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This book provides readers with a timely snapshot of ergonomics research and methods applied to design, development, prototyping, as well as evaluation, training and manufacturing of products, systems and services. It includes theoretical contributions, case studies, and reports on technical interventions. The book covers a wide range of topics in ergonomic design, such as ecological design, educational and game design, cultural and ethical aspects in design, user research and human-computer-interaction in design, as well as design for accessibility and extreme environments, and many others. The book gives special emphasis to new technologies such as virtual reality, state-of-the-art methodologies in information design, and human-computer interfaces. Based on the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Ergonomics in Design, held on July 27-31, 2016, in Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA, this book represents a timely guide for both researcher and design practitioners, including industrial designers, human-computer interaction and user experience researchers, production engineers and applied psychologists.



Virtual Reality Challenges for the Future of Design


Virtual Reality Technology Applied in the Building Design Process: Considerations on Human Factors and Cognitive Processes

This paper discusses the most relevant human factors and cognitive aspects associated to the use of three-dimensional virtual reality models within the conceptual design phase in the construction industry. It contributes to the knowledge on the designer’s cognitive functioning throughout the creative thinking and decision-making in design, as well as in what extent VR technology helps in these cognitive processes, pointing out relevant aspects that must be considered in the development of new VR-based tools for conceptual design. At the end, this study presents a concise knowledge on the meaning, impacts and effectiveness of VR technology for the Building Construction domain. The mechanism of human cognition involved in the building design process and the role of VR technology in this context are presented and final considerations are made.

Daniel Paes, Javier Irizarry

Rapid Integration and Evaluation of Functional HMI Components in a Virtual Reality Aircraft Cockpit

This research presents a Virtual Reality Flight Simulator (VRFS) for the rapid integration and evaluation of Human Machine Interface (HMI) prototypes in a functional aircraft cockpit environment. In contrast to engineering mock-ups or full flight simulators, the digital cockpit mock-up of the VRFS presented here has a major advantage—it can be adapted without time- and cost-intensive hardware conversions, which is ideal, particularly in the early stages of the design process. The virtual cockpit is also connected to a flight simulation. This means that not only ergonomic but also cognitive aspects of new HMI components can be evaluated. This leads to the main objective of the VRFS: Demonstrating novel systems alongside existing cockpit components while using realistic operational scenarios. Thus, the subject’s feedback does not only include comments on the HMI but also on its functional interaction with the cockpit ecosystem. This paper shows the technical setup of the VRFS and demonstrates the integration and evaluation of an HMI component in a use case.

Matthias Oberhauser, Daniel Dreyer, Thomas Convard, Sebastien Mamessier

Virtual Reality to Study Job Interview Anxiety: Evaluation of Virtual Environments

Empirical evidence has verified that anxiety is an inherent part of the interview process, and in today’s stressful work environment it also has the potential of interfering with the ultimate goal of the interview: to recruit the most suitable person for the job and organizational fit. The objective of this study was to validate three virtual environments: (i) a business waiting room; (ii) an office with the presence of plants and a window view of nature (nature-like surroundings); and (iii) an office without nature elements. Hence, this study aims to validate the experimental and neutral virtual environments that will be used for further studies. A between-subject design was considered, and 66 university students participated voluntarily. Results evidenced the waiting room received unanimous and neutral ratings among conditions. The office with nature-like surroundings was more positively rated comparatively to the office without such surroundings.

Tânia Borges, Elisângela Vilar, Paulo Noriega, Sara Ramos, Francisco Rebelo

Development of a Virtual Environment for Safety Warnings Behavior Compliance Evaluation

The effectiveness of safety warnings is measured by user’s behavior compliance. Although compliance is an important component in determining the success of a warning, its study becomes difficult to be developed in a real situation, due to methodological, financial and ethical issues. Virtual Reality (VR) can be a solution to these limitations. VR has the advantage of offering realistic experiences that even the person not being physically present in the environment feels like being there. However, for this to happen, it is necessary to develop 3D environments and narratives involving participants as if they were real situations. Since the construction of realistic 3D environment and consistent narratives a challenge for researchers, this study aims to develop and evaluate a 3D environment with a narrative to safety warnings effectiveness studies. The first part (development of virtual environment/narrative) was done through meetings with the multidisciplinary team Ergonomics Laboratory. The aim was to define requirements for the narrative and the virtual environment design features. The second part (evaluation of the prototype), through pilot tests, results will be discussed.

Ana Almeida, Francisco Rebelo, Paulo Noriega

Child-Persona: What I Think to What They Are

Personas are representations of archetypal users aimed at guiding developers during the designing process. Because users—especially children—cannot be easily accessed, Personas have the potential to gather information regarding characteristics of a wide variety of people. Knowing user’s abilities and needs is very important for making decisions about the fun conceptual system and the concepts that players should learn. This study presents the steps in the creation of Child Personas (CP) that will be used for designing a political educational game for Brazilian students. The data collection technique used was a questionnaire applied to 674 students aged 9–15 living in different regions in Brazil. To analyze the data collected by survey we ran the Two Step Cluster Analysis that has automatically determined three different clusters. Based on it we have created three child-personas by giving them, name, age, grade, family configuration, school, hobbies, activities, and a narrative to contextualize their lives.

Ana Claudia da Costa, Francisco Rebelo, Júlia Teles

Web Press Carousel and His Effects Over News Memorization

The use of carousel system in the websites is becoming a trend among the world’s main web press publishers. Effects of two carousel variables over memorization of news were studied: Number of news in the carousel (7 or 14); Interaction mode with the carousel (Automatic or Manual scroll). 60 participants were divided into four groups of 15 elements each: 7 news into an automatic scroll; 14 news into an automatic scroll; 7 news into a manual scroll; 14 news into a manual scroll. Memorization was evaluated through evocation of news, by an open-response questionnaire after a carousels’ exhibition. An interaction effect was observed. With 7 news, evocation was higher in the automatic carousel and slightly worst in the manual. With 14 news, evocation was worst in automatic carousel and slightly best in manual. Concerning the memorization of news, decisions about the carousel type to use, are not independent of the number of news.

Paulo Noriega, Tiago Pinto, João Assunção, Filipa Lourenço, Cristina Ungureanu, Eduardo Ribeiro

Usability and User Experience in Design


Using Video Game Patterns to Raise the Intrinsic Motivation to Conduct Accessibility Evaluations

Even though many national and international guidelines exist to support the development of accessible web applications and to provide guidance, a high number of web applications are still inaccessible. For a large number of web authors, it is hard to imagine how persons with disabilities would interact with their web applications. Therefore, people with disabilities often end up not being considered part of a products’ target audience, and accessibility testing is experienced as an additional burden or skipped entirely. In this paper, we present an approach that augments an accessibility evaluation process with video game patterns to raise intrinsic motivation to conduct accessibility tests. This paper describes work in progress and illustrates how video game patterns can be pragmatically transferred and implemented in a non-game environment.

Alexander Henka, Andreas Stiegler, Gottfried Zimmermann

Criteria Based Approach to Assess the User Experience of Driving Information Proactive System: Integration of Guidelines, Heuristic Mapping and Case Study

In the case of driving informational systems, techniques can be used to improve user experience in an automotive context, especially regarding proactive systems. Heuristic inspection techniques are classical methods to assess interfaces aspects and identify problematic components for human computer interactions. This paper deals with the problem of the integration of four sets of criteria which are (1) Accessibility (Perceptibility, Temporal Adaptation, Simplicity, Comprehensibility, Robustness); (2) Practicality (Guidance, Workload, Explicit Control, Adaptability, Error management, Consistency, Significance of codes, Compatibility); (3) Emotionality (Degree of control, Challenge, Degree of Independence, Fantasy, Trust, Sensorial interest, Cognitive interest, Effort, Satisfaction), and (4) Persuasiveness (Credibility, Privacy, Personalization, Attractiveness, Solicitation, Priming, Commitment, Ascendency). It shows that criteria are complementary between each other to identify main ergonomic problems but it also highlights the need to consider further aspects for heuristic inspection of a driving information proactive system.

Mathilde Duczman, Eric Brangier, Aurélie Thévenin

Analysis of the Effect of Varying Trash Receptacle Distance to the Littering Behavior of Metro Manila Bus Commuters

Seventy five percent of Filipino commuters use public transportation such as Public Utility Buses (PUBs). Trash receptacles are frequently placed in areas of transit facilities perceived to have the largest number of passersby. Thus, placement of receptacles does not consider convenient distances to its target users and may not elicit the optimal trash disposal behavior. This study aims to analyze the effect of varying trash receptacle distance to the littering behavior of Filipino bus commuters. Survey with 100 respondents determined three distances that commuters claim are inconvenient in properly disposing their trash. With this, observations were conducted in a bus terminal along Epifanio Delos Santos Avenue, the busiest highway in Metro Manila. The number of commuters who disposed trash properly and who littered were counted for three determined receptacle distance. Statistical analyses showed the dependence of littering behavior on trash receptacle distance and strong correlation between trash receptacle distance and littering behavior.

Jan Alessa J. Balane, Karina O. Felizardo, Ma. Christina Beatrice F. Lopez-Tan

Using Digital Thermography to Analyse the Product User’s Affective Experience of a Product

Although there are usability techniques that evaluate the user experience through the process of design and evaluation of consumer products, not always the researcher has the knowledge if the experience reported by the user at time of search matches fully with the actual experience felt by user. This study conducted a usability evaluation of a sample of users during manual handling of soda PET packaging by comparing the user-reported experience and the actual experience felt measured through usability analysis techniques and thermography. Thermography aimed to capture images from the volunteers radiated heat body parts to associate them with any emotional excitement while handling the product. Also proved that thermography has proven to be effective to measure users’ satisfaction (felt experience) in handling consumer products.

Rafaela Q. Barros, Marcelo M. Soares, Márcio A. Maçal, Ademário S. Tavares, Jaqueline A. N. Oliveira, José R. R. Silva, Aline S. O. Neves, Robson Oliveira, Geraldo O. S. N. Neto

Size Effects and Scale Effects on the Usability of Tablets in Finger Pointing and Dragging Tasks

By comparing the operation times for the prevalent touch-input methods of 5 different display sizes in 4 applied tasks, this study examined the size effects and its interactions with movement scale effects in tablet PCs with the target sizes (W) and distance (A) proportionally increased (with a constant index of difficulty). Overall, task types (complexity) and the display sizes had significant effects and interactions. The 7″ display tasks underperformed the 9″–11″ displays (significantly in almost all the tasks except marginally significantly in the complex pointing tasks when compared to the 9″ and 10″ displays) and the 8″ display (significantly in the dragging tasks). Nevertheless, the increased distances and widths only result in non-significantly decreased operating times for increased display sizes from 8″ to 11″ in almost all the tasks. The motor scale effects seem to attenuate the size effects more profoundly in complex task types than in simple ones.

Chih-Chun Lai, Lung-Wen Kuo

Embedding Smart Materials into Products to Motivate the User: Flexers, a Smarter Approach to Finger Splinting

Embedded intelligence is radically changing the way designers conceptualize and develop technological artifacts. The use of smart materials to design products are uncovering new ways to interact with users so as to engage, entertain and inform them, coding new languages of communication. This study investigates how Smart Materials could support the monitoring of the user’s health condition in rehabilitation situations through an embedded input/output system, and how the occurring feedback could be perceived as unobtrusive, easy to understand and motivating. In this study, Flexers, an interactive finger splint is presented which includes adaptive and sensitive materials as a vehicle to achieve an intuitive interaction that promisingly shapes the occurring product experience with renewed engagement of the user. The results suggest that the use of smart materials combined with light based feedback could be used as a motivating tool for engaging the user in the rehabilitation activity.

Marco Ajovalasit, Massimo Micocci, Rob Adam

Human Factors in Design and Management


Human-Automation Manufacturing Industry System: Current Trends and Practice

The paper deals with the problems of introduction of modern automated solutions in a big industrial company located in the Wielkopolska region in Poland. It shows the inevitable role of human factor in such systems and the effects when no enough attention is being focused on the design, installation, maintenance and other functions which are mainly done by the humans. In such systems there should be done a reasonable division of operational tasks between an operator and machine.

Beata Mrugalska, Magdalena Wyrwicka, Barbara Zasada

Burnout Syndrome and Musculoskeletal Complaints in Mexican Middle School Teachers in Ciudad Juarez

Teachers face highly demanding situations every day. Their jobs are physically and cognitive challenging diminishing their health. The objective of this paper is to determine the level of burnout syndrome (BS) in Mexican middle school teachers and find the association of BS dimensions with musculoskeletal complaints. As methods, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Bodymap were administered to 168 middle school teachers. Spearman correlation index was applied. Results show that educators suffer from a medium level of BS on the three dimensions. Emotional exhaustion is correlated with pain in the eyes, neck, wrists, shoulders, ankles, the whole arm, the lower leg, and the back. Depersonalization is correlated with complaints in the left shoulder, the left hand, and the knees. Finally, lack of professional efficacy is associated with pain in both arms, hands, wrists, ankles, and the lower back. It is concluded that preventive actions must be taken to avoid serious burnout consequences in vulnerable professions.

Aidé-Aracely Maldonado-Macías, Jorge García-Alcaraz, Carolina Corchado-Nevarez, Juan Luis Hernández-Arellano, Yolanda Baez-Lopez

The OHS Management in a Development of Small Enterprises (For Example of Welding Factory)

In order to grow efficiently and sustainably, an enterprise needs to apply solutions which will allow it to improve all areas critical for its overall performance. One such growth-critical area is safety management which, if pursued appropriately, will help a business create a proper working environment based on innovative solutions and ultimately achieve an active market presence. No organization will survive on the market without realizing the need to embrace changes which will boost its ability to act. The change needs to be adopted systemically by relying on enhanced capabilities to satisfy customers and by perceiving workers as internal clients. This is particularly crucial for small enterprises, which tend to consider skilled employees as their sole resource. This article discusses risk assessment as a way to boost an organization’s performance. Such assessment is viewed as part of systemic management. The necessity of risks assessment to both arises from the provisions system and is indicated on basis of a tiered way to improve of organizations functioning (Górny in Proceedings of Occupational Safety and Hygiene (SHO 2015). Portuguese Society of Occupational Safety and Hygiene (SPOSHO), Guimarães, [1]; Vlek and Stallen in Acta Psychol 45:273–300, [2]). A case of a welding factory has been selected to demonstrate how an organization’s performance can be improved by employing solutions suited for a small business and by relying on risk assessment.

Adam Górny

Comparative Study on User and Manufacturer Perception of Ergonomics Requirement on Sofa Design in Malaysia

Development of ergonomic sofa design is a design process includes the basic framework specification, type of material, consideration of sofa features and sofa production methods that is applied on the sofa design. One of the methods that can be used in developing most appropriate design is by applying the process of upgrading existing sofa furniture through structural development that are based on user and manufacturer perception. Therefore, the goal of the paper is to develop a conceptual design for ergonomic sofa based on the user and manufacturer perception. To achieve this goal, a survey involving 30 respondents of sofa makers and sofa consumers was conducted to obtain feedback regarding the conceptual design of ergonomic sofa. The questionnaire survey had emphasize on the concept of sofa, general features of sofa, basic materials of sofa, basic color scheme and price range based on consumer perception and also focused on the basic specifications and material dimensions of sofa materials used. The results of data analysis show that the size of basic dimensions and materials is essential in designing an ergonomic sofa and user preferences have been identified. The survey is very important to find out the basic specifications in the development of ergonomic design through perception of sofa maker and consumers. The future stage of the research will focus on the incorporation of anthropometric data in order to address the innovative criterion of the development.

Ahmad Hafizi Abdul Nasir, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Khairul Azhar Mat Daud, Suriatini Ismail, Nik Zulkarnaen Khidzir, Darliana Mohamad

Using Temporal Representations for Understanding Complex Interrelationships for Mission Planning

The ability to analyze, recognize, and plan for operational events—i.e., patterns of change over time—is a critical component of effective situation assessment within the military. Military planners use time when faced with creating, comparing, and deciding on complex planning and re-planning decisions. One way to intuitively convey changes in time based information to planners is with the use of temporal representations, particularly timeline visualizations. Timeline visualizations have been a very popular method in the past because of their ability to provide a clear representation of the causes and effects that occur throughout mission increments which supports planners with re-planning for new events. In this paper, we discuss our unique design concept with using multiple timeline visualizations as a way to support military planners with understanding the complex interrelationships that occur when predicting the timing and availability of mission resources as well as analyzing the effects to unforeseen events. We also discuss future design directions that will incorporate user feedback to improve the system’s usability and better visualize these interrelationships between planned actions.

Jennifer Danczyk, Stephanie Kane, Drew Housten, Martin Voshell, Ryan M. Kilgore, Chris Hogan

Systemic Assessment of Human-Factor-Based Security Impact

The paper deals with the use of a multicriteria approach based on a BOCR (Bonus Opportunity Cost Risk) analysis and the satisficing game theory to allocate a task to an operator from the contextual knowledge of its environment and the risk that may arise with respect to industrial safety. An application is given related to the allocation of tasks in the field of aeronautics maintenance by considering both performance an human factor impact on security.

François Pérès, Carmen Martin, Vicente Gonzalez-Prida

The Relationship Between Vitamin D Deficiency Predisposition Among Healthy Young Individuals: A Few Considerations for Human Wellbeing and Overall System Performance

Quality of life in the workplace considering workers’ health is a defining factor allowing companies to remain competitive while their workers remain productive. However, in order to attain this goal, companies also need to consider a variable that is still not so much taken into account during job design, work organization, or even in the way their built structures are conceived. In this paper this variable translates into vitamin D, since it can prevent musculoskeletal disorders, and thus contribute to health maintenance. The method is comprised of bibliographic and exploratory research embodying a questionnaire based on empirical, scientific, and sociotechnical aspects. As for the main result, this study exposes a gap in terms of research and recommends investigation in different areas in order to contribute to the improvement of human wellbeing and overall system performance.

Rosimeire Sedrez Bitencourt, Ester Farias de Souza, Carlos Alberto da Rosa

Ergonomic Design for Industry and Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD’s)


Redesign of Work-Accessories Towards Minimizing Awkward Posture and Reduction of Work Cycle Elements in an Indian Shop-Floor Workstation

Indian plastic processing industry comprises of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). Manual labor and locally designed workplace fixtures are observed in shop-floor workstations. Aim of present research was to identify incidence of musculoskeletal ailments and awkward working postures among workers in the granulator workstation and propose design modifications from physical ergonomics perspective. Combination of research techniques comprising of questionnaire study, postural assessment tools, statistical analysis, digital human modeling and method study were utilized to accomplish the stated objective. Significant occurrence of body part discomfort was observed. Workstation accessories designs were not in accordance with recommended guidelines. Workstation design and work methods were found incompatible with worker’s anthropometry and thus led to the prevalence of awkward working postures. Redesign of workstation accessories and subsequent modification of work methods, enabled improvement of working postures and reduction of work elements. Research methodology demonstrated in present study may be adopted by engineers/managers/supervisors in MSMEs towards implementing context specific human centric production systems.

J. Sanjog, Rajiv Lochan Baruah, Thaneswer Patel, Sougata Karmakar

Ergonomical Study of Workplace Using the Technique of Path Process Chart

The design of any workplace should be such that it enables the worker to perform the work with efficiency and with minimum of strain on his health and safety. The information for such a design can be generated only after an in-depth study has been conducted of the way the particular work is being performed by a worker at a given workplace. Once such an information is available, it can be used to design a more suitable workplace where the work can be performed with greater ease and higher productivity. The present study used the technique of Path Process Chart to study the work of meal preparation as was being performed by 50 homemakers in their kitchens. The Path Process Chart made it possible to study, both the work and the way the workplaces were being used by one or two workers, all at the same time.

Poonam Magu, Kumud Khanna, Premavathy Seetharaman

Cooperation University and Industry, a Challenge or a Reality: An Example in an Aircraft Maintenance Company

This paper discusses a strategy to integrate ergonomics in aircraft maintenance industry. The program is a systemic and integrated project that involves: training for the workers; ergonomics analysis and intervention and research. The objective is to develop basic competences in ergonomics among team leaders, improve the working conditions and increase the production efficiency and effectiveness. In this particular industry, poor working conditions can influence the workers performance and lead to Human errors that can be responsible for aircraft problems later. After a two-year intervention program, the main results showed: a high level of motivation among the workers; the involvement of the workers in the development of solutions to improve the working conditions; and the involvement of the company and the university in long-term research projects. A discussion about the opportunities and difficulties in the collaboration between University and industries is also presented.

Francisco Rebelo, Paulo Noriega, Teresa Cotrim, Rui B. Melo

Postural Education: Correlation Between Postural Habits and Musculoskeletal Pain in School Age Children

The best way to avoid poor postural habits, is to teach children good postural behaviors for performing their everyday life activities (Verderi in Programa de educação postural, 2011 [1]). Despite the existence of specific programs, intended for children’s self-body consciousness improvement, Physical Education curricula lack this type of exercises (Braccialli and Vilarta in Revista paulista de Educação Física 14: 159–171, 2000 [2]; Costa and Freire in Estudo dos exercícios físicos voltados para correções das alterações posturais, 2004 [3]; Ramos and Rodrigues in, 2013 [4]). Attended by 220 students, with ages between 10 and 15 years old, this study applied a technique (Corlett and Bishop in Ergonomics 19:175–182, 1976 [5]) for assessing postural discomfort, and an informal questionnaire (Carmo et al. in Metodologia da Investigação – Guia da Auto-aprendizagem, 1998 [6]; Rebolho in da educação postural nas mudanças de hábitos em escolares da 1ª a 4ª séries do ensino fundamental, 2005 [7]), to fully understand pain and postural discomfort felt by Portuguese school age children. Results showed: a significant direct correlation between the time, and the perceived intensity of pain felt, for chronicle and acute pain; regarding postural habits, 88.5 % of subjects presented some kind of inadequate postures, perceiving significantly higher pain. Major findings, allow us to raise the awareness for postural education programs introduction in Physical Education curricula, since they could influence children’s physical health.

Gustavo Desouzart, Ernesto Filgueiras, Rui Matos, Ricardo Dagge

Design and Evaluation of an Arm Support for Prevention of MSDs in Dentists

Based on the previous study among the dentists in India; neck, shoulder and back are at high risk of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs). The same study suggests that, providing an arm support does have direct effect on reduction of pain in high risk areas. The purpose of this study is to design an arm support (extension) to fulfill this need. Various geometries of dental chairs have been considered to make sure it is compatible with most of the unit chairs. A 3D CAD model has been created using CATIA. This model is fabricated with a plastic 3D printer. Model has been created in such a way to get attached to the head rest of dental units. Dentists with high risk of MSDs were shortlisted from previous study. This population is used for evaluation of device. RULA ergonomic assessment is calculated to support the observation.

Shaygan Hallaj, Sareh Sadat Moosavi Razi

Participatory Ergonomics Management in a Textile Thread Plant in Brazil Employing Total Quality Management (TQM) Tools

Although this paper introduces a study on the implementation of a Participatory Ergonomics Management system using TQM (Total Quality Management) tools, aimed at adapting work stations, the workplace and work conditions in order to comply with Brazilian Labor Legislation. The management system implemented is based on the concepts and principles of Participatory Ergonomics, in which the system users are, namely, the company employees at varying hierarchical levels. As part of this system, all social actors involved take part in operational decisions and implement the ergonomic adaptations in production processes, workstations and in the organization of work, in a democratic and participatory manner. The paper presents the methodology for implementing the management system, from the dissemination of Ergonomic expertise among all those involved (internal company team), to the control of the implementation process with gauging of results for each ergonomic action, based on Ergonomic Regulatory Standard NR-17, part of Brazilian Labor Legislation and mandatory for all companies. Note that the Participatory Ergonomics Management system in question is implemented in a large textile thread plant in Brazil and was initiated in April 2012. It continue to run presently (March 2016) and has been frequently audited. Results are significantly positive in all production sectors due to employee health benefits and the optimization of production processes. It has earned three internal company awards, two in the production unit and one international award from the company’s business units in Latin America.

Carlos Maurício Duque dos Santos, Rosangela Ferreira Santos, Andréa Ferreira Santos, Mariana de Castro Moreira Rosa

Can the Context Stigmatize the Assistive Technology? A Preliminary Study Using Virtual Environments

Some studies report that aesthetics of Assistive Technologies (AT) as well as the emotional reactions that occurs when it is observed and used have great impact on stigmatization. In this scope, and based on the fact that the context influences the User Experience (UX) with AT, we are interested in investigate if the context influences the stigmatization of an AT, in particular a traditional wheelchair. It was developed a questionnaire with semantic variables related to aesthetic and emotional reactions, used by 46 university students when interact with two virtual environments with a wheelchair: a garden environment with people and other with the wheelchair only. We did not identify statistically significant differences between the two contexts for emotional and aesthetics variables. This preliminary study points the need to develop more studies related with the influence of the participant population, the characteristics of context and the need to have a narrative to avoid different interpretations of the situation.

Luciana Carneiro, Tiago Oliveira, Paulo Noriega, Francisco Rebelo

The Physical Elements Affecting Student’s Concentration in Libraries

This study aims to investigate the impact of physical elements in a library’s interior design on the concentration of students using the library for their work. The research question is as follows: which physical factors have, from their perspective, an impact on the concentration of students using the library for work? Also, this study compares the importance of the effect of the physical factors on the concentration of different users and activity profiles. There were 24 participants from 3 different Universities located in Guishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan answering the questionnaires and interview questions. Results showed that there were 11 factors rated as the most important factors affecting concentration ability namely: “Cleanliness”; “Aesthetic appearance”; “Noise level”; “Air movement”; “Amount of light”; “Air quality”; “Amount of space”; “Accessibility to facilities”; “Visual comfort”; “Crowdedness”; “Temperature”; and “Comfort of furnishing”.

Thao-Hien Dang, Wenzhi Chen

Ergonomics in Clothing and Footwear Design


Effects of Different Body Postures on Anthropometric Measures

The shape and size of the human body is affected by the posture adopted in order to perform various activities. The human body is constantly changing and adapting to the movements executed in everyday life. As such, knowledge about the body changes that occur with the adoption of different postures is essential. Besides the obvious adverse health effects caused by spending long periods of time in certain postures, the adopted posture may influence people’s interaction even with the simplest items such as clothing. For all these reasons, being able to determine the anthropometric changes related to different work postures is very important to occupational ergonomics. The main objective of this paper is to identify and quantify the body changes that occur with each of the postures adopted.

Sara Bragança, Pedro Arezes, Miguel Carvalho, Susan Ashdown

A Research on Ergonomic Approaches of Apparel Designers

In today’s market environment where customer needs and wants change constantly, only designing products with technical excellence is not enough for the success of the firm. Ergonomic characteristics to meet the expectations of the customers like physical, psychological and affective comfort started to stand out in all kinds of products. In this regard, in terms of apparel ergonomics, it is important that apparel designers who are active in apparel production have ergonomic point of view. In this study in where it is aimed to evaluate ergonomic approaches of designers during the apparel designing process; assessment means which was prepared by researchers was applied to 135 designers who work in ready made garment industry in 2015 and operate in Istanbul, Bursa, Ankara and Corum cities. By analyzing the obtained data statistically, designers’ ergonomic approaches toward apparel design were evaluated and some suggestions were offered.

Emine Koca, Özlem Kaya

Costume Study on Spondylopathy Nursing Type Vest Based on Functional Costume Studies of Human Body Engineering

High risk groups for spinal cord injuries and more enormous, spine care functional clothing in this area, however, has not been effectively developed. In view of this situation, the author puts forward the hypothesis that making a kind of sleeping vest that used at night to repair spinal diseases. For this vest, the author will collect data of spinal changes that caused by spinal disease and conduct the questionnaire survey on the spine health status of the young people who are 20–30 years old. According to the data and results of questionnaire survey, based on the requirements of human engineering, combined with the structure of the spine, design a type of vest that fits to the human body. During people’s sleep process, spine disease is relieved through wearing and using the vest. And the health of the spine is restored. Besides, this study not only enriches the theoretical system but promotes discipline intersection.

Xiaoping Hu, Zhang Xiao

Exploring the Impact of Lifestyle on Fashion Consumption Behaviour for Older Chinese Women

Due to changing lifestyles in the ageing society in China, consumption behavior for older people tends to be varied rather than traditional, especially in the fashion industry. This research provides a qualitative insight into older women’s (between 55 and 70 years old) lifestyle, and their attitude towards fashion-related consumption in China. Regarding specific cultural background, generation, value conception and social environment, both generally and individually, fashion consumption behaviors are explored, with changes on dressing preference summarized. The results demonstrate several factors about lifestyle, which can be used to segment the ageing fashion market, and target potential consumers in the future.

Minzhi Zhang, Sonja Andrew, Gary Warnaby, Simeon Gill

Clothing Custom Design: Qualitative and Anthropometric Data Collection of a Person with Multiple Sclerosis

Clothes available in the majority of fashion stores are not designed to meet the needs of people with severe physical disabilities. Some companies offer either the service of clothes customization or inclusive clothes to that public. This research was conducted through a case study of a patient with multiple sclerosis to collect qualitative and anthropometric requirements. The data analysis made possible to adapt a pajama to this patient. The study provides evidences on the need for changes in the patterns dimension, so that the user can wear it ergonomically; in the fabric selection to provide thermal comfort to the user; and in the trims selection to confer autonomy in the process of getting dressed.

Bruna Brogin, Dalila Campigotto Weiss, Sandra Marchi, Maria Lucia Ribeiro Okimoto, Sabrina Talita de Oliveira

User Research in Design


The Form, Senses and Dynamics: A Literature Review on the Philosophical and Technical Coherency for the Development of the Floor-Sitting Furniture Design

This paper presents the literature review of the philosophical and technical coherency on the postural behavior for the development of the floor-sitting furniture design. The review encompasses the discussion of space-form, human senses and postural dynamics, and ergonomics relationships to the subject of floor-sitting by citing significant works of scholars among the architects, psychologists and ergonomists that are related to the postural behavior subject. The elaboration of literature contents consists of existing information from cross-disciplinary studies that consequently forms the foundation to the acceleration of research activities, steering for the study of sitting behavior and the development of design within the perimeters of a home environment. The explanations given provide a larger spectrum to the body of knowledge, and lead to further investigations based on the integration of cross-disciplinary studies into other cultural behavior related studies that conceivably contribute to the benefit of researchers and educators at the academia level.

Sani M. Najib, Yusoff B. Saiful

Design Evaluation of Classroom Armchairs Based on the Anthropometric Measurements of Public Elementary School Students Aged 10–12

In 2007, Department of Education in the Philippines established a standard measurement for classroom furniture. Evaluation of the current and standard classroom furniture, specifically classroom armchair for students aged 10–12 in Rizal, addressed the need to update the established standard. Percent error and the anthropometric measurement of students based on Parcells’ (1999) determinant of mismatch for classroom furniture was used to compare the standard and the current classroom measurement. No difference was present between the current and standard measurement. Comparison of the anthropometric measurement and standard measurement showed a three cm mismatch between the popliteal height and seat height as well as the buttock-popliteal and seat depth. Low frequency of students fit the standard measurement. New measurement was recommended with a seat height of 36.10 cm; seat depth of 35.60 cm; and table surface height of 53.90. Higher number of students fits in the new recommended design.

Maebelle Aralar, Lizbeth Mariano, Diana Marie De Silva, Marc Immanuel Isip, Clarissa Pesigan

An Integrated Analysis of Customer Requirements for Bicycle Leisure Activity Functional Clothing Design

The enhancement of our living quality has made people increase requirements of product functions. Bicycle-related clothing is known to play an important role for biking in comfort and safety. Most manufacturers mainly focus on the improvement of material properties of clothes instead of clothing design to meet customer requirements. This shortsighted view may not help increase the marketing competition. The objective of this research is to use an integrated procedure to determine customer requirements for bicycle leisure activity functional clothing design. In this research, a multiple regression analysis on identifying potential customers is used, and followed by the AIO lifestyle questionnaire, factor analysis and conjoint analysis to determine groups of customer preferences for bicycle leisure activity functional clothing design. The preferences of different ethnic group contents will be referenced for designers to define customer requirements and criteria in the process of bicycle leisure activity functional clothing development.

Ming-Chyuan Lin, Yi-Hsien Lin, Shuo-Fang Liu, Ming-Shi Chen

The Assessment of QFD Applying to Curling Iron of the Hair Salon

Despite the booming of the hair salon bringing a wide variety of hair design technology and tools; however, the innovative hand tools bring some problems, such as radio-ulnar clubhand due to the overuse of hands and wrong exertion, envolving occupational injury and the danger of use. The issue of occupational injury occurs with the development of every industry. At first, researches use Observational Method to understand the operational behavior and job requirements; using QFD to assess the design of the curing iron in the market is the most corresponding to the job requirements. The design of the curing iron for hair salon faces too many requirements in the market, so it produces special shapes for the hair style or for the convenience of using handles; however, these changes can’t improve the problem of customers burned and the operation of hands. In addition, The bad hand tool design can affect the force of the hands’ muscles, using for a long time will cause the tire of muscles and wrists, easily causing disease of muscles and bones, forming occupational injury further. The results of this study can reduce occupational injuries generation hair stylist hand. The results of this study can reduce the incidence of occupational injuries hairstylist hand, and provide design assessment.

Hsiu-Ching Lu, Fong-Gong Wu

Analysis and Research on the Gesture-Based Interaction of Touch-Screen Smartphones for the Elderly Based on Ergonomics

With gradual changes in the communication means of people by touch-screen phones, the elderly also need to enjoy better communication services brought by the technological development. Touch-screen phones represent the future trends of mobile handsets. As the main mode of interaction, gestures play an important role in improving the user experience of the elderly. This paper intends to research the operational effects and differences between the elderly in operating touch-screen phones with different carrying platforms. It makes full use of the principles of ergonomics to conduct comprehensive and systematic designs, so as to determine the design approach most suitable for the elderly to operate gesture-based interaction in touch-screen phones to make them feel friendly, comfortable and pleasant and produce good emotional experiences.

Yulin Zhao, Delai Men

The Study of Design of Senile Dementia Patients’ Anti-lost Clothing Based upon Ergonomics

Once diagnosed to have senile dementia elders tend to have incomplete cognitive ability and a weaken ability of everyday living. Many mental symptoms and behavioral disorder start to appear. In recent years, as the pace of life keeps on accelerating older people are left home solely or sent to the nursing home more commonly, the number of the missing sicken elders due the negligence of the caregivers has been increased. This has attracted some social media’s attention. According to a five year research, 40 % of the elder with dementia in the community was reported missing and needed a third party to help them to get home. In Taiwan, about 71 % of elders with dementia had been lost while 60 % of the caregivers claimed that the patients they look after will go missing once in a while. Limited amount of research on this phenomenon has been conducted in mainland China except for a few about the mental disorder. According to the experts in the field more than 300,000 elders are missing every year. Bedsides more caring in daily life, various kinds of device are developed to prevent the safety loophole. Considering that different staged patients have distinctive manifestations, this research focuses on the nursing environment and the clothing requirement depending on the physical condition of the patient, to explore the potentiality and application of the engineering of ergonomics. As the technology incorporates with art more and more these days, it isn’t merely just to cover and stay warm to wear cloth but also to be aesthetically successful. It is a trend to blend the ergonomic engineering with the clothing style.

Xiaoping Hu, Jiying Zhong

Evaluating Interfaces and User’s Profiles

To show the relevance of the process of User Centered Design, particularly the stages of inquiring and evaluation when involving real user is crucial to thoroughly approach them. It is important to establish consistency of interface design complexity accordingly to the user’s experience, to properly drive the design process by defining the level of development of a project. Design Process could be defined as a set of successive steps that aim at finding a solution to interface design. A set of qualitative and quantitative data could be gathered when approaching to Users taking them into account as a systemic element, which in integration with the other subsystem elements (Object, environment and Activity) allows arising information to be identified, collected and with it, feed backing the design process.

Lucila Mercado Colin, Alejandro Rodea Chavez

Analysis of Glasses Wearing Comfortability Based on 3D Head Shape Features

It is hard to find comfortable glasses for young people in China, due to the facts that Chinese glasses deign industry lacks the 3D head shape data of youngsters, and the glasses are of monosize and designed following the Europe and America styles. Considering this situation, this paper analyzes the 3D head shape based on glasses wearing comfortability (GWC). Through comparing the 3D head shape of young Cantonese in China with the worldwide average people KEMAR, it is shown that the GWC can be improved by considering some head shape features when designing glasses. Firstly, some effect factors of WC are proposed by interviewing 136 youths who have worn glasses for a long time. Then, the head areas which interact with glasses are found by analyzing glasses construction parameters. Finally, by comparing head shape features of 62 Cantonese and KEMAR, it shows that a big difference exists in the temples contour. Therefore, it is concluded that the GWC can be improved with consideration of the bend point long, the external angle and the profile shape of glasses temples based on the dimensions of the wearers.

Zhelin Li, Xiaomin Zhang, Jiaxin Zhang, Lijun Jiang, Guangzheng Yu

Developing of a System for Measuring and Evaluating the Hand Stress in Relation to the Strain Index

To assessment the hand stress of production employees, ergonomists often use the methodology for determination the job strain index. The determination of the job strain index is based on the estimation of six strain variables. An incorrect estimation of strain variables can impair the health of production employee or the company needs to improve the production process. To avoid such inaccurate estimates, is the aim of this work, a developing of a system to measure the six strain variables and to evaluate the stress of the hand objectively. The work starts with a research of sensor gloves that have already been applied for the hand. Subsequently a first system is being developed systematically and demonstrated on a process example. This enables the measurement of all strain variables. The results show that the evaluation of the process and product ergonomics is faster and more accurately.

Peter Gust, Aydin Ünlü, Max Hoppe

User’s Capabilities and Limitations Identification in Design Process

Correct identification of human capabilities and limitations is essential when designing objects, activities or environments that must facilitate the accomplishment of human needs. Expansion of human knowledge provides invaluable input to Design discipline but in practice, such tools, techniques and technologies are quite distant from being directly applicable by the design practitioner, requiring multiple specialists (physiologists, psychologists, anthropologists and others) to translate the findings into useful information for design process. Design process is been permanently modified not only because required objects are each time more intricate or specific, but because the way of gathering necessary to the process incoming data becomes more complex. Describing a wide range of objective or subjective approaches to define User’s characteristics should help developing design study programs as well as would be a helpful tool for practitioners of Design to be aware of where and how to look at when dealing with User’s characteristics specifications.

Alejandro Rodea Chávez, Lucila Mercado Colin

Increasing Sustainability by Improving Full Use of Public Space: Human Centred Design for Easy-to-Walk Built Environment

The paper presents the application of Human Centered Design Methodology for easy-to-walk built environment, meaning for easy-to-walk a place where features and finishing of built environment are selected to give a path really supporting all the scopes of different walking users, in condition of comfort, safety and pleasantness. Overcoming current research, focusing falls studies and showing a separation among biomedical, psychological and technical disciplines, the paper shows an integrated approach where technical requirements for easy-to-walk built environment (i.e. dimensions, flooring materials and constructive characteristics together with climatic, acoustic and illuminations conditions) are derived from the observation of different users’ ability and limitations. To do that mobility models have been defined in order to consider walking personal attitude and habits; age of the users and their physiological and pathological modifications; movements, perception and cognition in temporary and permanent disabilities; motivations and life styles of users.

Erminia Attaianese

Ocular Movement Characteristics to LED Lights with High Luminous Intensity

The ocular movement characteristics to LED lights with high luminous intensity were explored when viewing such LED lights using a belt conveyer equipped with such LED light with high luminous intensity. The ocular movement characteristics such as blink duration, blink frequency, and PERCLOS70 were investigated as a function of LED color and luminous intensity. The blink duration consistently tended to increase with the increase of luminous intensity for all colors of LED. The blink frequency tended to increase under the high luminous intensity for both red and white LED which have higher wavelength. As for green LED, the blink frequency was not affected by the luminous intensity. Contrary to the case of red and white LED, the blink frequency of blue LED tended to decrease under the high luminous intensity. PERCLOS70 of red, white, and green LEDs tended to increase with the increase of luminous intensity. In this manner, the ocular movement characteristics of blue LED could be indicated.

Atsuo Murata, Tomohisa Takamoto, Makoto Moriwaka

Working with the Elderly—Issues Regarding Registering Their Experience and Knowledge

The world population is aging and getting to know what they think is then important, not only for affective reasons but also because their needs and opinions, experience and knowledge accumulated during long years, are also of significant weight to our society’s productive activities. Nevertheless, many of them have specific communication needs, what makes necessary to study means of efficiently register their experience, knowledge and needs. In this work we describe our experience in developing our project “Food Design and Entrepreneurship” and our strategies of using ergonomic principles, especially during the acquisition of data and information from surveys, to have sound results.

Rosângela Míriam Lemos Oliveira Mendonça, Ângela Zampier Lopes Vieira de Oliveira

Ergonomic/Human Factors in the Design Process. Methodological Tool for Characterization of the User

This paper presents a classroom teaching experience from Ergonomics and Design 2 at Industrial Design Faculty in the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB) involving the development and application of an instrument. This exercise allows the students to explain the key component of the ergonomic system to the user(s), increase the designer’s knowledge of the user(s) and identify human factors and needs that can be met by the product’s functions. The user characterization workshop constitutes a tool for the implementation of ergonomic criteria in the design process.

Gustavo Sevilla, Luz M. Sáenz

Improving Medication Adherence for the Elderly in China-An User Study in Design

This study aims to (1) understand elder patient’s current attitude, knowledge and behavior of medication adherence, (2) trying to find out the detail reasons of adherence and non-adherence, and opportunities in design perspective. Methods. Questionnaire and interview are two main methods applied to achieve the goals. Two key findings are that patient’s subjective attitude determine their behavior, and care provider play an essential role to influence adherence. Therefore, educating and motivating the patient, spreading of the care provider are the two concluded design strategies for improving medication adherence. There is a need to consider the medication adherence as a dynamic, systematic process according to both medication adherence related factors and patient lifestyle.

Qian Zhou, Long Liu, Qianwen Zheng, Jinhua Li

Design Ideation and Prototyping for Interactive Footwear: A Report on the Foot-Wearables Design Workshop

This paper presents the process, output, and outcomes of a workshop on interactive foot-wearables. The first half of the workshop was largely devoted toward creativity through an enactive model of group play. In the second half participants joined together to form production groups with subgroups to maximize the expertise and skillsets of the participants. The result was a rich set of concepts and the deep development of a functional prototype.

Matthew Swarts

Information Design


Typographic Literacy: Are Users Able to Perceive What We Design?

During the brand building process, the branding designers seek typographies which best align with the brand platform and its components, especially with the attributes, values and personality of the brand. We do so based on three premises: (a) our audience is capable of differentiating some typographies from others, (b) they are also able to interpret what the typography connotes and finally, (c) they are subsequently able to properly remember and associate them with the brand. The objective of this paper is to verify if these three premises—converted into hypotheses—are true, in order to equip the brand building process with better arguments and in the end, an enhanced scientific basis. To achieve this, it is necessary to create an experiment and survey a specific audience (Spanish university students with any degree—except Advertising and Design—from the Alicante area) in order to reach initial conclusions; if the results are interesting and validate the three hypotheses, then it will possible to expand the sample and apply for public funding to continue the project. For this pilot study, we relied on help from volunteer students with an Advertising degree as surveyors.

Daniel Rodriguez-Valero, Fernando Olivares, Alberto Pinillos-Laffon

The You-Are-Here Sign in Public Maps: A Design Study with Special Focus on Orientation and Direction Elements

In this research we explore the characteristics of the “You-are-here” sign in contrast to the information perceived by the proband. We summarize in order to analyze and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the respective setups. This will allow us to find out which kind of presentation/display and which elements are best suited to evoke speedy spatial cognition and convey the information in the most efficient manner possible. The results show that human body shapes most easily evoke positioning associations, while arrows create a sense of direction. Surrounding signs with a broader area box drawing and applying a 2.5D style does not only consolidate different elements, but also highlights an effect of direction or orientation on the map. When a user is facing the map, it can be rather difficult to correctly determine the pointing direction of such pictograms, accordingly, it usually takes more time to determine its intended meaning.

Kai-Hsin Chiu, Meng-Cong Zheng

Study on Interface Design for Smart Phone Based Indoor Navigation Under Special Consideration of Information Judgment by the User in Emergency Evacuation Scenarios

In disaster emergency situations, it is vital to guarantee swift movement and evacuation routes, and as such, this is an important issue for public design. Purpose of this study is to optimize the mobile navigation interface design for emergency evacuation situations under special consideration of psychological pressure, and provide for a most efficient route of escape. For this study we used various indoor and outdoor navigation systems available on the market, and conducted experimental research focusing on their major differences in interface design. The results show that interface designs with the least amount of information load are also the fastest and most effective ones.

Ching-I. Chen, Meng-Cong Zheng

Study on Landmark Design of Wayfinding Map in Taipei Main Station

Taipei Main Station is the largest train station in Taiwan, putting it into the global top 25 of its kind. Improving wayfinding efficiency in the public space has become an ever more important task. For this study we optimized a 2.5D wayfinding map of the Taipei Rail Station. We analyzed the wayfinding behavior of travelers using the existing, conventional public map. Applying the “think-aloud” method we then recorded the probands’ pathfinding process. The research found out that probands planning their cross-floor route mostly chose indoor landmarks to describe their way. When we compared these empirical data with the existing map, we found out that many landmark categories, their amount and even the actual visibility thereof did not correspond with the de facto situation. In adopting a true way-searcher’s point of view, this research sets new design standards for future map layouts of the Taipei Rail Station’s interior environment and indoor landmarks.

Ken-Tzu Chang, Meng-Cong Zheng

Design Entropy: A New Approach for Evaluating User Experience in User Interface Design

This paper reports on an experimental study on user interface in universal smart TV remote controls to measure the influence of information overload on user experience. Based on cognitive psychology and human factors, we proposed a design entropy model (DEM). DEM is measurement of the degree of information chaos in a user interface, which contains the “appearance design entropy (ADE)” and the “interaction design entropy (IDE).” To validate the model, we designed an experimental study, 82 college students participate in the experiment and the experiment material were three universal smart TV remote controls. The results showed that: (a) design entropy have a significant correlation with user experience; (b) high design entropy caused more disorder, thus significantly decreasing user experience; (c) low entropy design caused more order, thus significantly increasing user experience, which further verifies the validity of the DEM.

Lei Wu, Juan Li, Tian Lei

Analysis of the Detectability and Conspicuity of Fire Extinguishers Based on Placement Location in Low to Moderate Hazard Public Spaces

The fire extinguisher is the primary instrument used in fire accidents. The conspicuity of fire extinguishers are vital in emergency situations where there is a deterioration of perceptive and cognitive functions due to stress. Fire codes in the Philippines exist to ensure the accessibility of fire extinguishers which include display methods, height requirements, and visibility. The purpose of this study is to assess the detectability and conspicuity of fire extinguishers based on the current standards in the Philippines and improve fire extinguisher placement and its accompanying signs. Most commercial locations are low to moderate hazard areas. A response time experiment was used to determine the detection time of fire extinguishers in these locations under the current standards. Qualitative data was also collected to determine the perceived location. The results were used to improve the standards. The same tests were repeated to the proposed improvement in order to measure its effectiveness.

Cesar Lorenzo G. Capistrano, Maria Jacinta K. Lagonera, Pattrick Louie B. Lim, Benette P. Custodio

Information Searches by Vehicle Engineers in Engineering Design Development

The development of design support requires a clear understanding of the situations that need to be improved. A literature review has identified that only few studies have observed the way in which design practitioners work, in an industrial environment; and since those few studies on this topic were all conducted 10 or 20 years ago, their findings may no longer reflect current practice. This study investigates the information needs of designers, and the different approaches and resources that they currently adopt to fulfil these needs. The research was performed by interviewing eight engineering designers. The analysis of the interview transcripts leads to the main findings of this research.

Shuai Zhang, Aylmer Johnson

Ergonomics and Information Design: Design, Standardization and Uniformization of Graphical Symbols for Public Information

The present research addresses the issue of public information and try to achieve the standardization of sign systems, thereby contributing to the uniformity, legibility, understanding and perception of quality of guidance systems, by normalizing the existing signaling, the development of new methodologies applied to the design of symbols and even the application of a tool to assist the design of signs systems specific for public information. This study contributes to a broader understanding of the systems of signs and the interrelation of its components. It seems crucial to this research, which aims at obtaining a detailed study of signs systems for public information, a careful analysis of all aspects related to three areas: The sign and its meaning; The system or how signs are organized; The Culture or users to whom the signs are developed.

João Neves, Fernando Moreira da Silva, Daniel Raposo, José Silva

Systematic Pattern Code Design on Kitchenware for Operable Activities in Tangible User Interface

This research has developed a new operation way of using pattern codes to operate the tangible interface of kitchenware for a smart family environment. This new development allows users to control products such as stereos and light switches using different utensil operation postures. Focus group was conducted to extract elements for pattern designs to develop pattern codes. The pattern codes are required to be both recognizable by programs and to be able to communicate the suggestions of operation to users. During the evaluation stage, tests for the program recognizable rate and subjective evaluation questionnaires were both conducted in order to evaluate the possibility of implementation of our pattern codes on the tangible user interface. The test results show that the pattern codes are recognizable by the computing programs, while the subjective evaluation results show that the patterns successfully communicate the suggestions of operation and semantics to users. Finally, this research concludes that the pattern code design conforms to both the recognition of computer visuals and users. In terms of future development, the pattern codes can be extensively applied to household objects, to both operate and interact with the smart family system through the identification system, creating an innovative object recognition system.

Fong-Gong Wu, Pin-Chin Wang, SuHuey Tan

Study on Design Principle of Touch Screen with an Example of Chinese-Pinyin 10 Key Input Method in iPhone

In the system of human-machine interaction, users access information from interfaces by cognitive mechanism. And send command to the machine by touching screen. So visual perception and users’ operation are two key process in human-machine interaction. Interface design can affect degree of comfort and fluency of human-machine interaction. In this paper, to Chinese-Pinyin 10 key input method interface in iPhone in the system iOS9.2 as an example, the study begin with tree interface design orientation: dimension design, color features and arrangement of elements. Then extract characteristic factors of the interface and analysis availability of the interface design by using visual search principle and human-machine principle. And finally summarize the general rules of the human-machine interface design.

Xiaoli Wu, Tianyang Xi

The Contribute of Graphic Style and Connotations to Memorability of Brand Marks from Agri-Food Sector

This study aims to understand the process of decoding brand marks particularly how people perceive brand marks styles and connotations, and also reveal which characteristics contribute a better memorization. It is not intended to create standards or a system for brands to employ during brand marks design or visual identity projects. Our purpose is to provide knowledge, a reference frame and principles according to which companies can make informed decisions about how to evaluate or design brand marks. The study was conducted online with 150 respondents in Portugal, asking them to evaluate 15 brands marks of agri-food sector, specifically, olive oil brands. It was used a model adapted from the C-HIP model (Wogalter et al. in Warnings and risk communication. Taylor & Francis, London, 1999 [1]) particularly for meaning/comprehension; Subjective evaluations; Self-reports. The respondents were asked to name the brands they found to be the most memorable and visually appealing, selecting the top attributes recognizable and those they did not recognize. The brand marks were organized by typologies, iconographic, descriptive or abstracts, establishing relations with graphic style, connotations and memorability.

Daniel Raposo, João Neves, José Silva, Catarina Laginha

Production Design and Game Design in Videogames: Action, Emotion and Immersion in the Player Lived

In a linear narrative of a 3D animation the viewer is led, without choice, through a number of spaces, events, conclusions, expectations, premonitions, anticipations, fears, joys, empathy and dislikes, characters and environments, fictional readings in dreamlike narratives, where reality and fantasy that tend to blend. Across this experience of fiction—perceived, understood, felt and judged—an animation viewer does not have, without being aware of it, any possibility of free will, because after all he is being driven to feel and watch a story that is narrated from inside, along its multiple steps. Differently, in a Videogame the Player is allowed to act on the plot’s fictional world, in its characters and events. In this tale storytelling and script, the referred linearity would become here in theoretically infinite lines of possible events and plots, with diverse endings, in which a narrative story line diverges in multiple plots. Or is it not so?

Carlos Figueiredo

Assistive Technology in Design


Proaid E. Low Cost Neurological Wheelchair Design

Low-income disabled people in Colombia routinely face problems in accessing reasonably priced assistive devices and disability products. The standard, low-cost Proaid M wheelchair, made with assembled laminated wood components and commercially available materials, is an object-based response to this problem. Based on the Proaid M design, a new model—the Proaid E—was developed for a 12-year old child with mixed cerebral palsy. The project combined the analytical systemic model “Disabled People-Built Environment” with a focus on user-centered design. The end result of this project brought about a marked improvement in the quality of life of an individual who had previously been denied the minimum necessary conditions for basic mobility.

Gustavo Sevilla Cadavid, Andres Valencia-Escobar, Juliana Velásquez Gómez

Ubiquitous Notification Mechanism to Provide User Awareness

Awareness could be defined as the knowledge that the user has of a particular activity, either individual or collaborative. Good awareness mechanisms provide information to the user at the right time so that s/he can know what is required for her/him to do before s/he is required to do it. Notification mechanisms are a key factor to provide awareness. Ubiquitous technologies can change the paradigm in which notifications are delivered to users. This paper describes the concept and characteristics of awareness, and how researchers have applied different notification mechanisms to provide it. With the lessons learned from 4 project implementations, we propose a service-based plug-and-play framework that models different notification mechanisms that could be used to provide user awareness.

Gustavo López, Luis A. Guerrero

Assistive Technology for People with Low Vision: Equipment for Accessibility of Visual Information

Assistive technologies help people with visual impairment to improving the quality of life in the understanding of information and mobility. Regarding people with low vision are some devices that enable information accessible, expanding the graphical content, visual and text. This paper presents the main equipment for accessibility of information for people with low vision. It consists of bibliographic review and in brands that offer products to these people. The results demonstrate assistive technology offered in the market and promotes a comparative analysis of fixed amplifiers and portables, smart glasses and loupes, in order to trace the main features of these devices while aid products for people with residual vision.

Sabrina Talita de Oliveira, Julia Vieira Bozo, Maria Lucia Leite Ribeiro Okimoto

Design of a Tactile Map: An Assistive Product for the Visually Impaired

Assistive Products that promote the learning of spatial mobility, route guidance and selection of destinations, can favor the independence and quality of life of blind people or with low vision. This paper presents the design process of a tactile map to assist in teaching the discipline of mobility and spatial orientation for blind and low vision people. The tactile map is an assistive product that aids in route selection and location of buildings and public spaces. Such a map has the different blocks through different textures with different reliefs. The project uses the methodology for development of assistive technologies aimed at accessibility and inclusion of people with disabilities. The design process included needs data collection with a teacher of mobility and spatial orientation discipline. Later, with the objective to meet the requirements shown in the research, the researches elaborated sketches and alternatives. After this step, the tactile map was selected as the best option due to costs and resistance through 3D printing technology. The validation of the product will occur with visual impaired users who attend the discipline of mobility in the Blind Institute, located in the state of Parana, Brazil. The product generated can assist the institute’s teachers to explain the location of each building, street or public place with the help of differentiation through tactile textures.

Sabrina Talita de Oliveira, Katsuk Suemitsu, Maria Lucia Leite Ribeiro Okimoto

Innovative Design


Innovative Approaches and Verification in the Design of Flower Beds to Support Horticultural Therapy Classes

Horticultural therapy cannot only improve an elderly emotional and cognitive functions, but also leads to more social participation and better overall health. In this study, the “House of Love”, a private nursing home in Taipei, had been the research base. This study found out, that current horticultural classes heavily rely on teacher-centric and volunteer staff assisted curricula often not considering the specific physical limitations elderly usually face in handling gardening tools and flower beds. Our new design “Elderly Green” took the special requirements of horticultural classes in consideration, providing for a maximum of flexibility under varying conditions by modularizing the flower bed. It allowed the elderly participants to move around and do their gardening in a more comfortable and less strenuous manner. This centripetal flower bed design concept increases interaction among the elderly, and reduces nursing manpower needs while improving equally distributed care for each participant during class time.

Meng-Cong Zheng

A Method for Measuring the Weight of Body Segment Based on Human Model and Body Pressure Distribution

The weight of each human body segment is a very important parameter for zonal mattress design; it directly affects the design quality and lying comfort of zonal mattress. However, such researches or a method for measuring the weight of body segment to a living person has not been founded before. This paper explored a method for measuring the weight of body segment based on human model and body pressure distribution. Combined with three kinds of somatotypes, overweight, normal and underweight, using six different weight proportions of the human model, the pressure distribution experiment was carried out on a spring mattress and the regression model was constructed between the weight of each body segment and the force on human model. According to the mathematic model, the force of fifteen subjects (including seven females and eight males) on the same mattress and human anthropometrical measurement, the actual weight of each body segment could be calculated. The error analyzing shows that the mean relative error of the measurement results of three somatotypes was 2.4 %. The error may be caused by the anthropometric measurement of subjects and the experimental instrument. The error range could be accepted and the method can be applied in the practice of mattress design.

Fei Fang, Liming Shen, Yuxia Chen, Yuding Zhu

Testing and Evaluation of a New Multitrack Electric Bicycle—A Comparative Study

In this paper, we propose new procedures to test the vehicle dynamics and to proof the usability of a new four-wheeled concept bicycle. We have done this by combining standard tests from the automotive industry and regulations from the bicycle industry. Objective and subjective methods are used to evaluate handling. For the objective evaluation of the vehicle dynamics, standard tests from the automotive industry have been adapted (e.g. steady state circular test, brake test, double lane change task). Approximately ten maneuvers were developed and adjusted, such as the distance from pylons or the speed for multitrack electric bicycles. Additionally, the tests were performed with similar bicycle designs and compared to the new vehicle concept.

Sophie Steinmaßl, Markus Lienkamp

Ergonomic Challenges in Designing Personal Cooling Equipment for Ultra-Deep Mining

In ultra-deep mining, given the difficulties of the environmental conditions of heat and humidity and technical difficulties of ventilation and refrigeration miners must face, the idea of personal cooling equipment is becoming an interesting avenue. To the best of our knowledge, no such equipment is currently available on the market. To design this type of equipment, specific requirements must be met to ensure a miner’s safety and productivity. To define these requirements, the authors undertook a literature review on the topic of constraints and requirements miners are faced with in deep and ultra-deep mining conditions. The results show that scientific and grey literature is scarce. A field study will be necessary to complete our knowledge and understanding of working conditions in Canadian ultra-deep mines. A matrix of requirements can then be established to design appropriate personal cooling equipment for ultra-deep mining workers and eventually, other hot and humid work environments.

Valérie Tuyêt Mai Ngô, Sylvie Nadeau, Justine Mackowiak, Stéphane Hallé

Change the Mental Model, Change the Behavior: Using Interface Design to Promote Appropriate Energy Consuming Behavior in the Home

This paper considers how designs of typical home heating systems fall short in the way they communicate their function to householders, and offers a ‘mental models’ approach to design as an alternative. Revell and Stanton (Appl Ergon 45:363–378, 2014, [13]) identified that inappropriate mental models of heating controls influenced users’ behavior strategies to conserve energy. Domestic energy accounts for approximately 30 % of UK consumption, and 60 % of this is as a result of space heating (DECC 2013). Previous work by the authors’ drives the focus of design changes at both the device and system level. Guidelines by Manketelow and Jones (Applying cognitive psychology to user-interface design. Chichester: Wiley, 83–117, 1987, [11]) and Norman (The Design of Everyday Things, Basic Books, New York, 2002, [8]) are used to understand how existing devices may unintentionally ‘say the wrong thing’ and improve functional communication in the redesign. Feedback from a pilot study using a simulator to demonstrate the resulting ‘control panel style’ of heating operation is also provided.

Kirsten Revell, Neville Stanton

Research on the Modular Function Design of Intelligent Lighting Equipment Based on Different Environmental Requirements

In recent years, the government and people have raised an upsurge of constructing smart cities, hoping to create a better urban life and environment. Traditional street lamp can be swiftly converted into the terminal of important technology in the future construction of smart city—multifunctional intelligent lighting equipment. However, users also hold different functional demands towards intelligent lighting equipment. Shanghai will be taken as an example here in this paper. In the form of questionnaire survey and interview, the demands of multifunctional intelligent lighting equipment in different urban regions are analyzed and studied in function-bearing, scene application, aesthetic demand, intelligent application and energy-conservation control, etc. The findings of the study will provide robust evidence and reference to the research and development of intelligent light equipment-related technology, and play a decisive role in the realization of the future construction of smart cities.

Junnan Ye, Jianxin Cheng, Le Xi, Wangqun Xiao

Using Cognitive and Physical Ergonomic Requirements to Promote Healthy Snacking Behavior: A Refrigerator Design Analysis

The science of Human Factors provides an important approach toward solving poor eating and drinking habits of US citizens. The focus of our three-prong investigation was to address the influences of snacking behavior. First, self-report interviews suggested that cognitive-behavioral factors such as cravings and food item availabilities were critical to poor snacking choices. Second, analysis of individuals’ actual refrigerator contents showed snacking food and drink items were available form top to bottom shelves, but was more likely available as drinks (milk, juice, sodas, and alcohol) and as dairy products. Third, a review of anthropometric data revealed a decreased range of motion in obese participants in critical movements to the task of refrigerated snack selection. From this approach we concluded that current and common top-freezer style refrigerators fail to provide users with the organization and guidance needed to promote healthy snack selection.

Dara Gruber, Thomas Berry

Enhancing User Experience in Graphic Design: A Study in (Unusual) Interaction

Conceiving graphic design projects is a daily work, although its technical processes are not always employed to enable a better user experience. Specially in the case of print produced objects that greatly depended on individual graphic expressions and on a technology that imposes a static outcome. Nevertheless, printed matter represents a significant amount of objects and products that face public attention on a regular basis. Meanwhile their users are changing. They are influenced by interactive features and the possibility of user participation prepared by various services. The user is understood as a central point in planning actions and without a deep insight of how will the user deal with interfaces, most technologies seem meaningless. This paper presents a practice led research on interaction and its transition to a graphic design project, conceived for print production, in order to promote a better user experience.

Marco Neves

Kubit: A Responsive and Ergonomic Holographic User Interface for a Proxemic Workspace

This paper imagines how a holographic user interface would respond to the changing workspace of a travelling professional. Kubit is a conceptual holographic user interface grounded in three areas of study. Proxemics defines the difference zones of human interaction, ergonomics helps reduce the risk of developing a musculoskeletal disorder, and responsive design is a method for creating flexible content. By combining these we develop guidelines for the creation of a responsive holographic user interface. To situate Kubit in a real world scenario we develop a persona and user story. The next phase of our research will be to develop a functioning prototype for future testing.

Jed Looker, Thomas Garvey

The Development of Design Specification for Ergonomics Sofa in Malaysia

To design and develop a sofa that has ergonomic features, designers should identify the features are need to design sofa. To knowing and understanding the appropriate design which concurrent with market demand, the designers must to conduct market survey among users whose are need and use sofa. The desires of users to have a sofa that has the characteristics of safety and health should be examined from a variety of factors. The draft and sketching sofa with an attractive design and meet customer requirements, design specifications need to be developed first. This paper will explain how to develop sofa’s design specifications which have ergonomic features for users in Malaysia. Market survey was organized among three main groups of sofa’s user that is sofa users, sofa makers and sofa retailer.

Khairul Azhar Mat Daud, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Suriatini Ismail, Nik Zulkarnaen Khidzir

Smartphone Ergonomics: A Proposal for Older People

A topic specifically noteworthy here is acceptance of recent and latest smartphone technology by the older people. The expanding progress and utilization of technology presents challenges for older users in using new technology. Less ergonomically designed Smartphones are as of now entangled to alter for ease of use needs older users, they feel uneasiness. In this research a broadly used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is applied to investigate the basic Human factors which may have significant effect on smartphone acceptance and behavioral intention among older individuals in Pakistan. A new model, Smartphone Acceptance Model for Pakistani Older People (SAMPOP) in our future work which clarifies the most critical elements responsible for complete adoption and acceptance of smartphones by the older people.

Javed Anjum Sheikh, Beenish Zafar, Anam Pervez, Zunaira Ilyas Bhutta
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