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## Über dieses Buch

This book presents best selected papers presented at the International Conference on Advances in Energy Technology (ICAET 2020) organized by Gandhi Institute for Education and Technology (GIET), Bhubaneswar, India, during 17–18 January 2020. The proceeding targets the current research works that may lead to sustainable development of new products and techniques. Carefully reviewed works from the submission are selected to include in the book. It is broadly having four divisions based on the tracks – energy systems, energy technology, green technology, and renewal energy. Emphasis is mainly given on inclusion of original research works within the scope.

## Inhaltsverzeichnis

### Chapter 1. Demonstration and Simulation of Brushless Direct Current Motor

Abstract
In this paper, the Brushless Direct Current Motor (BLDC) is simulated with the help of the software MATLAB using some basic theories and its practical features and its performance is analyzed. This helps simulate the corresponding model for the BLDC with ease. The output of BLDC motor performance which was obtained in MATLAB can be analyzed for different input parameters, critically in the MATLAB. The precision and practicality of the model can be known by analyzing the output results obtained from simulation with actual BLDC model. The construction of the BLDC Motor is briefly discussed.
Prakriti Mohanty, Debani Prasad Mishra, Anshuman Behera, Swati Swarupa Das

### Chapter 2. Speed Control of DC Servomotor Using Chopper-Based PI Controller

Abstract
In industry, the most commonly used control strategy is PID. The effectiveness of PI controller is increased by tuning of it (Ziegler-Nicholas Method). Using PID and Ziegler-Nichols controllers, speed control of industrial applications is not controlled in suggested manner. Fuzzy controller is enhanced than Ziegler-Nichols controller but rise time is high. In this research, DC servomotor speed control is governed by chopper-based PI controller that monitors time-domain variables like as rise time, settling time, peak amplitude, over shoot, and oscillations. Simulation results of speed control of DC servomotor using PI, Ziegler-Nicholas controller, fuzzy controller, chopper-based PI controller are demonstrated.

### Chapter 3. Application of PID Controller-Based Automatic Generation Control for Interconnected Power System with Governor Dead-Band Non-linearity Using MOL Algorithm

Abstract
In this paper, MOL algorithm is used in two-area non-reheat thermal power system in the presence of governor dead-band with PID controller is considered. For design and analysis of the purposed system, at first ISE and ISTE two objective functions are considered than 3rd type of objective function which is the modified form by using ISE, ISTE, IAE, ITAE and summation of power deviation and the settling times of frequency. For obtaining the dynamic performance of AGC, PID controller parameters are tuning by applying MOL technique. Then, superiority of MOL techniques is verified by comparing the published result in CPSO-based design of the purposed system. The transient analysis performance of MOL-based PI controller is superior than CPSO-based PI Controller.
M. D. Pabitra, Sangram Keshori Mohapatra, Asini Baliarsingh, Radhakrishna Das

### Chapter 4. Power Quality Enhancement in Smart Grid Power Systems Using Buck Converter

Abstract
Smart grids are the most efficient selection for the distribution of electrical energy in a bidirectional way. The buck converter is one of the most essential parts of the smart grid system as it regulates the power from the renewable sources and because of its fast dynamic response, compactness, and high efficiency. But the open-loop controlling technique of buck converter causes instability in the system. The use of output voltage for the feedback purpose and proportional integral (PI) controller for enhancement of stability increases the demand of single loop buck converter. However, such techniques do not perform satisfactorily under load disruption and fault conditions; thereby, causing transients in the output. Here, we are proposing a technique in which the current loop is cascaded with the voltage loop to minimize the transients in the output, to improve the power quality. The mathematical model for the proposed technique is tested on MATLAB–Simulink platform and the simulation results so obtained justify that the output of the proposed cascaded loop control of the buck converter results in lesser transients along with lesser settling period and peak overshoot in the output waveform as compared to the conventional single loop control of buck converter.
Akash K. Pati, Arunjyoti Priyadarshini, Atma P. Sethy, Prativa Muduli, Prateek Kr. Sahoo, P. K. Satpathy

### Chapter 5. Challenges Toward Blockchain and Renewable Energy Linked to IoT: A Survey

Abstract
The Internet of things in general linked and focused with artificial intelligence, real-time analytics, machine learning, and sensors along with cloud storage. It may be associated with creating new thoughts and prospects along with its merits for businesses in current and new market. In the networked structure of IoT, the blockchain may be associated to monitor the relevant records linked with smart devices. As a matter of fact, the blockchain may be defined as the technology to chain as well as link scalability, privacy, and reliability concerns associated with things in virtual platforms. In practical situation, the applications linked to Internet of things in blockchain being decentralized may be more useful and may eradicate the associated complexities. Also, it may be more faithful toward centralized, brokered communication models with the challenges to secure IoT deployments. Being associated with the cloud architecture, sometimes, it may be very sensitive during storage of large amount of data in the cloud. Considering the blockchain applications in IoT, it may be observed that the automobile industries mostly may be associated with blockchain as it may be considered as a part-intensive industry. The centralized supply chain and trust-based distribution may be the recent innovation to achieve new technologies and may be automatically updated to maintain the records. In this context, it may also be associated with multi-layered and may involve toward device authentication and verification of transactions. As being observed, the storage associated with blockchain may be quite expensive and the amounts of IoT data sometimes may be increased continuously. As it is seen the incremental changes of energy systems to accumulate renewability, the flexibilities in such case must be maintained toward regeneration as well as storage allocation in energy systems. In many situations, the transformational changes are being observed linked to distributed energy sources with smart applications. Therefore, in this work, it has been thought of to include inter-serviced managed system to generalize the solution which is also treated as distributed peer-to-peer file system employed to manage file systems with heterogeneity.
Suman Sourav Prasad, Jyoti Prakash Mishra, Sambit Kumar Mishra, Samarjeet Borah

### Chapter 6. Concept of Virtualization Linked to Energy Storage and Green Computing: A Case Study

Abstract
In broad sense, the concept of virtualization is termed as platform consisting of numerous of virtualized and interconnected systems. In such case, the system hardware in large scale with strong Internet connectivity is linked to virtual machine-based servers with adequate operating systems and deployment of relevant software. In many cases, the platform as a service is having a provision to execute the application in the environment with suitable programming-level platforms. Accordingly, the database in virtual platform is interlinked with the communication network initiating the nodal activities. In this case, each node is termed as single database with individual local database management system. The database management system in this case controls the creation, maintenance, and use of a database. Also it gives permission to conveniently develop databases for other numerous applications. Citing the concept of virtual databases, it may be noted that Windows Azure, Amazon EC2, etc., typically run in virtual platform. Manytimes, it has been observed that the organizations become data-centric and continuously produce large amounts of data along with other commercial information. In such case, the mechanism data stored in the database requires to be managed in proper way. In many cases, the diversities are observed linked to energy systems. So, during accumulation, it is essential to maintain the sequence of storage allocation in energy systems. The concept of green computing links to utilization of resources including computer peripherals in the eco-friendly environment and proper disposal of computing devices. Also implementation of green data centers gives positive support toward designing, coding, and yielding proper utilization of power with minimal consumption of energy. In this work, it is aimed to analyze the mechanisms as well as efficiency of cloud databases in virtual machines and examining feasible solutions. Also it is aimed to exploit the knowledge of database management systems along with mechanisms of virtual storage system to enhance the deployment of databases in the cloud.
Zdzislaw Polkowski, Sambit Kumar Mishra

### Chapter 7. Detection and Classification of Fault in Distributed Generation System Using Neuro-Fuzzy Technique

Abstract
The inclusion of distributed generation in usual distribution system has several advantages and technical harms. This inclusion has been done for fulfillment of several challenges such as fast growing population, world’s growing economy, improvement of life’s quality, and sustainability of resources. However, with this, several harms have also been seen which are yet to be solved and one such harm is fault detection in distributed generation (DG) system. The existing protecting equipment and fault detecting techniques cannot perform the same as in usual distribution system. This paper deals with a DG system consisting of two wind farms connected to a regular distribution network which is simulated using MATLAB for data collection and on the basis of the data of current and voltage samples various features are extracted. The features are trained and tested using the Neuro-Fuzzy classifier which identifies the type of fault during testing with a error very close to zero having RMSE of 0.031.
Saurabh Singh, Kishora Sasamal, Santi Behera

### Chapter 8. Comparison of Neural Network Models for Weather Forecasting

Abstract
Weather forecasting has a big impact on people’s lives from event planning to cultivation. Conventionally, it has been performed by simulating physical conditions of the atmosphere. Due to nonlinear and irregular kind of weather data, machine learning methodologies can be seen as an alternative of the physical model for forecasting weather. This paper traverses the potential of deep neural networks in the field of weather prediction. It compares the performance of two different neural network models. First model uses the feed- forward network while other uses recurrent neural network to feed the weather data. The models illustrate that neural network models are emulative with the conventional methods and can be perused as a better alternative to predict general meteorological conditions.

### Chapter 9. Differentiating Storage Essentiality in Thermoelectric and Non-thermoelectric Integrated Conventional Microgrid

Abstract
The inflation of clean, efficient, sustainable, effective, secure, and reliable electricity demand has been triggered much interest for Microgrid (MG) at a miraculous and quickened pace. The necessity of reliability enhancement, diversity of fuel, cutback of greenhouse gases, severe weather fluctuation, etc. has stimulated the inclusion of MG concept not only in utility level but also in customer and community level. Incorporation of solar photovoltaic (SPV) and thermoelectric (TE), termed as Solar photovoltaic-thermoelectric (SPV-TE) hybrid system is found to be a very promising technique to broadening the utilization of solar spectrum and enhancing the power output effectively-cum-efficiently. This hybrid architecture caters electrical energy with additional thermal energy that signifies upon harnessing of solar insolation in an exceptional way. But in order to retain the voltage profile in the permissible level, MG needs storage mechanism for smoothening of renewable-based power inconstancy, catering significantly high active power and dodging the long-term reactive power rising. This paper illustrates the comparative analysis of two systems such as Conventional MG; TE coupled Conventional MG defining the necessity of employment of energy storage system (ESS). The superiority of proposed system has been outlined in terms of lesser complexity in source integration, mitigating the detriment of WES and FCT integration in real-life application, delivery of higher active power and lesser reactive power absorbance over the other system. The studied system is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink environment and the results are presented to support, verify, and validate the analysis.
Sasmita Jena, Shalini Patro, Subham Subhrajeet Barik, Sanjeeb Kumar Kar

### Chapter 10. A Concept Note on Aqueous Type Graphite Dual-ion Battery: A Promising Low-Cost Electrical Energy Storage Technology

Abstract
Electrical energy storage technologies are an integral part of renewable energy generation infrastructure. The rechargeable battery is a unique example of portable storage technologies. Among various rechargeable batteries, dual-ion batteries are catching the attention recently. Herein, we present a proof-of-concept of a novel and eco-friendly dual-ion battery with electrochemically processed graphite electrodes in aqueous electrolyte. We also take the advantage of the three electrons transfer process of Al3+ ion while operating the battery. The battery shows excellent cycling stability over 100 cycles with specific capacity of 10 mAhg−1. The notable part of the work is that it proposes to use exceptionally low-cost and easily available raw materials.
Sunny Nandi, Arnab Dutta, Shyamal K. Das

### Chapter 11. Tar Generation in Open-Top and Closed-Top Downdraft Gasifiers

Abstract
Biomass gasification converts solid fuel to combustible gases along with tar. Tar removal is the major practical challenge for use of gaseous fuel produced in the gasification process in any applications. Gasifier types, operating conditions, and fuel properties have an important role for tar generation. Tar generation is estimated for two types of downdraft gasifiers. The tar concentration decreases with the increase of air mass fluxes in case of an open-top downdraft gasifier. In the case of closed-top gasifiers, tar concentration decreases with the increase of biomass consumption rate. The study observed that higher bed temperature increases the thermal cracking of the pyrolysis products and resulted in lower tar concentration in the output gas. Two-stage air supplies in case of open-top downdraft gasifier resulted in lower tar generation.

### Chapter 12. Morphology of the Alumina Nanoparticles for the Arrangement of the KF Stacked Nano–γ–Al2O3 as Catalyst for Conversion of Biomass to Fuel

Abstract
A feasibility investigation, transformation of industrial use micro-alumina (Al2O3) of 70 µm size to nano-alumina of 23 nm size was carried out by ball milling for 120 h. Top-down approach for ball milling is adopted for the conversion to nano from micro. Result shows that the average size of one micron is found for every sample. This is may be expected to be agglomeration or coating layer of some foreign material. To eradicate the coating, the process of leaching was adopted, and observed that it is reduced to nm size. Also, during the transesterification process, Mahua biodiesel production from Mahua vegetable oil using heterogeneous catalyst was adopted. The biodiesel obtained by using heterogeneous base catalyst was compared with homogeneous KOH catalyst and the result is about equivalent.
Nabnit Panigrahi, Ayusman Nayak, Sruti Ranjan Mishra

### Chapter 13. Effect of Fuel Properties on Reaction Front in an Open-Top Downdraft Gasifier

Abstract
The effect of biomass physical properties, i.e., particle size, particle density, and moisture content on propagation rate at various air mass fluxes is studied. The biomass fuel samples used in the study are Bamboo (Bambusoideae) and Krishnachura (Delonix regia). The increase in moisture content decreases the reaction front propagation because the endothermicity of bed increases and peak bed temperature decreases. The peak front propagation rate for Bamboo and Krishnachura is 0.14 mm/s and 0.24 mm/s, respectively. The front propagation rate decreases as the particle size increases for the same operating conditions. The larger particle size leads to incomplete pyrolysis and thus, affects the front propagation and gasification performance. Particle density has an inverse relationship with flame propagation. The result of this study provides an understanding on the effect of biomass physical properties on the front propagation rate.

### Chapter 14. Power Extraction from Several Interconnecting Solar PV Networks for an Electrically Integrated TEG System Under Weather Fluctuation

Abstract
With the extensive demand for energy harvesting systems from various renewable resources, researches have been carried out in several areas among which thermoelectric generator (TEG)-based system is an emerging one. In this paper, eight solar PV modules are interconnected in numerous fashions in order to investigate the behavior of the hybrid system. The transiency of the solar PV modules inside the network has been examined under healthy irradiance and sectional irradiance. Rise in solar concentration tends to decrease the solar PV module efficiency, and this curse to solar PV becomes the boon to the TEG giving rise to higher power output at the terminals. Incorporation of solar photovoltaic (SPV) and thermoelectric (TE), termed as Solar photovoltaic-thermoelectric (SPV-TE) hybrid system is found be a very promising technique to broadening the utilization of solar spectrum and enhancing the power output effectively-cum-efficiently. This hybrid architecture caters electrical energy with additional thermal energy that signifies upon harnessing of solar insolation in an exceptional way.
Sasmita Jena, Sambit Tripathy, Keshav Krishna, Sanjeeb Kumar Kar

### Chapter 15. Economic Evaluation of a Solar Photovoltaic-Generator System-A Case Study

Abstract
Renewable energy is the best alternative to supply electricity in off-grid remote areas and in areas with frequent power cut. A study was conducted to find the feasibility of a solar photovoltaic-generator system for meeting the electrical need of the ground floor of E-block in ITER, SOA (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar, India (20° 29′ N Latitude, 85° 82′ E Longitude). The economics of this solar photovoltaic-generator system was analysed by a software tool HOMER. It was found that 100 kW solar photovoltaic system in combination with a 20 kW generator is the optimum one for the load demand. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of the system was seen as $0.471/kWh with a net present cost (NPC) of$664,685 with 20% capacity shortage.
Sonali Goel, Renu Sharma

### Chapter 16. Partial Shading Effect on the Performance of Electric Vehicle-Integrated Solar PV System

Abstract
Solar PV system-based electric vehicles are manufactured to reduce harmful emission from the environment that uses PV as the major source of energy. In general, the PV modules are installed at the roof of vehicles that convert the energy from the sun to charge the integrated battery while running and parking modes. Also, for smooth charging of the battery, maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) are installed that maintain the required voltage to charge the battery. However, shading causes a serious problem by affecting the performance of the system by creating numerous peaks in the power curves resulting in the low power output and false tracking by the MPPT algorithms. This paper focuses on the study of shading impact on the electric vehicle roof-integrated PV module power generation. The entire study is conducted in the simulation environment using different shading conditions. It has been found that occurrence of shading results in severe power loss and voltage reduction, hence affecting the charging of the connected battery.
Priya Ranjan Satpathy, Ali Mahmoud, Suraj Kumar Panigarhi, Renu Sharma

### Chapter 17. Site-Specific Design Optimization of Wind Turbines at Low Wind Speed Sites of North-East India

Abstract
The utilization of the wind energy at a location primarily depends on the wind speed and right kind of machine installed at the site. The selection of machine for a site needs to be in such a way, so that maximum amount of energy can be effectively harnessed from the available wind spectrum. Wind speeds in the North-Eastern region of India are relatively low, highly fluctuating in directions, and localized in nature. The low wind speed creates difficulty to provide high starting torque to larger capacity machines with relatively higher rated wind speed. Thus, the region could be favorable to smaller machines having low cut-in and low rated wind speed. The present work aims to analyze the feasibility of installation of low capacity wind machines by estimating the capacity factors and annual energy generation at selected sites of the region. The low capacity machines can be used as an off-grid energy system to provide electricity access in the remote locations of the region.
Sanzida Tasmin Ali, Pallabi Borah, Sadhan Mahapatra

### Chapter 18. Optimization of Multi-Parabolic Profile Flat-Plate Solar Collector for Space-Heating Application

Abstract
In the recent decades, the demand for energy in India is growing at a very high rate such that the conventional energy sources are not sufficient to meet the demand. However, renewable energy have also been harnessed to some extent. In this work, an efficient multi-parabolic flat-plate solar collector is optimized for maximum efficiency. This collector simple is in construction and 39% more collector surface area as that of a flat-plate collector of 8 m2. Solar collector is designed and optimized for 1.5 ton heat capacity of GSHP system during winter season for Roorkee, India, climatic condition. Theoritical analysis has been carried out for optimizing the design and performance parameters. Eight parameters at mixed levels have been considered using L18 (21, 37) orthogonal array in the Taguchi method, and the results indicate that 52.34% of maximum collector efficiency has been achieved with 6.8 m2 of minimum collector area.
Vikas Verma

### Chapter 19. Energy Performance Assessment of Gas-Based Thermal Power Plants

Abstract
Thermal power plants are energy-intensive industry, where energy auditing is required to identify the areas for energy performance improvement. The present study evaluates the energy performance assessment of a combined cycle and an open cycle gas-based thermal power plant. Assam Gas Based Power Plant, Assam, is a combined cycle power plant, and Agartala Gas Thermal Power Plant, Tripura, is an open cycle power plant which are considered for this study. The natural gas consumption, station heat rate, calorific value of fuel, energy generation, auxiliary power consumption, etc., are assessed. The energy performance of various systems and subsystems like gas turbine compressor, gas turbine, waste heat recovery boiler, steam turbine, steam condenser, cooling tower, and auxiliaries are estimated. The key finding related to various energy conservation opportunities available in the various systems are presented in this study.
Deepjyoti Barman, Samar Jyoti Hazarika, Sadhan Mahapatra

### Chapter 20. Sensitive Load Management in Captive Power Plant—Aluminium Smelter

Abstract
Production of aluminium involves two major stages: refining of bauxite to alumina and smelting of alumina to aluminium. Smelting is a highly energy intensive and sensitive process. Any disruption in power supply to the electrolytic cells leads to stoppage of pot-line operation and damages the cells. Hence, the most important life support system for an aluminium smelter is the continuous supply of reliable power to its’ potline. Therefore, are liable power supply system is highly essential to ensure the continuous power supply from both the internal or external sources. So making a balance system among necessary power requirement in smelter and power generation in captive power plant and available capacity in power grid (as external sources) is a challengeable task. Hence, always a robust power network is made available, which operates in a very reliable manner to manage continuous power supply to a mega-aluminium smelter.
J. K. Mohanty, M. K. Panda, M. Das, P. R. Dash, P. K. Pradhan

### Chapter 21. Optimal Resource Allocation to Improve Energy Efficiency of Cognitive Radio-Based Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Under Imperfect Sensing

Abstract
The evolution of wireless communication from fourth generation (4G) to fifth generation (5G) is envisioning massive growth in application of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) based on cognitive radio (CR) technology. In this VANET, fast and efficient spectrum sensing techniques are required to co-exist with heterogenous network. Most of the current applications are done with assuming perfect carrier sensing, but in actual practice, channel sensing is imperfect. We have investigated the performance under imperfect sensing, so as to exactly analyse the key concern of co-existence, i.e. the average/peak transmission power constraints of secondary user (SU) and average interference power constraints of primary user (PU). However, to alleviate these concerns, we need to have optimum resource allocation, to improve the capacity and energy efficiency of this VANET. To solve the resource allocation and power distribution problem, we have investigated two popular cooperative relay transmission schemes such as Decode-and-Forward (DF) and Amplify-and-Forward (AF). Moreover, we have analytically derived the required transmission rates for both AF and DF schemes. In addition to this, we have also develop the new optimal resource allocation strategies for the CR based co-operative relay protocol to improve the capacity and energy efficiency (EE) of the VANET. The MATLAB simulation results are incorporated to validate the correctness of the analysis.
Subrat Kumar Sethi, Arunanshu Mahapatro, Nabanita Mishra

### Chapter 22. Investigate, Analyze, and Design of Real-Time Problems in the Domain of Power Electronics and Energy Using MATLAB: Review and Application

Abstract
Making a different way of the archetype from classroom teaching to practical-type application-oriented work has been successfully implemented in this research article. This paper aims to reduce the gap between theoretical learning and practical implementation of student in a large prospective. A number of practical oriented real-time problem in the field of power electronics and electrical machines have been simulated in the MATLAB-SIMULINK platform, and the most appropriate outcome has been analyzed in detail. This article also puts light on the development.
Bandan Kumar Panigrahi, Ranjan Kumar Jena

### Chapter 23. Combined Frequency and Voltage Control of a Multi-area Renewable-Based Interrelated Power Structure

Abstract
This article investigates combined automatic load frequency control (ALFC) and automatic voltage regulator (AVR) in an interrelated area multi-power source with the integration of thermal, solar thermal plant (SHP), and small hydro plant (SHP). Requisite physical nonlinearities of an actual running plant are reflected in plants taken under consideration. A maiden effort has been made to integrate the multistage controller in combined frequency and voltage regulation. An operative optimization procedure titled as Jaya algorithm has engaged for tuning of controller parameters. A step load of 1% is applied to the system to simulate a real time environment. Various controllers such as Two-Degree-of-Freedom-Proportional-Integral-Derivative (TDOFPID) controller and PID controller with filter (nPID) have been incorporated in the system to verify the system response with that of the multistage controller. The dynamic interaction of the optimization algorithm with the proposed controller arrangement demonstrates noteworthy enhancement on the response over TDOPID and nPID controller.
Subhranshu Sekhar Pati, Saroj Kumar Mishra, Anshuman Panda

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