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Über dieses Buch

This is the second publication stemming from the International Congress on Engineering in Food, the first being Food Engineering Interfaces, based on the last ICEF10. The theme of ICEF 11, held in Athens, Greece in May 2011, is “Food Process Engineering in a Changing World.” The conference explored the ways food engineering contributes to the solutions of vital problems in a world of increasing population and complexity that is under the severe constraints of limited resources of raw materials, energy, and environment. The book, comprised of 32 chapters, features an interdisciplinary focus, including food materials science, engineering properties of foods, advances in food process technology, novel food processes, functional foods, food waste engineering, food process design and economics, modeling food safety and quality, and innovation management.



Chapter 1. Food Process Engineering Research and Innovation in a Fast-Changing World

Among the most important challenges for the future of humanity is the provision of reasonably priced and sustainable supplies of energy, clean freshwater and adequate food, anywhere, anytime for anyone. Food process engineering is involved in all three of these main challenges directly or at least indirectly. A limiting factor for the growing of agricultural products, even today, is the sustainable supply of freshwater. In addition, water itself is the most important food. Freshwater shortage is a global problem, and water quality is of the utmost importance. Approximately 70 % of the freshwater consumed on Earth is needed to produce food and animal feed.

Based on research in recent decades, promising novel food processes have been taken up by the food industry and are becoming globally marketable developments. Encouraging research areas of food engineering to achieve high food quality and to improve process efficiency at the lowest cost and better sustainability are summarised. With the help of some recent research results from our institute, some of these developments, such as novel food formulations and Multiphysics simulation of microwave processing, will be elucidated.

Helmar Schubert, Heike P. Schuchmann, Robert Engel, Kai Knoerzer

Chapter 2. Food Process Engineering Research and Innovation in a Fast Changing World: Paradigms/Case Studies

Part II concentrates on insights gained from model-based numerical simulation offering an improved understanding of underlying mechanisms and – based on this – technical innovations. Two examples from ongoing research emphasize the need to use basic chemical engineering tools in food process engineering and product development research. Specific emphasis is given to material characterization, modern equipment design techniques, and numerical simulation tools. The examples cover the design of new homogenization valves for emulsification and dispersion applications and the design of food extruders for the stabilization and encapsulation of lipophilic bioactive components, as utilized for the manufacture of functional foods.

Heike P. Schuchmann, Karsten Köhler, M. Azad Emin, Helmar Schubert

Erratum To: Chapter 14 Aroma Encapsulation in Powder by Spray Drying, and Fluid Bed Agglomeration and Coating

Turchiuli Christelle, Dumoulin Elisabeth

Food Materials Science and Properties


Chapter 3. Advances in Nanotechnology as Applied to Food Systems

The emergence of nanotechnology in food technology is having an impact in several application areas, such as functional food delivery systems, packaging applications, and food safety. Advances in nanostructure fabrication techniques allow food scientists and food technologists to manipulate and navigate the novel and interesting functionalities of foods at the nanoscale that can lead to safe foods with better health benefits and stability that are environmentally sustainable. This chapter summarizes selected studies from the food nanotechnology literature, including our own laboratory, focusing on nanostructured materials, nanoencapsulation and nanoemulsion forming technology for delivery systems, and the application of microfluidic devices for food safety and food analysis.

Jarupat Luecha, Nesli Sozer, Jozef L. Kokini

Chapter 4. Relaxations, Glass Transition and Engineering Properties of Food Solids

The glass transition of food solids has received considerable attention and its relationships with the behaviour of food solids in various processes and food storage are well established. The glass transition properties for food components have been obtained primarily from calorimetric measurements, and their limit has been in identifying a transition temperature range with no particular information on the kinetics of changes associated with the transition. On the other hand, theories on the fragility of glass-forming materials have advanced with some reference to food and pharmaceutical applications. Information on enthalpy relaxations and their use to derive the fragility of glass formers in food is also available. Understanding glass-transition-related relaxations and their coupling with the engineering properties of food materials is a challenging and developing area of food materials science. The glass formation of complex solid food systems and their stability is of the utmost importance in the development of advanced nutrient delivery systems. Our studies have shown that knowledge of the macroscopic glass-transition behaviour of food systems may often be misleading in the prediction of characteristics of food components and their storage stability. For example, the glass transition and relaxation times determined for mixtures of carbohydrates and proteins vary and need to be interpreted carefully when coupled with measurements of the flow properties of powders or reaction kinetics. We have found that the contact time of particles for liquid bridging in stickiness measurements may be governed by the mobility of selected molecular species forming food solids. This has shown varying relaxation times of reactive components which may affect physicochemical properties and kinetics in food processing and storage. The new information can advance innovations in food formulation by mapping the engineering properties of food components and their mixes and the engineering of novel nutrient delivery systems.

Yrjö H. Roos

Chapter 5. Molecular-Based Modeling and Simulation Studies of Water–Water and Water–Macromolecule Interactions in Food and Their Effects on Food Dehydration

A molecular dynamics (MD) modeling and simulation approach has been developed to study porous food systems constructed with amylose chains. The results indicate that food macromolecules form porous structures and can make the adjacent water molecules strongly bound with reduced water activity and removal rate by providing additional water–macromolecule interactions that can significantly outweigh the reduction of the water–water interactions. These effects of pore structures are greater in systems with higher densities of food macromolecules and smaller in size pores. During dehydration, water molecules can develop concave menisci in large pores and nonplanar interfaces between the dried and hydrated sections of the food, and thus water removal can be considered to start from the largest pores and, in particular, from the middle of the pores. Dehydration in general results in reduced pore sizes, a decreased number of pore openings, increased water–macromolecule interactions, and reduced overall thermal conductivity, so that more heat and longer times are needed to further dehydrate the porous materials. Additionally, the average minimum entropy requirement for food dehydration is greater in food systems with higher densities of food macromolecules and lower water content.

J.-C. Wang, A. I. Liapis

Chapter 6. Rheological and Structural Characteristics of Nanometre-Scale Food Protein Particle Dispersions and Gels

Globular whey proteins can be used to create either heat-set gels or cold-set gels. The sizes of aggregates and the creep-compliance behaviour of cold-set gels made from mixing


-lactoglobulin (


-lg) and


-lactalbumin (


-la) depended on the proportion of each protein in the mixture. The particle size (nm) decreased linearly with an increasing proportion of


-la (%) at pH 7.5. The parameters of Burger’s model for creep-compliance data –instantaneous modulus



, retarded elastic modulus,



, and viscosity,


– decreased with an increasing proportion of


la. Fibrils with nanometre-scale diameters from


-lg and


-la were used to create gels with different rheological characteristics. However, more studies have been conducted with


-lg than with


-la. Values of the gelation time,



, the critical gel concentration,



, and the equilibrium value of the storage modulus,

$$ {{G^{\prime}}_{\inf }} $$

, at long gelation times, derived from experimental rheological data during gelation of


-lg fibrils, are discussed. Fibrils created from


-lg using ethanol-water incubation and heating at pH 2 resulted in gels with different rheological properties, probably because of different fibril microstructures (e.g. persistence and contour lengths) and fibril densities. Partial hydrolysis of


-la with a serine proteinase from

Bacillus licheniformis

resulted in fibrils that are tubes approximately 20 nm in diameter.

M. Anandha Rao, Simon M. Loveday, Harjinder Singh

Chapter 7. Transport Properties in Food Process Design

Food process design is concerned with the engineering design and economics of industrial food processes. Quantitative analysis of food processing operations requires material and energy (heat) balances on the process flowsheet. Equipment and energy (heat) requirements are calculated from rate equations of momentum (flow), heat, and mass transfer.

Process engineering calculations require the thermal and transport properties of foods, which are taken from the literature. Reliable values of thermal properties (specific heat and enthalpy changes) can be predicted from empirical correlations or taken from published data.

Transport properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity, and mass diffusivity) are strongly affected by the composition and physical structure of the food product, such as apparent density and porosity.

The rheological properties of fluid foods are affected by the size and concentration of the dissolved molecules or suspended particles. Temperature has a stronger effect on the viscosity of concentrated solutions, such as sugars, than on the apparent viscosity of suspensions.

Experimental data on thermal and mass diffusivity are essential. The thermal conductivity of solids decreases at higher porosities, while the opposite effect is observed with mass diffusivity. Temperature has a small effect on thermal conductivity, while mass diffusivity is affected strongly in nonporous and less in porous solids.

Heat and mass transfer coefficients in food process design are affected by the heat transfer medium, food material, and process equipment. Approximate values of the transfer coefficients are obtained from data in the literature and empirical correlations.

M. Krokida, G. D. Saravacos

Advances in Food Process Technology


Chapter 8. Applying Advances in Food Process Engineering in a Changing World: The Industry Perspective

Novel food processes that are adopted by the food industry, that is, successfully commercialized, may appear relatively mundane to academic observers, but many constraints in the real world inhibit innovation. Successful food processes must be inexpensive, reliable, widely applicable, and appropriate in their context. Based on the observations and experiences of a long career in industry and consulting, this chapter describes some successes and failures and analyzes the lessons of each.

J. Peter Clark

Chapter 9. Recent Developments in Drying Technologies for Foods

Thermal dehydration is the most common and cost-effective technique for the preservation of foods and for the production of traditional as well as innovative processed products such as snacks with desired functionalities. This chapter provides an overview of recent developments in thermal drying technologies that are already commercialized or show potential of industrial exploitation upon successful R&D to sort out some limitations. New dehydration technologies are needed to enhance quality, reduce energy consumption, improve safety, and reduce environmental impact. Mathematical modeling can be used for the cost-effective development of novel designs to reduce the cost and time required for innovation. As examples of some emerging drying techniques this chapter provides relevant details on heat-pump-assisted drying, superheated steam drying, pulse combustion spray drying, variable pressure drop drying (swell drying), and novel gas-particle contactors such as impinging streams and pulsed fluidized beds. Multistage drying, intermittent drying, and the use of hybrid drying technologies that combine the advantages of different dryer types without some of their limitations will be outlined.

Sachin V. Jangam, Arun S. Mujumdar

Chapter 10. Batch Coffee Roasting; Roasting Energy Use; Reducing That Use

The operation of batch, gas-fired coffee roasters equipped with afterburners that destroy roasting-generated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide is described. Overall heat and material balances are used to analyze and calculate energy use in such roasters and energy use reductions achievable by (a) transferring part of the heat now discharged in stack gas to gas streams in or entering the roaster or to coffee entering the roaster or (b) bypassing afterburners when VOC production is low.

Henry Schwartzberg

Chapter 11. Advances and Challenges in Thermal Processing with Flexible Packages

This chapter describes current work under way to address some of the engineering challenges facing the thermal processing of products in new flexible packaging systems, with particular focus on head space pressure. Methodologies are described for experimental determination of optimum overriding retort pressure profiles involving the use of commercially available deflection detectors and custom-designed rigid airtight containers with wireless pressure sensors. The development of a mathematical model for predicting head space pressure is also described and tested by comparing the model predicted with experimentally measured head space pressure profiles. Results showed that the error between measured and predicted pressures ranged from 2 % to 4 % for pure water and green beans in water and 7 % to 13 % for a sucrose solution and sweet peas in water.

Arthur Teixeira, Gaurav Ghai, Sergio Almonacid

Chapter 12. Current Knowledge in Hygienic Design: Can We Minimise Fouling and Speed Cleaning?

Fouling of process plants from food fluids is a major practical problem that lowers plant efficiency and endangers product safety. As a result, frequent process plant cleaning is needed, and cleaning-in-place (CIP) protocols are well developed. It is less clear whether they are optimal, however. Recent progress in fouling and cleaning research is reviewed. Advances in computational modelling and nanotechnology may enable developments in modelling cleanability at the design stage and in developing surfaces that resist fouling and speed cleaning.

P. J. Fryer, P. T. Robbins, I. K. Asteriadou

Chapter 13. Encapsulation Systems in the Food Industry

Encapsulation is a useful tool to improve the delivery of bioactive and living cells into foods. Encapsulation aims to preserve the stability of the active compounds during processing and storage and to prevent undesirable interactions with the food matrix. In addition, encapsulation may be used to immobilise cells or enzymes in food processing applications, such as fermentation processes and metabolite production processes.

This chapter aims to provide an overview of commonly used processes to encapsulate food actives and numerous reasons for employing encapsulation technologies. The most widely used materials for the design of protective shells of encapsulates are presented (polysaccharides, their derivatives, plant exudates, marine extracts, proteins and lipids) with a special focus on requirements such as food-grade purity, biodegradability and the ability to form a barrier between the internal phase and its surroundings. A number of techniques are available for encapsulation in the food industry. Spray drying is the most extensively applied encapsulation technique on an industrial scale; the other encapsulates are prepared by, for example, spray-chilling, freeze-drying, melt extrusion, and melt injection.

Viktor Nedović, Ana Kalušević, Verica Manojlović, Tanja Petrović, Branko Bugarski

Chapter 14. Aroma Encapsulation in Powder by Spray Drying, and Fluid Bed Agglomeration and Coating

The objective of this study was to produce an aroma powder able to replace the liquid aroma in a sweet paste composition.

Three aroma molecules, corresponding to top, middle and end notes as ester, aldehyde and lactone, were studied in a mix with a ratio of 96.5, 1, 2.5 % w/w respectively as in a real aroma. An aqueous flavour emulsion (<5 μm) was prepared with water (60 % w/w), maltodextrin/acacia gum (ratio 3/2) as carrier (32 %) and aroma (8 %).

The flavour/carrier emulsion was spray-dried with inlet air at 140 °C or 160 °C. Then the atomised powders (<30 μm) were agglomerated in a fluidised bed with hot air (50–60 °C) by top spraying water or water/flavour/carrier emulsion. Then agglomerates were coated in a fluid bed with a dry thin layer of emulsion. Three structures were obtained: spray-dried powder, agglomerated spray-dried powder and coated agglomerates, keeping constant the aroma concentration of 20 % w/w in powder.

The atomised and agglomerated powders gave a global positive answer with respect to both taste and intensity when mixed in chewing gum paste compared to liquid aroma. The properties of the tested coating must be improved.

Turchiuli Christelle, Dumoulin Elisabeth

Chapter 15. Advancements in Microbial Polysaccharide Research for Frozen Foods and Microencapsulation of Probiotics

Conventionally used in the food industry as stabilizing, thickening, gelling, and suspending or dispersing agents, microbial polysaccharides such as xanthan gum are known to improve the texture of certain frozen products. The interactions of xanthan with other biopolymers have also received significant attention in recent years. In the wake of growing interest in finding ideal encapsulating agents for probiotics, microbial polysaccharides have been investigated. Scattered research can be found on the effect of each individual polysaccharide; however, there remains a void in the literature to closely compare the characteristics of microbial polysaccharides for these applications, especially when more than one biopolymer is employed. A good understanding of tools capable of elucidating the underlying mechanisms involved is essential in promoting further development of their applications. Therefore, it is this review’s intention to focus on the selection criteria of microbial polysaccharides based on their rheological properties, resistance to harsh conditions, and ability to improve sensory quality. A variety of critical tools is also carefully examined with respect to the attainable information crucial to frozen food and microencapsulation applications.

Pavan Kumar Soma, Patrick D. Williams, BoKyung Moon, Y. Martin Lo

Chapter 16. Food Allergens and Processing: A Review of Recent Results

Food allergens are becoming an increasingly serious problem for consumers that are sensitive to them. The presence of specific substances in processing plants also affects regulations regarding food packaging. The objective of this chapter is to provide an overview of recent efforts (positive and negative) to deallergize processed foods. The existing literature and our own research results are reviewed and compared, and future directions are assessed. Recent research in food processing shows that some methods can influence allergenicity and reduce allergic reactions in consumers. The paper reviews successful and unsuccessful attempts to reduce allergenicity through food processing using thermal treatment, enzymatic reactions, fermentation, high-pressure treatment (HPT), ionization, ultraviolet irradiation, polymerization of proteins, ultrafiltration, and oxidation. Extra attention is given to deactivation trials of carrot, celery, and apple juices and the important allergens, Dau c 1, Api g 1, and Mal d 1, these juices contain. The most promising deallergization method is processing with proteolytic enzymes together with physical processing methods (heating or high pressure). Recently, methods based on oxidative reactions of fruit/vegetable juices were described that can also be enhanced by HPT.

Milan Houska, Ivana Setinova, Petr Kucera

Novel Food Processes


Chapter 17. Emerging Technologies for Targeted Food Processing

High hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, and cold plasma are emerging technologies that have already found application in the food industry. This summary aims to describe the basic principles of these nonthermal technologies as well as the state of the art concerning their impact on biological cells, enzymes, and food constituents. Current and potential applications will be discussed focusing on process-structure-function relationships as well as recent advances in process development.

D. Knorr, A. Froehling, H. Jaeger, K. Reineke, O. Schlueter, K. Schoessler

Chapter 18. Nonthermal Technologies to Extend the Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables

The fresh-cut fruit and vegetable market has grown rapidly in recent years with justifiable expectations of continuous growth. On the other hand, such products are still under study in order to improve the quality, safety, and, in particular, the shelf life of the products to fulfill consumers’ expectations. Numerous applications of recent science and technologies have been made in an attempt to prolong the shelf life of these products. Extended shelf life in foods has traditionally been linked with thermal processing by inactivating food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Heat treatment, however, leads to destruction of freshness and nutrient loss. One of the promising approaches being considered is to utilize nonthermal technologies that, to some extent, achieve freshlike quality and a safe product with high nutritional value. This chapter reviews updated contributions regarding the minimal processing of plant food products in order to maintain and achieve freshness and longer shelf life. Special attention is given to the newest trends in nonthermal technologies for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

Iryna Smetanska, Dase Hunaefi, Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas

Chapter 19. Enhancing Extraction from Solid Foods and Biosuspensions by Electrical Pulsed Energy (Pulsed Electric Field, Ohmic Heating, and High-Voltage Electrical Discharge)

Recent applications of electrical pulsed energy (EPE) in extraction techniques are reviewed. The possibility of using EPE methods as supplementary tools for enhancing osmotic, pressure, and other commonly accepted techniques of extraction, as well as the food safety aspects of EPE methods and prospects for future commercialization of EPE applications, is also discussed.

Eugène Vorobiev, Nikolai Lebovka

Chapter 20. Food Structure Engineering for Nutrition, Health and Wellness

Many of today’s food products addressing the specific nutritional, health, and wellness needs of human and animal consumers are often very complex structures. Consequently, it is of utmost importance in food engineering research to develop a detailed understanding of the time-dependent transient changes in all of the structural aspects of food matrices from raw material harvesting, to product processing, to the point of breakdown during shelf life, consumption, and final digestion. Food structural understanding and control needs to be mastered on a broad range of length scales including the molecular, supramolecular, and the micro- and macrostructural levels. At the same time, the mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of the food need to be considered. Only in this manner can a tailor-made buildup and controlled breakdown of food products be achieved and, subsequently, specific nutritional, physical, and sensorial properties be engineered.

Reducing fat and sugar content to reduce the energy density of food requires a particular micro- and macrostructural design to compensate for the resulting sensorial changes. Specific structures can improve the stability and bioavailability (ultimately bioefficacy) of bioactive compounds and probiotics. Improving the nutritional profile of food by increasing the overall content of (plant) proteins, dietary fibers, or whole grains can be achieved by certain means of structuring. Specific health care products exhibiting a particular rheological behavior at very high protein content, for example, can only be realized by targeted modification of their supramolecular structure. Finally, food microstructures can be designed in such a way that their modulated digestion behavior triggers different physiological responses.

Stefan F. M. Kaufmann, Stefan Palzer

Chapter 21. Transfer of Water and Volatiles at Interfaces: Application to Complex Food Systems

During processing, storage and consumption, mass transfer of various small molecules (water, gases, flavour compounds or other solutes) occurs between the different phases in complex food products, or between complex food and its surroundings. These mass transfers can lead to physical or chemical changes and thus induce food quality modifications.

The objective of this paper is to better understand the behaviour of small molecules at the interfaces, especially in model heterogeneous food systems. Different techniques have been designed to characterize mass transfers of these small molecules and their effects on food properties. In particular, techniques such as rotative diffusion cell or Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopic analyses with modelling have been established.

Some examples of results are presented to demonstrate the influence of the physicochemical parameters on mass transfers: thermodynamic parameters such as partition coefficient, sorption or solubility coefficients, hydrophobicity, or kinetic parameters like diffusion and permeation coefficients. Not only the composition of the matrix, but the structure and the process also influence mass transfer. Observed results can be explained by similar phenomena, even if applications seem very different.

Andrée Voilley, Sonia Lequin, Alicia Hambleton, David Chassagne, Thomas Karbowiak, Frédéric Debeaufort

Modeling and Control of Food Processes


Chapter 22. Modeling Food Process, Quality and Safety: Frameworks and Challenges

Physics-based models provide increased understanding and predictive capabilities that can increase efficiency in food product, process, and equipment design; they also improve quality and safety. However, certain key food-specific developments are needed to enable widespread use of simulation technology in the food sector. First and foremost is the need to develop concise modeling frameworks (formulating various food-processing situations in mathematical models) for various classes of processes, as opposed to a custom model for each process, as mostly exists today. Deformable porous media with multiphase transport can provide such a framework, as will be discussed through examples of various processes that have been modeled by many researchers. The next critical piece is to have easy access to the properties that needed to be model. State-of-property prediction, starting from simple correlations and proceeding to multiscale modeling and thermodynamics-based and molecular dynamics, as is being pursued by researchers around the world, will be shared. Prediction beyond process to quality and safety is the third topic, where various approaches to modeling quality in a diffusion-reaction modeling framework will be presented. For safety, a practical approach that groups various food products, and thus provides an avenue to simulate safety for a large number of situations, will be shared. Finally, efforts to integrate modeling components into a novel, user-friendly software for increased use of modeling will be described.

Ashim Datta, Ashish Dhall

Chapter 23. Mathematical Modeling of Transport Phenomena for Simulation and Optimization of Food Processing Operations

A process is imitated using simulations as a quick way of its evaluation for further design and optimization purposes. Simulations, based on the availability of a computational mathematical model, are carried out with required assumptions for system inputs. Mathematical models for this purpose can be observation (empirical models depending upon the availability of experimental data with limited predictive capabilities) or physics based (via the formulation of the transport phenomena governing the process with outstanding predictive capabilities). The essential aspects of a physics-based mathematical model are to define physical, chemical, or biological changes, to develop a mathematical basis with appropriate assumptions, to solve a problem, and to validate for various situations. Model predictions can then be used for design and optimization purposes. In this chapter, mathematical modeling approaches to the simulation of food processing operations are summarized focusing on heat transfer and fluid dynamics. To this end, analytical solutions, numerical approaches, and computational fluid dynamics methodologies are illustrated, initial-boundary conditions and thermophysical properties are described, and an example of mathematical modeling of the thermal processing of canned foods is demonstrated. In addition, the significance of model validation and optimization is explained with traditional and innovative techniques.

Ferruh Erdoğdu

Chapter 24. Food Preservation Process Design

Preservation processes for food products have evolved over time as more fundamental information about the factors influencing the processes has become available. Traditionally, thermal processes have been used for the preservation of shelf-stable and refrigerated foods. Recently, ultra-high-pressure and pulsed-electric-field technologies have evolved as alternative preservation processes. The overall objective of this chapter is to assemble information on the design of preservation processes, with specific attention to the kinetics of microbial inactivation, the transport phenomenon within the product structure, and the impacts of the processes on microbial populations and product quality attributes.

As safety concerns with refrigerated foods have increased, more kinetic data on microbial survivors during both traditional and alternative processes have been measured and assembled. Recently, new data on the physical properties of foods have been generated, along with predictive models for the transport phenomenon within food products. By integrating appropriate kinetics models with models for the transport phenomenon, the design of preservation processes is being improved and optimized.

This chapter will illustrate steps in the use of appropriate models to ensure desired reductions of microbial populations while improving product quality retention. The models describe microbial survivor curves and product quality attribute retention, while other models describe the transport phenomenon. The application of these models to traditional and alternative processes to optimize the retention of product quality attributes is illustrated.

Dennis R. Heldman

Chapter 25. Advanced Sensors, Quality Attributes, and Modeling in Food Process Control

Determining and predicting the quality, safety, and nutritional impact of raw materials and processed foods is becoming increasingly important. Considerable advances have been made in sensors, process control, process modeling, process simulation, and the integration of these into food production systems. Yet considerable work remains to be completed especially related to quantification of quality attributes and validation of process models. The rheological properties of non-Newtonian fluid foods during production are particularly difficult to measure over a wide range of shear rates. Application of magnetic resonance imaging for inline measurement of non-Newtonian fluid rheology is described and applied to Carbopol (a model system), yogurt, and tomato concentrate. The application to Carbopol demonstrates the rapid measurement of yield stress. Results from yogurt can be used to understand shear history and product structure breakdown. The application to tomato concentrate couples the measurement with modeling to link results from a fundamental rheological measurement to a quality assurance test result (Bostwick).

Michael J. McCarthy, Kathryn L. McCarthy

Modeling and Control of Food Safety and Quality


Chapter 26. Predictive Modeling of Textural Quality of Almonds During Commercial Storage and Distribution

The textural properties of almonds may be assessed using a predictive model consisting of the moisture adsorption isotherms, Fick’s second law of water diffusion, and Fermi’s distribution function. The experimental data of moisture adsorption and the mechanical properties of almonds were measured and fitted into the preceding three models, respectively. A GAB model was used to describe the equilibrated moisture contents of almonds under different temperatures and water activity (



) levels; the diffusion coefficients (



) of water in almonds were determined using Fick’s second law; Fermi’s distribution function was used to describe the relationship between the mechanical properties and



at different temperatures. A computer-aid model was developed to calculate the moisture content and the mechanical properties (fracture force, toughness, stiffness, firmness) of almonds during storage using the coefficients of each model and initial conditions (initial moisture content, relative humidity, and temperature).

Li Z. Taitano, R. Paul Singh

Chapter 27. Developing Next-Generation Predictive Models: Systems Biology Approach

In the area of predictive microbiology, most models focus on simplicity and general applicability and can be classified as black box models with the main emphasis on the description of the macroscopic (population level) microbial behavior as a response to the environment. Their validity to describe pure cultures in simple, liquid media under moderate environmental conditions is widely illustrated and accepted. However, experiments have shown that extrapolation of these models outside the range of experimental validation is not allowed as such. In general, the applicability and robustness of existing models under a wider range of conditions and in more realistic situations can definitely be improved upon by unraveling the underlying mechanisms and incorporating intracellular (microscopic) information. Following a systems biology approach, the link between intracellular fluxes and extracellular measurements is established by techniques of metabolic flux analysis. The modeling approach presented in this chapter will lead to more accurate predictive models for more complex systems, such as cocultures and structured environments based on a top-down systems biology approach.

D. Vercammen, E. Van Derlinden, F. Logist, J. F. Van Impe

Chapter 28. Dynamic Approach to Assessing Food Quality and Safety Characteristics: The Case of Processed Foods

Consumers expect that food products will be safe and convenient to use and still have all the qualities of a fresh product. Foods often undergo processing, which has three major aims: to make food safe while providing products with the highest quality attributes, to transform food into forms that are more convenient or more appealing, and to extend shelf-life. Food processes such as thermally based ones (i.e. pasteurization and drying) or frozen storage occur in time-varying temperature conditions. Mathematical models that describe/predict changes in processed food characteristics with accuracy and precision in realistic, dynamic conditions are important tools in the development of new products and control systems.

In this chapter, mathematical models that include time-varying temperature conditions (i.e. dynamic approach) will be presented for two relevant situations in the domain of processed foods: the case of microbial thermal inactivation and the case of food quality alterations under frozen storage.

Teresa R. S. Brandão, Maria M. Gil, Fátima A. Miller, Elsa M. Gonçalves, Cristina L. M. Silva

Chapter 29. Hyperspectral Imaging Technology: A Nondestructive Tool for Food Quality and Safety Evaluation and Inspection

Based on the integration of two conventional optical sensing technologies, imaging and spectroscopy, into unique imaging sensors, a hyperspectral imaging system can provide not only spatial information, like color imaging systems, but also spectral information for each pixel in an image, which makes a hyperspectral image capable of capturing both physical and morphological characteristics such as color, size, shape, and texture, and some intrinsic chemical and molecular information (such as water, fat, and protein) from a food product. This chapter presents the fundamentals and applications of a hyperspectral imaging technique. The basic principles and theoretical aspects of this technique, the processing methods for data analysis, and the main features of instruments are presented and discussed briefly, followed by a general overview of applications in quality determination for numerous food products to illustrate the applicability of this technique in the food industry for sample classification and grading, defect and disease detection, distribution visualization of chemical attributes in chemical images, and evaluations of the overall quality of meat, fruits, vegetables, and other food products.

Di Wu, Da-Wen Sun

Chapter 30. Food Chain Safety Management Systems: The Impact of Good Practices

Food systems are experiencing new possibilities in practices due to fast technical and technological advancements in the developed world. These include novel plant products, processing without heat treatment, in situ control of products with biosensors, fast and precise detection of unwanted/undesired food-grade microorganisms, control of fluxes to reduce unwanted side reactions, intelligent packaging and polymer restructuring for increased shelf life and novel eatables, and, last but not least, the use of new approaches to food preservation and distribution, not to mention convenience foods and their effect on human health and well-being. A hazard is a (micro-) biological, chemical or physical agent or condition with the potential to cause an adverse health effect. Managing hazards and surrounding circumstances does not mean controlling safety completely. Today we master food safety via Good Agricultural Practices, Good Manufacturing Practices, Good Transport Practices, Good Warehouse Practices, Good Selling Practices, Good Catering Practices, Good Laboratory Practices and Good Hygiene Practices, which can be involved in all practices mentioned but can also be independently applied. Good Housekeeping Practices are still not part of any food-safety system. In all of these practices there exist hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) elements, which constitute the HACCP system that is the main system in food practice today. The approach and attitude of all these systems are fuelled by a tradition of the basic principles of the Codex Alimentarius


implemented in the Codex Alimentarius. All current active practices are segregated in the food supply chain. Since they are not connected in a comprehensive system, there are many uncoupled subdivisions in the food supply chain where the potential for food hazard exposure exists. To reduce all these areas in food supply chains food safety platform with the consumer as an active partner in good nutrition practices appears to be a relevant option in the current state of development of food production processing and nutrition.

Raspor Peter, Ambrožič Mateja, Jevšnik Mojca

Current and Future Issues


Chapter 31. Does Biofuel Production Threaten Food Security?

The world’s population is growing despite the spread of hunger and diseases around the globe. It is anticipated that in 2050 more than nine billion people will have to share the limited resources that are necessary to meet all the needs of humanity. According to many forecasts, it will be especially difficult to provide sufficient food, water and energy for a sustainable livelihood. To provide sufficient food to nine billion people, food production will have to rise by 50 % over present levels, according to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations data. Increased food production and energy provision should rely to a great extent on environmentally friendly, sustainable resources that also help to mitigate climate change. These two requirements are very often considered as competing with each other because a major share of sustainable energy should be based on biofuels, i.e. on substances originating largely from agricultural resources, resources that must also be available to secure food supplies for the world’s huge population. The problem becomes especially evident when one considers that at present first-generation biofuels are produced from soy, palm, and rapeseed oils or starch and sugar crops like maize, wheat or sugar cane, which are all valuable food resources.

Growing food crops and, to some extent where feasible, fuel crops (both as cash crops) could create highly desirable cash-flow especially for developing country farmers, which would help to intensify crop production, provide affordable energy sources for mechanizing agricultural production and ultimately improve resource efficiency.

Crops that are especially suitable as fuel crops are drought-resistant crops and crops that might also have the potential to improve the properties of soil on degraded land.

Projections of the growth of the global human population demonstrate that it will be extremely difficult to comply with environmental goals and to feed the world’s growing population. Those objectives will be achievable only if dramatic changes are made in present time patterns for generating and using energy and agricultural produce.

Walter E. L. Spiess

Chapter 32. Academia-Industry Interaction in Innovation: Paradigm Shifts and Avenues for the Future

Innovation is the application of a new idea/invention, technology, model, or process to a product or service that satisfies a specific consumer/customer need and can be replicated at an economical cost. Innovation creates value and plays a vital role in growth and social well-being. Mounting economic pressure, environmental challenges, diminishing resources, the exponentially accelerating pace of science and knowledge development, and the proliferation of open innovation call for a renewed assessment of academia–industry relationships. Fundamental research as the sole thrust of academia is no longer sustainable. Instead, innovation must focus on the integration of fundamental and applied research, technological development, new business models and processes, and enhanced social responsibility. Innovation’s novel blueprint mandates paradigm shifts in mindset, strategy, research focus, academia–industry relationships, IP policies, culture, government, and private sector equity involvement. Key elements include academia’s “organic” participation in industrial development teams and technology networks, enhanced support for fundamental and applied research, advanced thesis research and internships conducted in the industry, the creation of joint-value programs and resource-sharing, new business models, and enhanced social responsibility. Academia should also promote the participation of industry representatives in their teaching staff and advisory boards. Special emphasis should be placed on institutionalizing innovation and on the role of small and medium enterprises, promoting their transformation into effective catalysts of change. European Union authorities, academia, and the food industry should collectively develop a mutual vision for reforming the old “push” mindset into a “pull” ecosystem that attracts all stakeholders, enabling academia and industry to build relationships based on trust, promoting performance, improvements in teaching, learning, entrepreneurship, and increased social responsibility. Attracting banks, private sector equity, and venture capital to fund innovation, incubators, and startups is also vital. Time is precious, and it is our utmost responsibility to provide leadership, instill confidence, encourage, and embark upon this journey to galvanize efforts and institutionalize innovation.

I. Sam Saguy


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