specific characteristics which employ the prediction of age. Like Wrinkles, skin and shape of the face; speed, head to body ratio and height of the gait; and pitch and heaviness of the speech define the baselines for the age estimation. We have compared these three features and evaluated their performance. Conventional techniques have been used from the literature and experimental results are compared in terms of MAE and accuracy. Face is found to have most detailed features to predict the age and hence minimum mean absolute error of 5.36. It is followed by gait and then speech which are found to have mean absolute error of 6.57 and 6.62 respectively.

Prachi Punyani, Rashmi Gupta, Ashwani Kumar

### A Review on MIMO Based V2V Communication

This paper provides a review on the various channels for vehicular application and utilization of multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) to improve the reliability of communication system for the application in intelligent transportation system (ITS). We also present some key research areas related to MIMO in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) and possible signal processing tools to encounter the severe dynamic vehicular channel.

Samarendra Nath Sur, Rabindranath Bera, Bansibadan Maji

### Energy-Efficient Packet Routing Model for Wireless Sensor Network

Wireless sensor network (WSN) in recent time has seen enormous growth. The sensor has been used in various industries and organization for various application services such as disaster management, surveillance, monitoring of patients, and so on. The WSN are tiny and battery-powered and is deployed in non-rechargeable location and preserving the battery is a most crucial factor in such network. Many technique have been proposed in recent times to enhance the lifespan of sensor network among them cluster is the most sort-out technique. Many clustering have been proposed in recent times to improve the energy efficiency of sensor network. The drawback of existing technique is that they did not consider the packet failure likelihood among inter and intra; as a result there exist scheduling bottleneck and degrades the energy of sensor devices. To overcome‚ this work present a packet failure estimation model by adopting a cross-layer design in order to improve the scheduling. Experiments are conducted for lifetime efficiency for varied sensor devices for proposed and existing LEACH. The result shows that the proposed model performs better than existing LEACH in term of network lifetime and energy efficiency.

Madhu Patil, Chirag Sharma

### An ECC-Based Algorithm to Handle Secure Communication Between Heterogeneous IoT Devices

Internet of Things (IoT) is an interconnection of tiny real-world objects using sensor, actuators, and software’s designed for exchanging data and controlling them. It invades business landscape on massive scale integrating heterogeneous devices. Some of the application includes media, environmental monitoring, infrastructure and energy management, medical, healthcare system, and transportation. Earlier, in these applications, the primary issue is handling efficient communication among the interconnected devices to have an extended network lifetime. Nowadays, as data grows rapidly in the IoT, security and privacy is also a major issue to be concentrated in these applications to reduce vulnerabilities. Recent studies show that the existing IP security protocols and algorithm have technical limitation in applying it to the context Internet of Things. In particular, when a new device enters to an existing secured network, the network should ensure that the new device is authenticated and authorized properly with respect to the properties of existing network. Otherwise, similar to other network, IoT network also will be subjected to various attacks such as physical attacks, service disruption attacks, data attacks, and denial-of-service attacks. Hence, in this work, an algorithm to authenticate and authorize when a new device gets added to the existing network is proposed. The algorithm is tested for various attacks and the results are proven to be efficient and secure.

S. Sasirekha, S. Swamynathan, S. Suganya

### Enhanced Pixel Purity Index Algorithm to Find the Index Position of the Pure Pixels in Hyperspectral Images

This paper proposes an enhanced pure pixel index (PPI) algorithm for hyperspectral imaging. The conventional PPI algorithm uses random skewers in the process of finding the pure pixel indexes. The randomness in generating skewers leads to iterate the process multiple number of times to pick the most repeating pixel. The iteration involved in the process increases the computational time of the algorithm. The research contribution in this paper is that, the randomness in generating the skewers has been eliminated in the enhanced PPI algorithm by generating skewer by correlating the skewer with the given hyperspectral image. The proposed algorithm has reduced the computational complexity as well.

S. Graceline Jasmine, V. Pattabiraman

### Assamese Character Recognition Using Zoning Feature

The aim of this paper is to develop a model to recognize basic Assamese characters using feed-forward neural network. The basic characters included in Assamese language are a set of numeral, a set of vowel, and a set of consonant. An algorithm has been designed to segment the line and individual character of the image and zoning features are extracted from the individual character. The network is trained by gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning rate backpropagation training function. The network consists of two hidden layers with Sum Square Error (SSE). Finally, the unicode value of the recognized character is written in a text file.

Kalyanbrat Medhi, Sanjib Kr. Kalita

### Improving Convergence in iBGP Route Reflectors

Convergence is a crucial challenge for Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). The lower convergence time can improve network performance attributes such as end-to-end delay and throughput. In literature, various studies suggested that MRAI timers improve the convergence in iBGP. The effect of MRAI timer examined extensively in past. However, we found very less literature on the effect of MRAI timer in iBGP route reflectors. Route reflectors avoid too many iBGP sessions in the internal BGP. However, it creates many routing paths in iBGP. Moreover, when there is a change in the topology, the sharing of updates very frequently degrades convergence in the route reflectors. Therefore, this paper measures the effect of adjustable MRAI timer and suggests for better convergence in iBGP route reflectors. We measured the performance parameters convergence time, the number of exchanged updates, throughput, and delay using adjustable MRAI timer and compared with standard BGP.

Shipra Shukla, Mahesh Kumar

### Performance Analysis of Various Eigenvalue-Based Spectrum Sensing Algorithms for Different Types of Primary User Signals

Spectrum sensing plays a very essential role in the implementation of cognitive radio networks. Eigenvalue-based spectrum sensing algorithms have been comprehensively discussed in the literature, for detection of primary user signal in the case of uncertain noise. For detection of signals, the test statistics of these algorithms depend on the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix of the received signal. Eigenvalues generally capture the correlation among the signal samples. In this context, we have examined the sensing performance of various eigenvalue-based spectrum sensing techniques for different types of primary user signals having different levels of correlation. In results, it has been noticed that the sensing performance of the algorithms relies on the type of primary user signal transmitted.

Pankaj Verma, Brahmjit Singh

### A Crown-Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Communication Systems

This paper describes the design and analysis of a modified E-shaped and a crown-shaped microstrip patch antenna with excitation frequency of 1.2 GHz. Both the antennas are derived from a Rogers RT/Duroid 6202 laminate substrate (dielectric constant = 2.94 and loss tangent = 0.001). The simulation is achieved using the software Ansoft Nexxim. From the simulation results it is observed that the crown-shaped antenna exhibits 20.15 dB better return loss and 50% more gain than the modified E-shaped antenna. Furthermore, better impedance matching is observed for the crown-shaped antenna exhibiting that the crown-shaped antenna finds better applications than the modified E-shaped antenna to be effectively used for wireless application.

Atanu Nag, Kousik Roy, Debika Chaudhuri

### Atrophy Measure of Brain Cortex to Detect Alzheimer’s Disease from Magnetic Resonance Images

In medical science, diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease is mainly done manually by expert radiologist. In this paper, an automatic approach to detect Alzheimer’s disease using cortex thickness is analyzed. The cortex of brain is extracted and thickness is measured from magnetic resonance images. For experiment, 20 images of control subjects, 20 with mild cognitive impairment and 20 with Alzheimer’s disease, are taken from Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Initially, segmentation of cortex, from T1-weighted coronal magnetic resonance image, is done using genetic algorithm-based region growing technique. Then the thickness of the cortex is measured using distance transform. The experiment gives 100, 80, and 85% recognition accuracy for normal, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s disease, respectively.

Dulumani Das, Sanjib Kumar Kalita

### Study of Effect of High-k Dielectric Gate Oxide on the Performance of SB-GNRFETs

A Schottky barrier GNRFET with asymmetric and symmetric dielectric layer with high-k oxides is presented. The device considered is a double-gate MOSFET structure. We have studied the effect of various high-k gate dielectrics on the performance of graphene nanoribbon FETs (GNRFET). In addition to that, we have studied the effect of using two different dielectrics on top and bottom gate oxide. The study is carried out within the non-equilibrium Greens function formalism (NEGF). Results show that the use of high-k gate dielectric improves GNRFET characteristics like on-current, on-to-off current ratio. We obtained the value of 2.2 μA and 22 for drain current and on-to-off current ratio, respectively, for SiO2, whereas for La2O3 we obtained the value of 6.33 μA and 63.3, respectively for the same.

Bhubon Chandra Mech, Jitendra Kumar

### A Simple and Efficient Higher Order Finite Element Scheme for Helmholtz Waveguides

This paper presents a simple and efficient finite element scheme for computing the cutoff wave numbers of arbitrary-shaped waveguides using higher order triangular elements. The waveguide geometry is divided into a set of triangular elements and each of these elements is mapped to a standard isosceles triangle by discritizing with subparametric finite elements. For waveguides containing arbitrary cross sections, the transformation is done using a series of higher order parabolic arcs. In this case, the curve boundaries are approximated by curved triangular finite elements and then transformed to an isosceles triangle. Numerical results are illustrated to validate the present approach. The obtained results have converged very well with the existing literature with minimum number of triangular elements, degree of freedoms, order of computational matrix, etc.

Tattwa Darshi Panda, K. V. Nagaraja, V. Kesavulu Naidu

### Point Feature Based Recognition of Handwritten Meetei Mayek Script

In this article we are proposing a hybrid point feature based recognition of Meetei Mayek optical handwritten characters. Four different interesting point features namely Harris corner detector, Laplacian-of-Gaussian (Log) detector, Harris-Laplacian detector, and Gilles feature are used to detect different fixed number of interesting feature points. The [X, Y] coordinates of these interesting points are used as feature vector. Four different feature vectors are generated out of these and we have developed a fused feature out of it. Feature reduction is done by PCA, and accuracy calculations for all these features are performed using support vector machine. A comparative analysis is done to get a feature that shows consistency in accuracy before and after applying feature reduction. Experimental result shows that fused feature FV5 shows better accuracy in all different situations. Before reduction it shows 97.16% accuracy, on reduction by probabilistic PCA it shows 94.15% accuracy, and PCA-based reduction 97.16% accuracy, which is best in all situations as compared to other features.

Chandan Jyoti Kumar, Sanjib Kumar Kalita

### Design of Circularly Polarized Antenna with Different Iterations for UWB Applications

A microstrip patch antenna with the strip line feed along with partial ground is anticipated for circularly polarized characteristics. The antenna resonates at 7 GHz frequency. It comprises a ground, a substrate, and patch. The simulation is performed in HFSS software and the simulated results of proposed antenna such as reflection coefficient and axial ratio are presented. The circular polarization (CP) is achieved by inserting slots of the different shapes and sizes, i.e., rectangle and the circle of the different dimensions in the structure of the antenna. The antenna is very compact (40 mm × 30 mm × 1.6) in size and simple to design. The outcomes reflection coefficient, axial ratio, gain, and radiation pattern of the proposed antenna remain valid for operating frequency band. The proposed antenna has been designed, simulated, and fabricated. The prototype antenna has also been characterized with −31 dB return loss. Measured result shows a good agreement with simulated and theoretical ones.

Piyush Sharma, Ashok Yadav, Vinod Kumar Singh

### Weighted Wavelet Tree Sparsity Regularization for Compressed Sensing Magnetic Resonance Image Reconstruction

Compressed sensing in magnetic resonance imaging (CS-MRI) improves the MRI scan time by acquiring only a few k-space samples and then reconstructs the image using a nonlinear procedure from the highly undersampled measurements. Besides the standard wavelet sparsity, MR images are also found to exhibit tree sparsity across various scales of the wavelet decomposition which are generally modeled as overlapping group sparsity. In this chapter, we propose a novel iteratively weighted wavelet tree sparsity based CS-MRI reconstruction technique to estimate MR images from highly undersampled Fourier measurements. Simulations on various real MR images show that the proposed technique offers significant improvements compared to the state-of-the-art either in terms of visual quality or k-space measurements with the same reconstruction time.

Bhabesh Deka, Sumit Datta

### A Score-Level Solution to Speaker Verification Using UBM Pooling and Adaptive Cohort Selection

In an environment that is highly unpredictable in nature, a speaker verification system needs a good background model to carry out the verification task reliably. In this paper, a 1024-component UBM is created by pooling a noisy speech UBM and clean speech UBM. This pooled UBM is used for speaker adaptation as well as for speaker testing. Experimental results have shown minor improvement with pooled UBM as compared to baseline UBM. In addition to this, a score-level solution is proposed by means of cohort model selection using HT-normalization to reduce undesirable variation arising from acoustically mismatched devices and environment. For cohort selection a simple distance metric based on similarity modeling of each client speaker is used. The normalization parameters computed over a group of speakers (cohort) having some common characteristics are used in the final score calculation. Experiments on a noisy corpus has shown reasonable improvements in performance, when normalization parameters were taken from a cohort than from a general group. Experiments have shown a recognition rate of 90.58 and 87.64% for matched handset type in office and roadside environment respectively.

Pranab Das

### A Novel Encryption Scheme for Secure SMS Communication

Security is a challenging issue in today’s digital world and for this, role of cryptography is significant. Cryptography secures data and information using an encryption algorithm and keys. There is always demand for a stronger encryption algorithm that would be very hard or impossible to crack without valid keys so that the privacy of intended sender and receiver information can be protected from hackers. This paper suggests a novel encryption scheme for SMS communication that uses multiple rounds of encryption to provide better privacy to the transmitted message against unauthorized access. Message integrity and authentication have been ensured by addition of authentication characters to the message. Keeping in mind the limited memory and processing capacity of mobile devices, the algorithm has been kept simpler and at the same time the strength of the scheme has been ensured with a stronger key and better mix of confusion and diffusion principles.

Aeneaus Malla, Pranab Sahu, Minati Mishra

### Reviewing the Performance of an Improved Seven-Level Multilevel Inverter for Various Pulse Width Modulation Techniques

Multilevel inverter has become a unique choice in industries at high-power applications. It is mainly due to the high-quality output waveform. Conventional MLIs use many power switches and the design of such a topology is not economical. An improved single-phase MLI is suggested in this article. The circuit consists of reduced number of power switches and hence it possesses a simple control circuitry. The appealing feature of the designed circuit is only a single power switch is switched at a high frequency at anytime during the operation. It minimizes the electromagnetic interference and switching losses in the circuit. The performance of the said topology is investigated using sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) techniques in Simulink software. The performance of the proposed converter is compared with different PWM techniques.

K. Aroul, S. Umashankar, K. R. Prabhu, P. Sanjeevikumar

### Robust Multi-thresholding in Noisy Grayscale Images Using Otsu’s Function and Harmony Search Optimization Algorithm

Multilevel segmentation in images clusters pixels depends on the total thresholds and intensity values. To find optimal thresholds and to maximize the objective function, entails a lot of computational power and memory. In this work gray-level segmentation is proposed by Otsu-based Harmonic Search Optimization Algorithm (HSOA) algorithm to resolve such drawbacks . The HS algorithm is employed to explore the optimum values of threshold by Otsu’s maximization objective function. Its effectiveness based on HS technique has been applied on 5 standard images with a size of 512 × 512. The images are associated with Gaussian (GN) and Salt-and-Pepper (SAP) noise. The measureable examination is performed with the parameters of between-class variance (Objective Function) value and quality measures, such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR). The experimental procedure is employed with MATLAB software. Experimental outcomes of Otsu-based harmony search offers an optimal solution to multilevel thresholding problem for the GN and SAP noise applied images with improved objective function and faster convergence.

K. Suresh, U. Sakthi

### An Approach for Visual Cryptography Scheme on Color Images

Visual cryptography, a popular and simple technique uses the characteristics of human vision to decrypt encrypted images. It requires no computation for decryption from the user end. This paper emphasizes on basic cryptographic scheme proposed by Naor and Shamir with changed shares. Here, we focus on different shares with different combination of CMY color scheme to check whether proper encryption has taken place. Different combinations of shares were employed and the contrast reduction for decrypted images was 50% for some of the combinations which were also achieved earlier. Most of these studies, however, concentrated on binary images but very few on grayscale and color images. In this paper, a technique is presented to apply the visual cryptography scheme on colored images.

Chinmoy Kar, Suman Kalyan Kar, Sreeparna Banerjee

### A Novel Hybrid Approach for Influence Maximization in Online Social Networks Based on Node Neighborhoods

Online social networks have nowadays become a buzzword for millions of users, who spend a lot of time online to remain in touch with other users by interacting online with them or to know about such other users’ likings and views about a movie, product, place, and so on. Thus, there is a considerable amount of information being spread among such online users which help in maximizing influence for a particular product, movie, holiday destination, etc. But, the main question remains as to how to identify the top few best influential users so as to help in promotion of any such a product or movie. This paper discusses about influence maximization in online social networks and also studies efficient techniques for the same. Considering time complexity as the prime factor for influence maximization techniques, this paper also aims to propose a new algorithm DegGreedy which yields a much faster output than the two basic standard influence maximization algorithms.

Gypsy Nandi, Uzzal Sharma, Anjan Das

### Diagnosis of Ground Glass Opacity in HRCT Lung Images Using High-Intensity Pixels

According to the World Health Organization survey done in 2008, approximately 9.5 million people were affected by lung diseases worldwide. Some of the major lung diseases are asthma, chronic cough, asbestosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiextaris, cystic fibrosis, influenza, lung cancer, pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension, sarcodoisis, sleep apnea. It is observed that approximately 40,000 people die from lung diseases every year. Diagnosis and treatment of the disease at right time play a crucial role in survival rate and ensure the quality of life to the affected person. Ground glass opacity refers to the blurred area of increased attenuation in the lung with visible vascular and bronchial markings. The lungs affected by diseases like pulmonary edema, pneumocystis, hypersensitive pneumonitis, carinii pneumonia, desquamative pneumonitis have the visibility of ground glass structures. This paper proposes a method to identify ground glass opacity in HRCT lung images by calculating the number of high-intensity pixels present in the lung image of interest. A computer-aided method of identifying the ground glass opacification is proposed based on the number of high-intensity pixels present. This method is tested on a set of 10 normal and ground glass opacity affected lung images. The results obtained show that the proposed method has an accuracy of 90%.

Punal M. Arabi, Nanditha Krishna, T. P. Prathibha, N. Vamsha Deepa

### Coefficient Random Permutation Based Compressed Sensing for Medical Image Compression

Compression of medical data remains challenging because of the loss in clarity of compressed images. In medical field, it is necessary to have high image quality in region of interest. This paper presents a Compressed Sensing (CS) method for the compression of medical images. Coefficient random permutation (CRP) based CS is used in this paper for compression of medical images. The different image block has different sparsity. If the nearby pixel values in a block have stronger correlation, then they are strongly sparse, otherwise they are said to be weakly sparse. The main objective of using this method is to provide high quality compressed images thereby maintaining a balanced sparsity of the reconstructed images. As a result performance gain would be high. Experimental results show that CRP based CS helps achieving better PSNR values even with lesser number of measurement values.

R. Monika, S. Dhanalakshmi, S. Sreejith

### A Flexible Scheme to Fault Detection for Electrical Assets Using Infrared Thermography

This paper approaches an infrared thermography methodology that can help to find fault and diagnosis for the electrical equipment. It uses noncontact and nondestructive technology. This technique is fast and reliable for inspecting the system without any interruption. In the field of electrical area maintenance, reliability of transmission and distribution system is one of the most critical issues and it suffers from some problems like loose connection, corrosion, and unbalanced loads. In this paper noninvasive methods are used to monitor the temperature of electrical assets and analysis of the hot region, and it used the watershed transform for the image segmentation and color-based segmentation which separates the red, green, blue area of the image. Dark red hot region areas are detected and the maximum temperature is 194 °C and the reference temperature is 40.8 °C of fuse cabinet. The proposed method is to detect the hotness and hot region of the electrical assets for fault detection.

Deepak Kumar, Amit Kumar, M. A. Ansari

### Design of Double Fork Shaped Patch Radiator for Ultra Wide Band Applications

A double fork shaped patch radiator is suggested for ultra wide band (UWB) applications. The patch antenna is easy to design, low-priced, and small in size. The ultra wide band characteristic covers 3.1–9.8 GHz in UWB range of 3.1–10.6 GHz is obtained by employing dual fork-shaped radiating element and a rectangular strip with truncated partial ground plane. The intended radiator is designed on FR-4 epoxy substrate fed by 50 Ω microstrip line having dimensions (42 × 24 × 1.6) mm3. The return loss, S11 ≤ −10 dB covers 3.1–9.8 GHz. The radiator gives sustainable gain with closely omni directional radiation characteristics over the operating bandwidth in UWB range. The antenna characteristics such as VSWR, gain of the proposed radiator are also studied in details.

Swarnaprava Sahoo, Mihir N. Mohanty, Laxmi P. Mishra

### Subjective Analysis of Multimedia Traffic in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

Topical advances in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) have directed to the consequent generation of networks that let repossessing video, audio and data from the corporal surroundings called Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) will facilitate novel claims such as multimedia observation sensor networks, environmental and structural screening, etc. Most of these applications entail means to bring multimedia content with not only an echelon of Quality of Service (QoS) but also Quality of Experience (QoE) metrices like, PSNR, SSIM, MOS, etc. Provisioning ample throughput, crouch delay and stumpy packet trouncing rate, while deeming network lifetime are the main QoS prerequisites of multimedia data transmission over WMSN. These setbacks impose us to exploit multipath routing that can afford soaring end-to-end bandwidth while providing high resiliency against the channel and clogging error for video transmission in WMSNs. To sustain a reliable QoE, Hexanode Realtime Power aware Routing protocol (RPAR) with cross layering has been proposed and hole bypassing also been introduced and tested by means of sending multimedia data like, audio, video and data signals and proved to be better while compared with the performance over Pre emptive AODV (PAODV) and Pre emptive DSR (PDSR) protocols.

A. Sivagami, S. Malarkkan

### Performance Analysis of Collinear Beam-Steering Array Antenna

In the proposed design, a collinear beam-steering array antenna is designed and analyzed. The proposed antenna has used corporate feeding to have improved characteristics of array antenna. A single band at 2.45 GHz is observed for single element antenna whereas multiband response is obtained in case of 1 × 4 array antenna. The antenna gain of 3.94 and 6.53 dB are obtained for single element and array antenna, respectively. Further beam-steering characteristics is observed and analyzed with variation in phase of feeding signal in case of proposed collinear array antenna. The compact size and beam-steering features make the antenna suitable for intelligent wireless communication.

Shuchismita Pani, Arun Kumar, Malay Ranjan Tripathy

### E-Mail Spam Filtering: A Review of Techniques and Trends

We present an inclusive review of recent and successful content-based e-mail spam filtering techniques. Our focus is mainly on machine learning-based spam filters and variants inspired from them. We report on relevant ideas, techniques, taxonomy, major efforts, and the state-of-the-art in the field. The initial interpretation of the prior work examines the basics of e-mail spam filtering and feature engineering. We conclude by studying techniques, evaluation benchmarks, and explore the promising offshoots of latest developments and suggest lines of future investigations.

Alexy Bhowmick, Shyamanta M. Hazarika

### Stealthy Attacks in MANET to Detect and Counter Measure by Ant Colony Optimization

MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network) is the active wireless network which can produce communication less connections in which every node can perform as a router. Every node in the MANET is responsible for dynamically creating other nodes for communication. Protection is an important examine for the wireless and wired network communications in MANET. The achievement of MANET (mobile ad hoc networks) strappingly depends upon people’s assurance in its sanctuary. Though, uniqueness of MANET poses both opportunity and challenges in the accomplishment of security purpose, like authentication, privacy, access, availability, integrity, non-repudiation, and control. The malicious node presence is being a major challenge in MANET for designing the vigorous security solution which can defend the MANET from different routing attacks. We have categorized the existing security services and security threats in this mobile ad hoc network paper. The proposed approach gives a better solution in the achievement of present security threats in MANET. Based on monitoring system a guard node is recommended in this paper through which every activity occurred inside the network can be constantly monitored. If there is any abnormal action of Stealthy attack occurred inside the network then the Guard node collects and forwards the abnormal information toward the source node. In this guard node an algorithm based on Ant Colony optimization is deployed to recognize the threats which are present in the MANET’s network. This proposed system detects the stealthy attack and also resists the attackers from the network. Therefore, this approach makes the enhancement in the network packet delivery and its performance ratio, etc.

Abhishek Ranjan, Rajalakshmi Selvaraj, Venu Madhav Kuthadi, Tshilidzi Marwala

### Inset Fed Circular Microstrip Antenna with Defected Ground

In this paper, a novel design of defected ground circular patch antenna using glass epoxy materials has been presented. The substrate of the intended antenna was prepared of glass epoxy, whereas patch and ground plane are made out of copper. Enhancement in the geometry is done by increasing the electrical length and volume without growing the size of the patch antenna. The simulations were accomplished using Computer Simulation Technology software and the association of measured and simulated results of anticipated antenna has been studied. Experimental and simulated outcome are in outstanding conformity.

Nikhil Kumar Singh, Niraj Sharma, Zakir Ali, Vinod Kumar Singh, Akash Kumar Bhoi

### Analysis of Thermal Comfort and Visual Comfort—A Soft Computing Approach

The entry of daylight into the interiors depends on the orientation of windows, size of the windows, time of the day, as well as weather conditions. The position of the blinds also adds to the above factors to allow day light inside. The illuminance inside a room varies throughout the day depending on the above factors. The introduction of daylight inside the room also aids to increase in temperature inside the room, which hinders the thermal comfort of the user inside the room. Thermal comfort can be achieved by installing Air Conditioner (AC) inside the room. But due to the excessive heat inside, the energy consumption increases to maintain the thermal comfort. This paper deals with the various measures taken to reduce the energy consumption. These values are then fed into a fuzzy logic controller to get the optimum result.

Sandhyalaxmi G. Navada, Chandrashekara S. Adiga, Savitha G. Kini

### Spoken Dialog System in Bodo Language for Agro Services

In this work, a cost effective spoken dialog system and a dialog manager is developed for accessing information like price, weather, and fertilizer agricultural commodity in Bodo language. For the development of SR models, we have collected data from different dialect regions of BTC area, Assam using mobile phone where native language is Bodo. The target speakers are mainly farmers. Our proposed system consists of bluetooth enabled mobile for communication channel, Asterisk-based IVR module, a dialog manager, and a speech recognition module. Here, we discuss our system development, call flow design and performance evaluation of the speech recognition module. Our result indicates similar performances between 16 and 32 GMMs/state. The raw performance of the developed SDS system in terms of word recognition rate (WRR) is 83.29% in training and 79.12% in testing.

Aniruddha Deka, Manoj Kumar Deka

### Random-Valued Impulse Denoising Using a Fast l 1-Minimization-Based Image Inpainting Technique

In this chapter, an image inpainting approach based on l1-norm regularization is presented for the estimation of pixels corrupted by the random-valued impulse noise. It is a two-stage reconstruction scheme. First, a reasonably accurate random-valued impulse detection scheme is applied to detect the corrupted pixels. Next, the corrupted pixels are treated as missing pixels and replaced by using an image inpainting technique. The inpainting method is based on the fast iterative shrinkage thresholding algorithm (FISTA). The proposed method is fast and experimental results show that it is robust to non-Gaussian and nonadditive degradations like the random-valued impulse noise. It also outperforms similar random-valued impulse denoising schemes in terms of computational complexity while preserving the image quality.

Mayuri Kalita, Bhabesh Deka

### Comparative Analysis of DFT–DCT-Spreading Strategies-Based SC-FDMA

The most upcoming technology for uplink transmission is Single-carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) for LTE standard than OFDMA. The most preferable benefit of SC-FDMA is its slight Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) for multiuser communication without affecting BER. The subcarrier mapping techniques are utilized for transmissions that are Distributed SC-FDMA and Localized SC-FDMA. The distributed mode of FDMA which is equidistant over entire bandwidth is Interleaved FDMA. In this paper, the PAPR and BER for both IFDMA and LFDMA also carried out for SC-FDMA versus OFDMA simulated and analyzed for different shift keying techniques.

G B S R Naidu, V. Malleswara Rao

### A Review on Spread Spectrum Radar

Radar is used for diverse applications, and there is an enormous progression in the development of different new technologies based on its uses. It is ever growing and evolving. An overview of some of the technologies used in Radar such as spread spectrum, digital beamforming and phased array technology, and also Pulse Doppler Radar and Single Channel Spread Spectrum Digital Beamforming Radar are discussed in this paper.

Nima Donka Tamang, Samarendra Nath Sur, Soumyasree Bera, Rabindranath Bera

### An Empirical Analysis of Three Moments on Sattriya Dance Single-Hand Gestures Dataset

The single-hand gestures of Indian classical dance are termed as ‘Asamyukta Hastas,’ which is a combination of two Sanskrit words, asamyukta meaning ‘single’ and hastas meaning ‘hand gestures’. There are eight officially recognized classical dance forms in India. This paper focuses on the 29 single-hand gestures of Sattriya dance which is one of the Indian classical dance forms. It presents an analysis on recognition of single-hand gestures of Sattriya dance form images using different classifiers such as k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), naive Bayes, Bayesian network, decision tree, and Support Vector Machine (SVM). In this work, we have used Hu’s seven invariant moments, Zernike moments, and Legendre moments up to tenth order each. In this analysis, it indicates that Legendre moments show a better performance compared to other moments for all variation of dataset, and could achieve an accuracy of 96.03%.

Mampi Devi, Sarat Saharia

### Implementation of Doppler Radar at 24 GHz

Doppler radar has applications in many fields. It can be used in weather forecasting. It can also be used to check speeding violations of vehicles and in air traffic control radar to detect incoming and outcoming aircrafts. Astronomers use it to discover new planets and stars. This effect is analyzed using transforms like Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT), and Wigner–Ville Distribution (WVD). WVD has been preferred more for its high resolution. In software, low Doppler will be detected while in hardware due to limitations, low Doppler will not be detected. In this report, the methods of extraction and mitigation of Doppler are explained with viable algorithms and results.

Manisha Das, Tarini Singh, Soumyasree Bera

### Efficient Use of Location of Unlicensed Users in Improving the Utilization of Licensed Spectrum

The success of the CR systems which are based on energy detection-based scheme depends primarily on the selection of threshold $$(\lambda )$$(λ). This $$\lambda$$λ is selected either by using the CDR principle in which the probability of detection $$P_{\text{d}}$$Pd is kept constant or by using the CFAR principle in which the probability of false alarm $$P_{\text{fa}}$$Pfa is kept constant. The approach used in this paper is based on the power received from primary transmitter. To properly utilize the licensed spectrum, schemes used are namely: CDR under opportunistic spectrum access scheme (OSA) and spectrum sharing with sensing scheme. Compared to the approach where the CDR principle is used blindly the throughput under the proposed approach experiences a significant gain.

G. Verma, O. P. Sahu

### Parking Places Discovery and Reservation Using Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

In today’s digital era, to discover a parking places in urban city is a very challenging task due to rapid increases in the number of vehicles. In this situation, Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) can help a vehicle to communicate with each other and with road infrastructure. This paper mainly focuses on the on-board unit (OBU)–road side unit (RSU) communication in VANETs. In this paper, we proposed an approach for parking places discovery and reservation for the parking in an urban city. Also, we have implemented a small part of our proposed approach using Network Simulators-2 and present the performance of different routing protocols such as AODV, DSDV, and DSR based on different parameters. Here, we used IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol for simulation results.

Alak Roy, Jayati Paul, Ratnadeep Baidya, Mampi Devi

### Design of 5.8 GHz Rectenna for Space-Based Solar Power

In this work, a simple and inexpensive microstrip rectenna is designed and tested. The rectenna circuit consists of microstrip patch antenna array resonate at 5.8 GHz and Rectifier Schottky diodes. An HSMS-8202 diode has been investigated for the antenna and rectifier circuit impedance matching and rectification efficiency. Further Dickson charge pump voltage multiplier has employed in the rectifier circuit to increase output voltage for small microwave input power condition. The charge pump methodology with different stages is tested and analyzed performance wise.

Deepak Kumar, Kalpana Chaudhary

### Dynamic 2-D Pattern-Based Passive Communication in Swarm Agents

In a swarm of autonomous agents, agent to agent communication plays a vital role. A sustained communication over a large deployment area always contributes handsomely to the power budget. Indirect or passive communication methods can be a way out, where an agent does not directly communicate with another agent, but they do so by changing one’s own appearance in some way. In the proposed framework, a robot will display its status or any important information in a 2-D barcode like, binary pattern, using low power led-based displays. Adjacent/neighbor robots with their onboard camera will capture the displayed pattern and decode it to know about the information. We have implemented and tested it for readability over different ranges and lighting conditions. The framework is found to work efficiently within a small to medium sized neighborhood (3–4 ft.).

V. Navya Deepthi, Chayan Banerjee, Shubhra Saxena

### Cloud-Based Cognitive Premise Security System Using IBM Watson and IBM Internet of Things (IoT)

This paper is a humble effort to demonstrate how we can capitalize on democratized artificial intelligence, commoditized internet of things, and convert our regular consumable hardware into a cost-efficient cognitive premise security system. Today, most of the commercial organizations either choose human security guards or deploy costly biometric systems to enable premise security. This approach is a stepping stone to replace such costly hardware with a convenient, reliable, scalable, and smart alternative that is built using IBM Watson and IBM internet of things.

Shubhradeep Nandi

### A MATLAB-Based Simulator for Amorphous Silicon and Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Transistor

High-performance active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display is driven by a matrix of thin film transistors (TFTs) as a back plane technology. Nowadays, the majority of large area AMOLED display uses a-Si:H TFT and Poly-Si TFT to control the driving current in each and every pixels of AMOLED display. AMATLAB-based simulator for a-Si:H and poly-Si based thin film transistor (TFT)is proposed to address the pixel of AMOLED display. The purpose to design the simulator is to provide a ready reference of the output parameters of conventional (mentioned above) TFTs for the optimization of fabrication processes. This simulator is able to explain transfer characteristics, output characteristics and field effect mobility for both the TFTs.

Suman Das, Subham Datta, Somenath Chatterjee

### Relay Node Selection Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for Secondary Transmission in Multi-user Cooperative Cognitive Radio Systems

In this paper, we have proposed a very new relay selection scheme based on the decision-making technique of analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Unlike many existing works where signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) is considered as the only parameter for relay selection, here the underlying decision criterion considers SINR at secondary destination (SD) as well as reliability and relative link quality (RLQ) of the relay node from destination.

Jyoti Sekhar Banerjee, Arpita Chakraborty, Abir Chattopadhyay

### Mutual Information-Based Hierarchical Band Selection Approach for Hyperspectral Images

Hyperspectral images consist of hundreds of spectral bands with relatively narrow bandwidth and hence records detailed information of the objects. Due to this detailed and enormous amount of information content, the use of hyperspectral images has become very popular in various fields such as land cover monitoring, agriculture, defense, etc. However, this increased spectral dimension results in increased computational complexity. Hence, the selection of minimal subset of spectral bands to represent the actual information effectively without much degradation is a challenge in the field of hyperspectral image analysis. This paper proposes a hierarchical band selection approach by constructing a spectral partition tree-based on mutual information. Initially, each spectral band has been considered as a leaf node. To minimize the redundancy of information carried by neighboring bands, in every level, new nodes are created by merging adjacent bands or group of bands, for which mutual information has been used as the deciding criterion. Finally from each group of bands, a representative band is selected which jointly form the set of selected bands. Experiment is carried out on the AVIRIS Indian Pines dataset by designing training and testing samples containing only the selected set of bands. The experimental results of the proposed method are found to be very promising and competitive with the existing techniques.

Sonia Sarmah, Sanjib Kumar Kalita

### Petri Net: Design and Analysis of Parallel Task Scheduling Algorithm

In real time, most of the tasks are deadline based. The deadline-based task has different parameters: arrival time, start time, execution time, and deadline. Many performance-based task scheduling algorithms are proposed by number of researchers theoretically. But due to change of implement environment, the performance varies. Petri net is a graphical and mathematical model to evaluate and analysis of the system. In Petri net, conflicts are occurred during firing. In this paper, we designed and modeled the Petri net for scheduling deadline-based task by resolving the conflicts. We also proposed a scheduling mechanism and firing rules to schedule deadline-based tasks. The designed model increases the resource utilization of a physical system in cloud computing. The performance of the proposed model is analyzed using the PIPE v4.3.0. We analyzed the reach ability graph, convertibility graph, and steady-state analysis of the model.

Sasmita Parida, Suvendu Chandan Nayak, Piyush Priyadarshi, Prasant Kumar Pattnaik, Gaurav Ray

### Opportunistic Selection of Threshold Using Double Threshold in Cognitive Radio Networks

In cognitive radio selecting, the value of threshold is one of the important and challenging works. This selection is done mainly using two principles. First principle is constant detection rate (CDR), in which probability of detection is taken as constant. Second principle is constant false alarm rate (CFAR), in which probability of false alarm rate is taken as constant. From these two principles, CDR is preferable to give sufficient protection of licensed users. Here double threshold technique, in which two threshold levels are present, is used. Interference is more when signal-to-noise ratio is less. Implementation of double threshold method, according to the farness of secondary transmitter from primary receiver gives some better results to reduce that problem. In this paper, we proposed an approach by taking the distance of secondary transmitter from primary receiver as a parameter, double threshold and single threshold along with CDR principle.

G Soumya, G Verma

### X-Band Patch Array Antenna

The following contains a detailed study as well as design of the hybrid patch array antennas and their application in transmission of signals unaltered. The different dimensions of design including substrate material, width, distance between two patch and other elements have been done through various theoretical analysis and techniques. Practical approach for triangular patches according to the distribution of current is summarized below. The mathematical calculation related to the array is emphasized and critical factors are also considered while determining the development of this antenna.

Nitya Nirmal, Ayushi Agarwal, Arun Kumar Singh, Rabindranath Bera, Bansibadan Maji

### A Compact Pentagonal Textile Microstrip Antenna for Wide Band Application

In this article, a compact-slotted pentagonal-shaped patch antenna for multiband applications with improved bandwidth is presented. The presented antenna is designed on a textile substrate with dielectric constant of 4.4. The compact size of antenna is 50 × 50 × 1 mm. This presented antenna has been simulated using CST tool. The presented antenna resonates at frequency 4 GHz with the reflection coefficient of −31.84. It covers a bandwidth of 6.45 GHz extending from 2.85 to 9.30 GHz. It has maximum directivity of 2.932 dBi.

Rachana Kushwaha, Vinod Kumar Singh, Nikhil Kumar Singh, Anurag Saxena, Deepak Sharma

### Similarity Measurement of Gene Using Arc Tan Function in Gene Ontology

The Gene Ontology (GO) is a technique that measures second-hand the semantic relationship of genes using an exponential and arc tan-based technique. The proposed work develops an enhanced shortest path-based measure using GO semantic relationship. The existing work presented an undeviating corridor based on an amalgam appraise of ontological match. Using GO graph and in sequence pleased are factors that improve the effectiveness of transfer functions of semantic connection of gene ontology. The semantic technique evaluates weighted paths for GO similarity measure. Other similarity measures use the shortest path in their calculation but require the specificity of a concept in hybrid measure performance of correlated genes.

K. Vengatesan, S. B. Mahajan, P. Sanjeevikumar, R. M. Kulkarni, Sana Moin
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### Globales Erdungssystem in urbanen Kabelnetzen

Bedingt durch die Altersstruktur vieler Kabelverteilnetze mit der damit verbundenen verminderten Isolationsfestigkeit oder durch fortschreitenden Kabelausbau ist es immer häufiger erforderlich, anstelle der Resonanz-Sternpunktserdung alternative Konzepte für die Sternpunktsbehandlung umzusetzen. Die damit verbundenen Fehlerortungskonzepte bzw. die Erhöhung der Restströme im Erdschlussfall führen jedoch aufgrund der hohen Fehlerströme zu neuen Anforderungen an die Erdungs- und Fehlerstromrückleitungs-Systeme. Lesen Sie hier über die Auswirkung von leitfähigen Strukturen auf die Stromaufteilung sowie die Potentialverhältnisse in urbanen Kabelnetzen bei stromstarken Erdschlüssen. Jetzt gratis downloaden!

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