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Über dieses Buch

This book comprises select proceedings of the International Conference on Trends and Recent Advances in Civil Engineering (TRACE 2020). The book focuses on the latest research developments in structural engineering, structural health monitoring, rehabilitation and retrofitting of structures, geotechnical engineering, and earthquake-resistant structures. The contents also cover the latest innovations in building repair and maintenance, and sustainable materials for rehabilitation and retrofitting. The contents of this book are useful for students, researchers, and professionals working in structural engineering and allied areas.



Influence of Masonry Infill Panels on the Seismic Performance of Irregular Buildings

RC buildings constructed on hills demonstrate diverse structural behaviour as compared to conventional buildings. Since these irregular buildings are asymmetric in elevation as well as plan at different floor levels, they exhibit different centre of masses and centre of stiffness at various floor levels. As a result of which, they are torsionally coupled in addition to the lateral loads, when subjected to seismic forces. Further, hill buildings have different column lengths at same storey because of steep slopes. Thus, the shorter column on uphill side has much higher stiffness and attracts more forces, and hence, it is more susceptible to damage as compared to the column on downhill side. Moreover, the unreinforced masonry infills often play a substantial role in the seismic performance of hill buildings. This study investigates the effect of masonry infills on the seismic behaviour of RC moment-resisting frames in two hill building configurations, viz. Stepback and Setback-stepback. All the configurations have been modelled using a finite element software and examined by response spectrum analysis and nonlinear static pushover analysis. The results obtained from the study have been discussed as variations in storey shear, base shear, time period, maximum top storey displacement values and plastic hinge development pattern in the building structure. At last, vulnerability and suitability of the different configurations against seismic excitations have been suggested.

Zaid Mohammad, Mohd. Akif Razi, Abdul Baqi

Experimental Study of the Construction and Demolition Waste Used in Rigid Pavements

Today, the aim of the researchers is to find best available materials for construction. People are searching for material that are environment friendly, provide high strength and are easily available. Researchers are searching for alternatives of the traditionally used material as the increase in the construction industry demand has now also challenged the availability of material. On the other hand, people are finding way to use the waste material in different industries, and using construction and demolition waste is our main aim for this project. In this study, we have replaced the normal aggregates with the construction and demolition waste if different percentages. In mix-1, we have used 100% normal aggregates. In mix-2, we have replaced 15% normal aggregates with the recycled aggregates. In mix-3, we have replaced 30% normal aggregates with recycled aggregates. In mix-4, we have replaced 45% normal aggregates with recycled aggregates. In mix-5, we have replaced 60% normal aggregates with recycled aggregates.

Prakhar Duggal, Anuj Bhardwaj, Dushyant Pratap Singh, Ajit Singh, Ishant Bajaj, R. K. Tomar

Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Tunneling-Induced Ground Settlement in Clayey Soil

The rapid urbanization has increased the problem of traffic congestion, therefore, several cities in the world have opted rapid mass transportation system as its counter solution. However, pre-construction and post-construction behavior of the tunnel supporting the rapid mass transport must be studied. A tunnel having opening shape of vertical wall, arch roof shape in soft soil has been considered. In this study, surface settlement of soil and stresses in the soil due to excavation has been studied on the physical model, and the same has been validated using 2D finite element software GEO5. Comparison of surface settlement in the tunnel direction has been discussed. Deformation and surface settlement increase as the thickness of liner decreases. The results of numerical studies were found to be in close proximity of physical model.

Md. Rehan Sadique, Amjad Ali, Mohammad Zaid, M. Masroor Alam

Blast-Resistant Stability Analysis of Triple Tunnel

The studies involving triple tunnels are actively researched for the past few years. However, the major focuses were on their stability due to earthquake loading. The present study deals with the stability of triple tunnel under blast loading. The loading has been assumed to act at three different locations in the interior of the tunnel. The triple tunnel of total length 40 and 27.5 m width is assumed to pass through medium weathered basalt rock. It consists of two circular sections and a box section in between. The tunnel is stabilised by concrete liner of 0.5 m thickness. To perform the analyses, CONWEP method of blast analysis has been carried out using Abaqus. Numerical model has been developed with total dimensions of 82.5 by 82.5 m to represent the rockmass. The constitutive material model, Mohr–Coulomb, has been adopted for basalt rock, and the tunnel liner has been modelled as concrete damage plasticity model. The response of the tunnel has been discussed in terms of stress, strain and deformation. The maximum deformation is observed when the explosive charge was at central section of triple tunnel. Therefore, central section/middle section of the tunnel is the most vulnerable part of triple tunnel.

Mohammad Zaid, Irfan Ahmad Shah

Skew Effect on Box Girder Bridge

This study presents the effect of the skew angle on a simply supported box girder bridge. CSiBridge v.20 software is used for the analysis which is based on the finite element method. The mesh size is selected from the convergence study. The variation of absolute bending moment, shear force and vertical deflection due to dead load and live load for both girders is evaluated. The bridge having skew angles up to 20° can be analysed and designed as a straight one. The equations for bending moment ratio, shear force ratio and vertical deflection ratio are deduced so that the forces and deflection of skew box girder bridges can be determined directly from the straight one. This study's results may be useful to the designer for a preliminary analysis of skew bridges.

Preeti Agarwal, P. Pal, P. K. Mehta

Analysis of Factors Affecting Cost and Time Overruns in Construction Projects

The construction industry all over the world has to face a major challenge of cost and time overruns repeatedly from commencement to completion of the project. These overruns result in huge losses in terms of cost and time. This study focusses on the in-depth analysis of the overrun factors affecting construction projects. A total of 44 overrun factors were identified from the literature and were categorized into four major categories, namely project related, management related, legal-constraints faced and site-resource related. A questionnaire was developed using these factors and was filled by 105 respondents. Relative importance index was used to rank different factors according to their criticality in overruns. For statistical analysis, Minitab was used. The most critical overrun factors identified were, namely delay in obtaining permission from authorities, poor supervision and site management, unrealistic time schedule, unforeseen ground conditions and lack of skilled professionals. This research will help researchers, engineers, project managers, construction practitioners, etc. to deal with overrun factors in an effective manner such that projects can be completed within a specific allocated cost and time.

Shubham Sharma, Ashok Kumar Gupta

Factors Influencing the Behavior of Rockfill Materials

In the present experimental work, quarried rockfill material from a Lift Irrigation Project, India has been considered. The largest size of particle (dmax) of the prototype gradation rockfill material is 600 mm. Such a large size rockfill material is not possible to test in the laboratory. Hence, for laboratory testing, modeled technique is used to scale down dmax up to a maximum size of 25, 50 and 80 mm. Engineering behavior i.e., stress, strain and volume change characteristic of scale downed material is considered and presented in this paper. Stress–strain behavior of the tested rockfill material has been found hyperbolic in nature, inelastic and stress dependent. The axial strain and the deviator stress increase with increase in confining pressure for all the dmax. From the axial strain–volumetric strain characteristic, it is observed that the material compresses/is contractive in nature in the initial portion of the curve and experiences dilation on further loading. The effect of dilation however diminishes with rising confining pressure and dmax. The parameters of shear strength, i.e., angle of internal friction, ϕ for all the dmax, are determined. Frictional angle, ϕ of the tested quarried rockfill material, decreases with increase in dmax. Also, it is observed that the shear strength parameter (ϕ) decreases with increase in confining pressure. Therefore, the study shows that the maximum size of particles and cell pressure affects the frictional angle (ϕ) of the tested quarried rockfill material.

Uday Bhanu Chakraborty, N. P. Honkanadavar

Swelling Behavior of the Expansive Soil Prepared with Calcium Bentonite

The swelling and shrinkage characteristics of expansive soil caused by changes in water content are expressed in the form of downward settlement and lifting of the lightly loaded structures such as pavements, roadways, foundations, reservoirs and channels. In this study, an artificially prepared expansive soil by the use of calcium bentonite has been used for evaluating the swelling pressure and its effect on the lightly loaded structure (single-story residential building). The expansive was prepared by adding different percentages of calcium bentonite (10, 15 and 20%) to the natural soil collected from the trench surrounding Aligarh Fort. Swelling pressures were obtained based on constant volume method. On the basis of experimental observations, it is concluded that as the percentage of calcium bentonite increases, the properties such as free swell value, swelling pressure, consistency limits and optimum moisture content increase, while the maximum dry density decreases. Free swell and swelling pressure were increased from 14 to 29% and 40% to 50%, respectively.

Khurram Kirmani, Kausar Ali, M. A. Khan

Assessment of Corrosion in Rebars by Impressed Current Technique

Steel reinforcement corrosion results in premature failure of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Corrosion is known to adversely affect the structural integrity of buildings, bridges, and other structures made up of concrete. Cracking of concrete cover due to corrosion of steel rebar in concrete is an indicator showing the end of service life of the existing RC structures. Corrosion of steel rebar embedded in concrete is a relatively time-taking process. Thus, to monitor the structural health of RC specimens, methods to accelerate corrosion are applied. In this paper, firstly impressed current technique (ICT) and then the setup are described which has been used for acceleration of corrosion of steel reinforcement. Then, different parameters of ICT procedure based on Faraday’s law are presented. ICT was utilized at different applied currents to find out the induced corrosion current. The novel comparative study of corrosion of steel bars of 20 mm diameter embedded in concrete having M30 grade at the cover of 40 and 50 mm by ICT was performed. All reinforced concrete specimens were tested for different casted and cured periods of 7, 14 and 28 days. Based on research findings, increment in the amount of mass loss of steel is not in proportion to corrosion current as suggested by Faraday’s law. Also, some other related parameters were evaluated.

Meenakshi Dixit, Ashok Kumar Gupta

Evaluation of Dynamic Properties and Liquefaction Studies for Sandy Soil—A Case Study

Dynamic properties of sandy soils, viz. shear modulus (G) and damping ratio (D), are the most important properties for designing geotechnical structures that involve dynamic loading of soils and soil–structure interaction. Liquefaction phenomenon is the most common cause of ground failure during earthquake which has produced severe damage to the structures all over the world. In this paper, a case study has been considered for Shahpurkandi Dam Project which is located on the Ravi River in Pathankot district of Punjab, India. The project also consists of 55.5 m high concrete gravity dam. The main purpose of the project is to generate electricity up to 206 MW and provide irrigation to Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. The dam foundation consists of different strata of sand lenses at different depths. Efforts are made to study the effect of earthquake on liquefaction potential for these sand lenses at different depths. Undisturbed samples were collected from the sandy soil deposited below the foundation and carried out grain size analysis, proctor density, relative density, resonant column and cyclic simple shear tests in the laboratory for determining the material properties and liquefaction study. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index were also determined. The dry density and the moisture content of the material vary from 1.5 to 1.68 gm/cc and 8.7 to 14.2%, respectively. The relative density of the material varies from 50 to 73%. Resonant column tests were conducted for 70% relative density with the varying confining pressure from 1 to 4 kg/cm2 and determined shear modulus and damping ratio. Effect of confining pressure was studied on dynamic properties of sandy soil. The study shows that the shear modulus increases and damping ratio decreases with increase in confining pressure. Also, it is observed that the damping ratio varies from 1.18 to 2.8% and shear modulus varies from 770 to 2000 kg/cm2 for the confining pressure ranging from 1 to 4 kg/cm2. The high value of shear modulus indicates that the sand is dense. It is also observed that the damping ratio increases and shear modulus decreases with increase in shear strain amplitude. Undrained cyclic simple shear tests were conducted on saturated soil specimens and determined cyclic strength which is required for evaluating the liquefaction potential of sandy soil. Seed’s simplified procedure has been used to evaluate liquefaction potential for the studied material. The study shows that the cyclic strength of the soil at different depths is more than the cyclic shear stresses induced due to earthquakes of two magnitudes (6.5 and 8.0). Liquefaction potential study shows that the sandy soil deposits are sufficiently dense and are not susceptible to liquefaction for the considered earthquake magnitudes.

N. P. Honkanadavar, Uday Banu Chakraborthy

Frequencies of Stiffened Lock Gate Coupled with Undisturbed Fluid

The present study presents the effect of surrounding reservoir fluid on frequencies of the stiffened lock gate. It is comprised of a plate and a stiffener, which are formulated using Mindlin’s and Euler’s theories, respectively. The top of the fluid is considered free from any wave, that is, undisturbed. The unbounded fluid’s length is trimmed close to the gate. To establish an interrelationship between the gate and the fluid domain, the finite element approach is used. The frequencies of clamped and simply supported lock gate structures are evaluated using a FORTRAN computer code. The extents of the fluid domain are also varied to determine the frequencies of the gate, and the results are used for the comparison with an unstiffened lock gate. When the gate is subjected to any natural hazards, the present findings seem to be beneficial for designers.

Deepak Kumar Singh, P. Pal, S. K. Duggal

Consolidation Behavior of Clayey Soil Reinforced with Geofiber

Geotechnical engineers all over the world face enormous problems during the construction of plastic clayey soil in terms of its settlement criteria. To check the differential settlement, the consolidation behavior of clay is most important aspect to study. So, to achieve proper and effective consolidation parameters, reinforcement of fibers to soil can be considered as the best solution because it is economical and is quite easily available in natural as well as in synthetic form. These fibers are also very eco-friendly. In this investigation, a study on consolidation behavior of locally available clayey soil (taken from near A.M.U Fort, Aligarh, U.P.) reinforced with polypropylene (synthetic) fibers has been done. To find out the improved consolidation characteristics, intermediate plasticity clayey soil was reinforced with different lengths of fibers, i.e., 5–10 mm randomly mixed in varying percentages of 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.35, 0.4 and 0.5% of dry weight of soil. The consolidation behavior of reinforced soil samples was observed and compared with unreinforced soil sample. The results obtained from the above experiment indicate that the compression index (Cc), coefficient of compressibility (aV) and coefficient of volume change (mV) decreased by the inclusion of polypropylene fibers up to certain percentage and then started increasing thereafter. In our investigation, it can be concluded that the clayey soil reinforced with 5–10 mm average length of polypropylene fibers gives the optimum results for various consolidation parameters when it was added at 0.35% by the dry weight of soil.

Tousif Ali, M. A. Khan, Kausar Ali

Alkali Activated Material Brick

The infrastructure development is playing key role in the developing country like India. The need of new construction materials, processes and construction techniques have been increased. With the increased need of new sustainable construction materials, researchers focus on utilization of waste materials which have great potential to replace the conventional materials. Alkali activated binder is a new emerging binding material, claimed to be potential to replace the cement. Cement is contributor to world-wide greenhouse gas as 5% of total CO2 emission. Though, the demand for cement has been increasing with time. Alkali activated binder technology uses the aluminum and silicate rich industrial wastes like fly ash, GGBS, metakaolin, red mud, etc., and alkaline solution as mixture of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Alkali activated binder prepared from the waste industrial materials, eco-friendly in nature, economical, and also give acceptable and comparable results when compared with conventional materials. Alkali activated material can be used for the application of concrete, bricks, paver blocks, mortar, etc. This binding material could be one of the solution for sustainable infrastructure development. In the presented study, effort has been made to prepare the bricks using alkali activated binders and alkaline liquid. The alkali activated bricks were prepared from the fly ash, GGBS, sand as a binding material and sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate as alkaline solutions. The mechanical performance of the bricks were tested at 28 days under ambient curing by performing the compressive strength test. The approximate cost and the compressive strength results shows the potential of the prepared alkali activated bricks.

Hiral Modha, Nerit Sharma, Suryakant Singh

Influence of Micropiles on the Bearing Capacity of a Layered Soil System—A Numerical Study

This paper studies the effect of micropiles embedded below the foundation resting on layered soil. The foundation soil consists of two soil layers: the top layer of dense sand and the bottom layer of soft clay. A 2D finite element software, GeoStudio has been used to generate a model of dimension 1.2 m wide and 0.9 m deep. The numerical model has been reinforced by two rows of micropiles one on either side of the square footing. The thickness of the topsoil layer has been varied as 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 m, and for each case, the influence of the micropiles over the soil bearing capacity has been studied. The results have been extracted in the form of stress versus settlement plots for both reinforced and unreinforced cases. The axial resistance of the micropiles has also been analysed in the study. On the basis of results, it has been concluded that the bearing capacity of the footing has further improved for an increase of micropile length embedded in the dense sand. The maximum improvement in the bearing capacity has been found as 31% for 0.3 m of thickness of dense sand. Axial resistance of the micropiles also increased with increase in the thickness of dense sand. The micropiles have a maximum axial resistance of 20% at the top section of the micropile.

Irfan Ahmad Shah, Mohammad Zaid, Kausar Ali

Comparative Analysis of the Bearing Capacity of Strip Footing with Varying Depth of Soil Reinforcement

This paper presents a “Comparative Analysis of The Bearing Capacity of Strip Footing with Varying Depth of Soil Reinforcement”. The analysis has been conducted by using a software Optum G2 in only single layer of soil reinforcement (i.e. geo-grid) has been placed under the strip footing with the variation of depth. There is some assumption that have been made before using the soil reinforcement. (i) it is assumed that soil reinforcement is adequate strong to resist the axial tension failure (ii) the soil reinforcement does not play any role in resistance to bending (iii) shear failure can occur in between the reinforcement and soil. The method has been adopted which has been would help us to find efficiency factor hc and hγ. This efficiency factor has to be multiplied with normal Nc and Nγ of the unreinforced soil to get the bearing capacity of soil the presence of soil reinforcement. The result that have been presented in such a way that it can be used as standard for soil having internal angle friction (ϕ) varying from 20 to 45°. The optimum depth which is also known as critical depth have also been found long it. The result compares reasonably well with available theoretical and experimental data from literature.

Gurjas Singh Pahuja, Prakhar Duggal, Lavish Siddiqui, Ujjwal Bhardwaj, Milan Thakur, Hammad Ahmad

A Review on Soil Remediation by Fenton Process

As the development and population of a country grow, its industrialization and other modern techniques also increase to meet the growing demand of the people. These technologies, as progress, directly and indirectly, are affecting our environment in many ways. These effects include the vitiating the ambient air quality due to the emission of the harmful gases from various industrial and human activities; water is being polluted by so many toxic matters and contamination of the soil by various degradable and non-degradable matter is also becoming very common. The contaminated soil may have so many adverse effects on our environment like polluting the groundwater, harmful for vegetation, other lives, etc. However, many methods are being adopted by researchers and engineers for the making such soil free of contamination but among all methods of treatment advanced oxidation process(AOP) is one of a favorable method for the soil that is contaminated with highly and non-easily removing pollutants. There are many methods of AOP itself that are used for this purpose like photocatalysis (TiO2), Fenton processes, ozonation and plasma oxidation, etc. that have their characteristics and effectiveness. The present study only focuses on the Fenton process and its mechanism for the treatment of the soil. Also, this paper reviews the performance of modified Fenton processes for removal of highly stabilize pollutants from the soil.

Mohsin Anwer, Atif Husain, Talha Zafar

To Study the Mechanical and Thermal Behaviour of Hollow Core Slab

In this paper, thermal insulation is provided through the roof. Properties of the porous roof are examined thermally and mechanically. The development of slab with the hollow cylindrical shafts in such a manner that they entrap the air and act as an insulation material. The thickness of the slab will be greater than the conventional. This will, in turn, increase the quantity of concrete and cost also. But will reduce the operational cost of the building as thermal insulation once installed doesn’t require maintenance. However, the challenge is to develop this design without effecting the structural behavior and load-bearing capacity of slabs. In methodology, analysis of slab was done on the basis of mechanical properties and thermal properties. In mechanical properties, we studied about compressive strength, tensile strength and when exposed to fire. In thermal properties, average thermal variation in temperature of slab was studied, heat loss coefficient or U-value of slab and heat efficiency of slab under different climatic conditions. Various equations were studied and applied like total heat loss coefficient and heat efficiency. As a result, 6° drop in temperature was recorded in a hollow core slab. U-value of hollow core slab was 11% more efficient than the conventional slab. Also, heat loss efficiency was twice in case of hollow core slab. It was concluded that hollow core slab can be used effectively for insulation purpose in hot and humid regions.

Masha Kundal, R. K. Tomar, Prakhar Duggal, Ananya Dhar, Yuvraj Kochar

Interaction of Transmission Tower Footing with Twin Rock Tunnel

Stability of transmission towers against all odds is always a challenging task in electricity distribution network. Foundation settlement of transmission tower beyond permissible limit, due to any ground related issue, is undesirable. On the other hand, excavation in rock for tunneling purposes are on swing in hilly and terai belts. To facilitate the demand of sustainable development, engineers have been forced to construct tunnels, even beneath the existing tunnels in different cities. The present study has been focused on stability analysis of transmission tower footing considering rock-structure-interaction. Finite element analysis has been adopted to carried using Abaqus. A 2D elastoplastic numerical model of width 30 m has been generated with two tunnels of diameter 5 m lying over each other. Tunnels are considered to be excavated in fresh and highly weathered basalt modeled using Mohr column failure criterion. On top of the ground, a transmission tower has been considered resting on concrete footing of 4.5 m. Analysis has been done varying spacing between tunnels as 4, 8, 12, and 16 m. Outcome shows that relative deformation and principal strain has inversely proportional to the spacing between the tunnels. The study concludes that the loads transferred from the transmission tower footing to the tunnels has significant effect. Tunnels are more stable when spacing between them are kept reasonably larger but if we have to construct tunnels with less spacing greater emphasis should be given on design and precision of construction method.

Mohammad Zaid, Mohd. Faraz Athar, Md. Rehan Sadique

Fluid–Structure Idealization in Intze Tank under Seismic Loads

In view of its economy and durability, Intze tank design has been commonly used for decades for storing water in public water distribution systems and in industries for storing chemicals and petroleum products. However, the current structural design of the tank is very much vulnerable to seismic loads. Thus, it is important to emphasize the safety of such tanks against earthquakes. In present study, single mass and two-mass idealization of tank structure was investigated using convention approach as well as finite element method and the structural parameters were evaluated and compared. Further, the seismic behaviour of the tank was studied using Equivalent Static and Response Spectrum methods. The two-mass idealization, based on IITK-GSDMA guidelines, was employed to ascertain the seismic parameters in conjunction with the study of the influence of masonry infills in the staging case on the seismic behaviour of a typical Intze tank. It was found that using masonry infill panel, the joint displacement was reduced to a great extent, but the base shear was increased. At last, the seismic vulnerability of each model undertaken in the study was discussed in light of their performance against lateral loads.

M. Tabish, Zaid Mohammad, Abdul Baqi

A Review on Utilization of Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) Toward Green and Circular Economy

Globally, policy makers have realized the significance of infrastructure development with respect to safety and environment-friendly approach. This has resulted in reuse and recycling initiatives in various industries including construction and building sector. Further, it is imperative to understand new techniques and methods to improve the effectiveness of recycling, keeping environment and carbon emissions in check. Recently, utilization of construction and demolition waste (CDW) as precursors in synthesizing alkali-activated and geopolymer binders have caught attention of researchers as green building material. This review paper discusses the findings of the latest research and promotes the use of CDW as a potential starting or precursor material in alkali-activated or geopolymer concrete toward green and circular economy. If processed appropriately, CDW can be used to produce environment-friendly binders that can reduce our dependence on conventional binders like Portland cement, thus promoting recycling in sustainable and eco-friendly manner.

Christian Balemba, Brenda Mirenge, Dani Konde, Nabil Hossiney, Srinidhi Lakshmish Kumar, K. Sarath Chandra

Experimental Study on the Effects of Nanomaterials in Clayey Soil of Aligarh City of Northern India

Introduction of nanotechnology in civil engineering especially in geotechnical engineering is opening new ways and fields of research and development. Nanomaterials are attracting researchers in various fields for their novel behavior and applications. Due to less availability, the open literature in the field of ground improvement using nanomaterials demands more experimental studies. Nanotechnology encapsulates nanomaterials and nanoparticles ranging from 20 to 100 nm. This study focuses on the ground improvement behavior of the nanomaterials. Also, the comparison of three different nanomaterials with changing its amount in the soil is studied. The study has been carried out with the clayey soil of Aligarh City of Uttar Pradesh by using nanomaterials which includes nano-Fe2O3, SWCNTs and MWCNTs by varying its amount in the soil. The present study deals with the determination of the liquid limit, plastic limit and parameters like cohesion and angle of friction of the soil having different proportions of different nanomaterials. The tests are performed as per the Indian Standard Codes. A trend has been observed that liquid and plastic limits show downfall as the amount of nanomaterial is increased, whereas a rise in shear strength parameter cohesion (C) and angle of friction (Φ) is observed. It is concluded that by addition of very small quantity of nanomaterial, an appreciable improvement and betterment in the properties of clayey soil can be achieved.

Jibran Qadri, M. A. Khan, Mohammad Zaid, Sharique Ahmad

Analysis of Effect of Anti-slide Pile on Stability of Slopes

The slopes of weak soil are very unstable and can cause serious damage of life and property if not analysed and reinforced properly. There are various methods of improving the stability of slopes; one such method is installing anti-slide piles. In this study, anti-slide piles have been used to improve stability of considered soil slope and analysed variation of various parameters like pile spacing, length and pile position with respect to FOS of the slope [1, 2]. After analysis, it was found that as pile length increases the FOS increases only up to a critical pile length, as pile spacing decreases the FOS increases and maximum FOS is obtained when pile is positioned somewhere between toe and heel of the slope. Bending moment and shear forces were also quantified on the critical length of anti-slide pile [3, 4].

Rashid Shams, Athar Hussain

Performance Evaluation of Base Isolated Building

There is a need to reduce the seismic demand on buildings so that they can perform better during future earthquakes. This need can be fulfilled using the concept of base isolation. In this paper, a G+7 story framed structure has been analyzed to study the effect of base isolation on the seismic performance of structures. The most common type of isolation system, i.e., laminated lead rubber bearing (LLRB) has been designed, and response of the base isolated building has been compared with conventionally designed earthquake-resistant building. The computer program SAP 2000 has been used for modeling and analysis. Reinforcement requirements for both the buildings have been compared, and it has been found that base isolated building requires about 30% less steel than a conventionally designed building for the same level of seismic protection. To compare the nonlinear response of the conventionally designed building and base isolated building, nonlinear static pushover analysis was performed.

Ahmed Bilal, Pankaj Agarwal, Md. Rehan Sadique

An Experimental Study on Effect of Partial Replacement of Rubber Tyres Dust as Fine Aggregates on Compressive Strength of Concrete

India is a developing country, and new infrastructures like highways, railways and roads are always need of the hour and need to globalization. The circular economy in terms of recycling, reuse and reduce waste, and waste management is gaining attention to the research community all around the world nowadays. In a circular economy system resource incoming, waste can be reduced by elimination or slowing its wastage and opening window for repair, reuse and recycling. Considering the facts that are presented above a study was planned with the objective to evaluate the effect of scrap tyre rubber as a fine aggregate replacement on compressive strength of concrete with different mix designs rubber at different curing periods. Finely grounded tyre rubber with granular texture and size range from very fine powder to sand-sized particles of size 595, 250, and 177 μ has been used as fine rubber aggregates under different mix proportions. The mix design M25, M30 and M35 grades of concrete were prepared with 5, 10 and 15% replacement of fine aggregates by rubber tyre dust. A decrease in compressive strength 10.27, 9.7 and 10.51% has been observed for M35 grade of concrete after 5% replacement of fine aggregates for scrap tyre rubber dust size 595 μm, 250 μm and 177 μm, respectively. A drastic decrease in compressive strength greater than 30% has been observed on partial replacement of rubber tyre dust beyond 15% with fine aggregates.

Athar Hussian, Devesh Mawai, Rashid Shams, Saurabh Kumar, Inder Kumar Yadav

Benchmarking Civil Engineering Education in India

The engineering discipline of civil engineering holds significance in many arenas of mankind like sustainable construction of buildings, infrastructure, water resources and environmental engineering. The statistical data on hazards, manmade or natural, the loss of life and property incurred, reflects ignorance and lack of quality control in construction. This justifies greater sensitivity of civil engineers and requirement of standardization of civil engineering education. Low entrance exam merits resulting in imposed stream, mushrooming private institutions with insufficient infrastructure, the quality of civil engineers being produced has degraded. This paper envisions a bridge between education imparted and the mandatory standards to be laid out at government level before anybody qualifies as a civil engineer. The recommendations include efforts to begin from 11th–12th grade with respect to subject awareness, required mental acumen, its future scope and career, syllabus standardization, benchmark problems, software with equal emphasis on basic education in all subjects and an exit mandatory exam like GATE. Equal emphasis will have to be laid on the teachers’ knowledge base as quality human resource is not available in remote areas. The paper suggests some benchmark problems of civil engineering which should be mandatorily known by students, and also the hands-on training of contemporary softwares to upskill their knowledge base. It will be useful to teachers while planning their lessons and the students in building up their confidence of the subject before they move to the industry.

Bansal Sunita, Anjali Gupta

Effective Utilization of Fly Ash and Steel Slag for Partial Replacement of Cement and River Sand for Sustainable Construction

There is always a rising demand for cement and natural resources for large-scale construction activities. Cement manufacturing unit is the major source of greenhouse gas emitter in the building sector. Industrial waste can be used in replacing a portion of cement and sand in concrete, without affecting the end quality of the concrete, yet creating a more sustainable ecosystem. The current study focuses on experimental study on partial replacement of cement with fly ash and river sand with steel slag as binder and fine aggregate, respectively. Preliminary investigations on the physical and chemical properties of steel slag and fly ash are carried out using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis as per the specification of Bureau of India Standards (BIS). The study further focuses on the characteristics of concrete in fresh and hardened state. Experiments are conducted on M20 grade concrete by varying the mix proportion of fly ash and steel slag to achieve the desired 7, 14 and 28 days compressive strength in accordance with BIS. It is observed that a 10 and 20% replacement of cement (by weight) with fly ash attains a 28 day compressive strength of 21.32 and 22.08 MPa, respectively. However, when partial replacement of cement with fly ash increased to 30%, the 28 day compressive strength dropped down to 14.01 MPa. This study also investigates the suitable proportion of steel slag as fine aggregate. Concrete blocks are made and their compressive strengths for different steel slag proportions, while maintaining the optimum percentage of fly ash as 20%. It is observed that, on replacing 10% of river sand with steel slag, a 7% rise in compressive strength is achieved when compared to the mix without steel slag. This study concludes that the maximum 28 day compressive strength of concrete achieved is 23.8 MPa by utilizing 20% of fly ash and 10% of steel slag as partial replacements for cement and river sand, respectively. This result reveals that industrial by-products could be effectively employed in manufacturing concrete blocks for sustainable construction by minimizing the use of natural resources.

Vibha N. Dalawai, Lakshmi Srikanth, Ishwarya Srikanth, Madasamy Arockiasamy

Dynamic Behavior of Base Isolated Howe Bridges-Seismic Resistant

Structural vibration control as a cutting-edge technology comprises of energy dissipation devices to control excessive structural vibration, increases human solace and forestalls catastrophic structural failure due to strong winds and quakes. Bridge subjected to earthquake forces structural elements will be subjected to high levels of stress. And it is essential to study the dynamic behavior of bridge during earthquake. This study presents dynamic behavior of HOWE bridge truss, when subjected to strong ground motions. The prominent seismic-resistant technique—superstructure isolation of bridge by using high damping rubber bearing—is considered. And comparative study done on isolated and isolated HOWE truss bridge and also restoring capacity of high damping rubber bearing will be calculated. Response spectrum analysis is used to study the dynamic behavior.

G. Sridevi, B. Umesh, G. Sudarshan, A. Shivaraj

Comparative Study on Behavior of Structures Subjected to Seismic and Blast Loads

As seismic engineering has gained worldwide importance, seismic design of RC buildings is an ongoing research area. Recent earthquakes have shown that improperly designed and constructed structures can cause great damage. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the seismic response of buildings in order to design earthquake-resistant structures. Much attention has been paid over the past decades to the behavior of engineering structures under explosive loading. The use of anti-social explosives around the world targeting civilian buildings and structures is becoming a growing problem in modern societies. Explosives are smaller in size and stronger than a few years ago, which contributes to the dynamics and large range of effects of the explosive. Usually, the causes of such explosions are not only immediate deaths due to direct release of energy, but mainly structural failure and extensive loss of life. This study focuses on structures subjected to both the seismic load and the blast load using software ETABS. In this study, regular, L-shaped, and C-shaped buildings are considered with various heights of RC and composite structures. Response spectrum method is considered for the seismic analysis. A comparative study was done to identify the response of the structures subjected to seismic and blast loads.

G. Sridevi, G. Sudarshan, A. Shivaraj, B. Umesh

A Mathematical Correlation of Compressive Strength Among Silica, Alumina and Calcia Present in Composite Red Mud and Iron Ore Tailingbricks

Waste Red Mud generated from bauxite beneficiation in aluminium industry contains sodium oxide in minor amount along with silica and alumina in significant quantities. Waste iron ore tailings from beneficiation of iron ore in steel industry contain silica and alumina in significant quantities. A combination of both these materials in different amounts along with GGBS and lime addition resulted in complex alkali-activated reaction products consisting of (Si/Al), (Ca/Si) and (Ca/(Si+Al)) complexes which influence compressive strength of the test samples on curing for extended time periods at room temperature. Individual correlation coefficients of these complexes with compressive strength yielded high values with (Si/Al) and (Ca/Si+Al) ratios (0.92 and 0.96, respectively) while showing a poor correlation coefficient with (Ca/Si) ratio (0.88). A direct regression analysis between compressive strength and (Si/Al) ratio and (Ca/Si+Al) ratio indicated negative values with (Si/Al) ratios but positive values with (Ca/ (Si+Al)) ratios. It is therefore concluded that the addition of lime and GGBS (contributed from both GGBS and lime addition) resulted in Ca-Si-Al complex formations which are responsible for improved compressive strength of the samples.

M. Beulah, Pranab Das, G. Gayathri, M. R. Sudhir, K. Sarath Chandra, P. Sasha Rai

Investigation on the Impact Behavior of Concrete Panels Subjected to Drop Weight Impact

In this study, the response of different thin concrete panels of size 600 mm × 600 mm × 40 mm with and without reinforcements subjected to low-velocity impact under drop weight impact is carried out. For the purpose of comparison, concrete panels of different configurations such as simple cement concrete (PCC) free of any kind of reinforcements, textile reinforced concrete (TRC), and reinforced cement concrete (RCC) in addition to panels made with self-compacting concrete (SCC) were casted. The drop hammer impact test consists of a ball (weighing 1.8 kgs) with a drop height 600 mm is considered. The following parameters of the drop weight impact loading test such as number of blows for first crack, ultimate failure, and energy absorption characteristics were examined to arrive at the best configurations among the selected categories. It is observed that the panel made with self-compacting concrete has performed superiorly over all other cases considered in this study.

Partheepan Ganesan, S. Purushotham Rao, Vineela Jalagadugula

Stability of Slab on Elastic Foundation

In this paper, it has been explained about the “stability of slab on elastic foundation”, the deformation and stress analysis of slab on elastic foundation is done using ANSYS software. ANSYS is finite element analysis-based simulation software. The mathematical analysis and design of a concrete slab on elastic mat foundation are done on consideration of moment, one-way shear and two-way shear. The length and width of the concrete slab are kept constant. Depth of the slab is varied and deformation and stresses are analysed at various depths. The results obtained from ANSYS by varying the depths are compared with mathematical computation to determine the stability of the slab.

J. Bhattacharjee, Anas Mubin

Rice Husk Ash and Basalt Fibre-Based Sustainable Geopolymer Concrete in Rigid Pavements. A Review

From the last few decades, Geopolymer concrete has gained importance in the field of construction. Geopolymer concrete is a revolutionary product not only in the construction field but also it is environmentally friendly as it utilizes the waste by-products of industries like fly ash, GGBS, silica fumes, RHA, as pozzolanic material which is not having its binding properties, but the presence of silica and alumina in pozzolana gives rise to aluminosilicate hydrates in alkaline medium (prepared by mixing NaOH and Na2SiO3) of geopolymer concrete and provide a better replacement of cement in concrete, thus, decreasing the CO2 emission by the production of cement and in turn reduces the greenhouse effect. Therefore, the use of RHA and basalt fibre in geopolymer concrete in the rigid pavement can be carried out, and results should be compared with the control mix. 100% replacement of cement by silica-rich RHA in geopolymer concrete with basalt fibre as fibre reinforcement with various percentages as 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% in the rigid pavement can be done, which not provide only compressive strength but also increase flexural strength which is the compulsory requirement of rigid pavement.

Mahapara Abbass, Gyanendra Singh

Comparative Seismic Analysis Between Elevated Circular Water Tanks Using Equivalent Static Method and Response Spectrum Method

Municipalities and industries use the liquid storage tanks widely for water storage, storing inflammable liquids and various chemicals. There are primarily three types of tanks to store liquids namely underground tanks, ground supported tanks and elevated tanks. In this paper, the prime focus is on elevated water storage tanks. Water tanks are important strategic structures because they provide water to the mass of people and hence their behaviour during earthquakes must be studied in detail so that they do not undergo any huge damage due to the action of horizontal forces during an earthquake causing loss of life and property. Indian standard code IS 1893 (Part 2) helps to determine the dynamic behaviour of water tank by considering the movement of water in reference to the tank and the movement of the tank in reference to the ground. In this paper, a comparison has been made between three types of circular elevated water tanks under high seismic zone. These tanks are designed and seismically analysed using manual calculations as per IS 1893:2014 (Part 2) as well as STAAD Pro analysis using equivalent static method and response spectrum method. The tanks taken for comparison have the same capacity and parameters. This study focusses on determining the impact of geometry on water tank’s behaviour and response during an earthquake.

Abhishek Dixit

Rice Husk Ash and Basalt Fibre-Based Sustainable Geopolymer Concrete in Rigid Pavements Under Ambient Curing Conditions

In this study, the rice husk ash (RHA), which is a by-product of paddy, was used as source material in geopolymer concrete in the presence of alkaline activator primed by assimilation of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate. Basalt fibres, which are the derivative of basaltic rock or volcanic eruption, were used as fibre reinforcement in geopolymer concrete. Rice husk ash rich in silica and basalt fibre rich in alumina proved better combination. The sodium silicate-to-sodium hydroxide ratio was reserved as 2.0, the alkaline activator-to-binder content ratio was kept as 0.4, the concentration of sodium hydroxide was kept as 14 M, superplasticizer was used to increase the fluidity of geopolymer concrete, and the source material used was 500 kg/m3, in control mix RHCM. The various percentages of basalt fibre used were 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% in mixes RHB1, RHB5, RHB10, RHB15, RHB20 and RHB25 and the results of blends with basalt fibre were compared with the control mix RHCM. The results publicized that RHB10 achieved higher 7, 28 and 90 day compressive strength of 43.0, 60.1 and 60.4 MPa, respectively. The mixes RHB1, RHB5 and RHB15 also gained compressive strength higher than control mix RHCM, but the mixes RHB20 and RHB25 showed a decrease in 7, 28 and 90 days compressive strength than control mix RHCM.

Mahapara Abbass, Gyanendra Singh

Use of Crushed Waste Glass (CWG) for Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Concrete Production: A Review

Safe disposal of waste glass is one of the biggest environmental challenges due to its inertness property across the globe. Among the various types of glasses, disposal of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) is more challenging due to emission of harmful contents. It is not easy and safe to dispose of these glass waste in the landfills. As an environmental friendly solution, researchers evolve the possibility of using CWG in the construction industry. It may be used both as coarse and fine aggregate in concrete production. This review paper offers an overview of previous work in which the CWG is used as fine aggregate. The optimum workability, dry and wet density, and compressive, tensile, and flexural strength results presented by various researchers are compiled for various compositions of concrete with CWG. It can be observed that the results are inconsistent and did not follow a trend. CWG will marginally increase the strengths when it is used in the lower percentage. After reaching an optimum value, the strengths again reduce.

Akash Johari, Kedar Sharma

Seismic Evaluation of RC Structure with Distinct Placement of Columns and Shear Walls

Human life faces so many disasters, natural and manmade. One of the natural disasters is earthquake which occurs suddenly without any previous warning and cause huge damage to the building. One of the aspects of building with resistance to the earthquake load is shear walls. Shear walls have more in-plane strength and stiffness and can support large amount of lateral load and gravity load in same time. These walls are mainly constructed for tall buildings, and it gives more strength and safety to the structure with external lateral loads. A G+11 stories’ structure is considered and analyzed the structure for different location of shear walls for seismic Zone 5.

J. Bhattacharjee, Vivek Kumar

Study on Retrofitting Technique to Increase the Height of an Existing Building

Retrofitting is to add something that did not have it when manufactured. This needs to improve the performance of building. The premature deterioration of structure is an economic burden not only on owners but also to the municipalities’ and nation as a whole. Over a period, as these structures become older, we find in them certain degradation or deterioration with resultant distress manifested in the form of cracking, splitting, delaminating, corrosion, etc. The retrofitting design of building presented in this paper is based on IS 1893 (Part-I)-2002 and IS 13920:1993. Main objective of the paper is to increase the height of existing building (i.e., G + 7 to G + 12) and providing the survivability functionality by different retrofitting techniques like additional shear wall and column jacketing. Also, comparing the stability of building in both case through analysis and adopting the suitable technique is to improve the performance of building after vertical expansion of building height. The sections of main structural member column, beam, and slab have been done assumed based on previous experience. A comparative study of the results obtained from analysis has been made in terms of story displacement, story drift, and base shear. The designed models were again analyzed, and results were compared in terms of different criteria.

J. Bhattacharjee, Nidhi Singh

Sustainable Concrete with Substitute Materials: A Review

Given the looming threats of overall climate change and planet resource crunch, sustainable development is the course forward for the engineering and construction industry. Many research contemplates are being completed on the most popular construction material concrete to make it increasingly sustainable. Manufacturing financially viable and eco-accommodating concrete is a significant step toward transformation to green buildings. Use of waste material in concrete, ensuring its strength and performance parameters, will help in sustainable accreditations on account of low embodied energy of utilized waste. Also, construction in under-developed zones warrants use of locally accessible herbal admixtures like Chebula extract for upgrading the properties of concrete. The assessments and cases considered in this paper concern the fractional replacement of cement with brick powder or other waste materials, utilization of natural/herbal admixtures, and replacement of coarse/fine aggregates by materials like coconut shells, expanded polystyrene pieces, plastic waste, etc., which may even result in lightweight concrete and subsequent low dead weight. All these exploratory investigations have found optimum percentages of replacements to achieve the appropriate strength and durability parameters. This review paper will unquestionably add to the current research literature of sustainable concrete development methodologies.

Priya Pahil, Sunita Bansal, Anjali Gupta

Theoretical Framework for Response Prediction of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Cased Explosive Charges

Civil infrastructural facilities, in the recent years, have been subjected to several instances of accidental or intentional blast loading. While this has motivated the global community in exploring the structural response of elements subjected to explosive charges, there still is a pressing need for exploring the structural response of members subjected to ‘cased explosive charges.’ Thus, the presented study aims at developing a theoretical framework which may be used for quickly and efficiently evaluating the response of structural elements subjected to cased explosive charges. The adequacy of the proposed analytical framework was further validated and on the whole, a fairly reasonable level of agreement was noted. The summarized framework was further used for assessing the severity exhibited by the cased explosive charges as compared to the bare (uncased) explosive charges. The reported preliminary investigations indicated that the cased explosive charge would be more severe as compared to bare charge.

Abhiroop Goswami, Satadru Das Adhikary

Development of Real-Time Monitoring System for Early Age Cementitious Materials

Atmospheric conditions and moisture loss of early age cementitious material can lead to cracking and may affect the durability and serviceability of the cementitious materials. The real-time monitoring of these conditions of cementitious materials (cement, mortar, concrete, pozzolana) at an early age is vital for quality control and durability. The present study proposes an Internet of things enabled real-time monitoring system for early age cementitious materials. The system consists of three sensors (DS18B20, DHT-11, moisture sensor) and a Wi-Fi microcontroller. The system measures concrete/atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, and moisture content inside the fresh cementitious materials and posts the data on the internet. The proposed system is effective in the prediction of moisture loss and shrinkage in early age concrete which is beneficial to the construction industry.

Shemin T. John, Merin Susan Philip, Aman Singhal, Pradip Sarkar, Robin Davis

Bagasse Ash (ScBa) and Its Utilization in Concrete as Pozzolanic Material: A Review

Construction activities go on increasing; there are waste generation problems also double as a result of the environmental concern of toxic threat. An economical solution to this problem is there is extensive utilization of waste materials (W.M.) as a useful material in the concrete industry. These materials resolved environmental issues and waste management problems. This review paper deals with the agro-waste such as sugarcane bagasse ash (ScBa) and detail analysis of its physical and chemical properties. This paper includes the effect of ScBa on the concrete properties including the fresh properties such as workability (WkA), hardened properties including compressive strength (C.S.), tensile strength (T.S.), respectively. Effect of these WM on the durability (D.B.) of concrete also included in this study. Detailed studies on the microstructural analysis of ScBa are using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Based on ScBa physical and chemical properties and its characterization are reviewed, it can be used as effective pozzolana in concrete as partial replacement of cement.

Pooja Jha, A. K. Sachan, R. P. Singh

Seismic Analysis of Multistorey RC Building with Vertical Setback and Its Retrofit Strategies

Setback buildings are those types of structures which have geometric vertical irregularities. The historical tremor records show that, the setback buildings attracts greater damage as compared to the regular buildings. This poor seismic response may be ascribed to the insufficiency of current codes, with which these buildings were designed. So, it becomes obligatory to investigate the seismic response of these structures with more advanced seismic iterative assessments and practical adjustments in order to reduce the potential seismic damages. This research focuses mainly on seismic behaviour of vertical geometrical irregular structure and the method to avoid or minimize such problems during the design of structures. To carry out the study, a regular symmetric frame (M1) and seven irregular (M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, M7 and M8) frame G + 10 buildings with different vertical setbacks each were modelled and considered for the analysis by using ETABS 2018 software. The result proves that buildings with vertical setbacks are more vulnerable to torsion than the regular buildings. To reduce the torsional irregularity effects on vertical irregular structure, shear wall system was recommended as practical solution which is an effective method of seismic retrofitting of an existing structure and for other future projects. It was concluded that fundamental time period of regular building is less than the similar vertical geometric irregular building, and it depends on upon the setback ratio. Regular buildings give higher participation of first mode as compared to buildings with vertical setback because as the irregularity increases the contribution of first mode decreases.

Abin Jose, Nilesh B. Mishra

Seismic Torsion Behaviour and Rigidity Analysis of Multistory Plan Asymmetric RC Building

Due to the client demand on architectural drawings and land structure of Nepal, it is very difficult to make the structure with regular plan shapes, and thus, horizontal or vertical irregularity may be developed. These irregularities of the structure are more responsible for the collapse of building under the dynamic loads action during strong ground motions of earthquake and cause a significant torsional reaction in the structure. The main objectives of this paper are to study the torsional behaviour of reinforced concrete building with plan asymmetry which is located in zone V subjected to earthquake load and its parameters reflect the torsion effect and recommending the practical solution in order to reduce torsional effect. To carry out the study, both symmetric and asymmetric (L-SHAPE, + shape and T shape) plan buildings of eleven storey were modelled and ETABS software is used for analysis. The result proves that asymmetrical plan buildings are more vulnerable than symmetrical plan buildings. To reduce the torsional irregularity effect of asymmetrical plan structure curtailed shear wall system is recommended as practical solution with considering the stiffness. It was concluded that curtailed shear wall system improves the seismic performance of the structure reducing the cost criteria. After additional of shear wall, the torsional irregularity ratio of asymmetrical plan structure comes with in permissible limit as per IS 1893. Torsion creates damage or complete structures collapse, to control torsion, irregular structures should be carefully analysed.

Dinesh Rawat, Nilesh B. Mishra

Analysis and Design of Diagrid Buildings

The raising level of migration of people to urban cities and unavailability of land to accommodate this migration have given birth to multi-storey buildings or tall buildings. Currently, numerous systems comprising beams with columns, shear walls or bracings either individually or in combinations are used for designing structures of tall buildings. From them diagrid system is one of new trends. Diagrid system is adopted due to architectural limitations of providing vertical elements, as in this system only diagonal members in form of grids are provided to support both gravity as well as lateral loads. In present study, behavioural investigation of different diagrid buildings is assessed using ETABS software. Three RCC buildings 6, 12 and 18 storied are considered for this study. The objective of the study is to compare the conventional frame (CF) system with diagrid (DG) system with respect to varying number of storeys. To elaborate the comparison, diagrid system is further divided into three types as per diagrid angles, i.e. 33.42°, 52.85° and 63.2°. From comparison of results, it is concluded that, for 6-storey buildings adopting CF system reduces construction cost and time, for 12-storey buildings any system except 33.42°DG system can be adopted as per construction cost, time and aesthetical appearance and for 18-storey buildings 63.2°DG system is preferred. Hence, diagrid structural system can be adopted for buildings above 40 m height approximately.

Neha Chandra, Nilesh B. Mishra

“A Review Paper on Seismic Vulnerability and Evaluation Methodology of Buildings”

Seismic vulnerability and its evaluation are a critical issue involving various parameters of structural safety. Various types of vulnerability index method and assessment procedures have been identified by various researchers across the world. This paper summarizes the seismic vulnerability assessment methodology for various typology of buildings. Various rapid visual screening methodologies used in the country have been also reviewed. Various parameters such as number of stories, materials of construction its impact on vulnerability have been discussed. The development of new vulnerability assessment methodology has been described. In few literature paper, retrofit solutions have been discussed for most vulnerable buildings.

Siddharth, A. K. Sinha

Modified Mass Damping Parameter for Better Prediction of Across Wind Response of Chimneys

Currently, Scruton number, Sc, is widely used as a single prime factor for prediction of across wind response of a circular chimney subjected to vortex shedding. It is however reported in the literature that there is a wide scatter in the variation of normalized response of different chimneys, when plotted against Scruton number. Vickery and Basu method is widely recommended for prediction of across wind response of RC chimneys, and Rusheweyh method is widely used for prediction of steel chimneys. However, there does not appear to be a single method which can equally predict the response of both steel and RC chimneys. The author has earlier developed a method for prediction of across wind response of circular chimneys, using a non-dimensional parameter “fact” and suggested a closed-form solution. In this paper, the usefulness and importance of a modified mass damping parameter (MDP) which has a slightly different form from the conventional Scruton number are focused and highlighted. It is shown that the suggested MDP has the potential of capturing the variation of response prediction for both steel and RC chimneys in a single curve. The spectral bandwidth, B, the turbulence intensity and “fact” parameter are also found to influence the response prediction besides Scruton number. The proposal of MDP is successfully applied to several full-scale and wind tunnel data in the literature, including author’s wind tunnel data.

S. Arunachalam

A Novel Approach for Testing of Concrete Affected by Urea

Urea is one of the most used nitrogenous fertilizers used in the world. Although it does not chemically react with hardened concrete, but a lot of damage is reported from parts of manufacturing plant where urea comes in contact with concrete. There is a need to understand the mechanism of this damage caused by crystallization of urea inside the concrete. Severe damage is observed at the locations where flexural cracking is expected. Therefore, it is proposed to test concrete cubes with induced cracks of different crack width. The damage was monitored using ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements and measuring crack width using travelling microscope. The results show good agreement with damage mechanism in the structure.

Ravindra Kumar Goliya, Nitin Kumar Samaiya

A Review on Performance of Structure and Its Retrofitting Measures

Nepal earthquake (2015) was a devastating one with the intensity of 7.8 on Richter scale. The death count in the Nepal and other neighboring countries was in thousands. It is considered to be one of the most devastating earthquake ever to happen in the region of Nepal. The main method of construction in Nepal and its neighboring countries is only considering the gravity loads not the earthquake loads. When any major earthquake hits India and its neighboring countries, the estimated loss of death always lies in thousands and the estimated loss of income to be in $800 million approximately. To prevent such kind of losses, the earthquake loading is to be considered while designing the structure. The main aim of the project is to carry out the designing and analysis of the building affected by the earthquake and its retrofitting to bring the structure back to its required strength.

J. Bhattacharjee, Pankaj Goyal

Structural Health Monitoring of Bridge Using Sensors

Structural health monitoring is a method which is used to detect the damages in civil engineering structures that helps in developing the techniques and to identify, locate and classify damage in structures. This complete analysis of bridges helps in obtaining an effective maintenance plan that offers sustained service life of the structures. The present study focuses on implementation, analysis and design of a scaled model of truss bridge by using STAAD Pro software. The scaled model of truss bridge is subjected to a dynamic vibration by a vibrator and is measured using accelerometer sensor. The response under these vibrations are recorded with the help of telemetry software in terms of time domain graph. The graph induced in MATLAB is used to convert time domain graph to frequency domain graph. The experimentation is followed by replacing the healthy structure with the damage structure. The structural graph responses obtained give a reduction in the natural frequency when it is compared to a healthy structure.

C. L. Mahesh Kumar, K. G. Shwetha, N. Aravind Raj

Shear Bond Strength of Brick Masonry

The present study is focused on shear bond strength of brick masonry for different normal stress. Toward this objective brick masonry, triplets have been cast using different types of mortar. Shear bond strength is obtained using triplet test. The experimental investigation revealed that shear strength increases with the applied normal compressive stress up to a certain value. At higher values of normal stress, the brick develops tension and the increase in shear bond strength is slowed down. Further increase in normal stress leads to masonry failure in compression and shear bond strength falls rapidly. Cohesion and friction angles are obtained for different mortars, and the results are discussed.

K. Madhavi, M. V. Renuka Devi, K. S. Jagadish, S. M. Basutkar

Stability Analysis of Precast Concrete Wall Panels and Its Utility

Unlike cast in situ construction, precast concrete construction is a type of construction in which the concrete elements used in the structure are not casted on the site but are made off site usually in a factory or casting yard and are cured and treated and then transported to the construction site where they are assembled via connections. In many precast concrete structures especially in European countries, the main components of the structure comprise precast concrete walls (both interior and exterior walls) as these walls play dual role of resisting lateral as well as gravity loads. As these walls are joined together on the site itself; their stability against lateral loads is an important concern. In this paper, stability against overturning, sliding and stress checks of precast concrete walls of a structure with number of stories varying between 3 and 4 is done using European codes. The structure has simple rectangular plan. The analysis is done using Microsoft excel sheet and Mathcad software, and the effect on the precast walls due to torsion in the structure is studied. Also, various provisions are taken to make the unstable walls stable, and at last the need for the precast construction in India is accessed.

J. Bhattacharjee, Aiman Ather

The Decision-Making Criteria for Adaptive Reuse for Sustainable Development

Adaptive reuse is a potential strategy for the built environment projects to optimally utilize the whole project life cycle. It is an effective mean to redevelop the existing buildings. Adaptive reuse extends buildings life, reduces demolition waste, reuses embodied energy and helps in achieving the goal of sustainable development. Decision making is a challenge to implement sustainable construction through adaptive reuse. Due to various available options and involvement of numerous stakeholders in the redevelopment projects, the decision-making process has become complex. This paper reviews the prominent decision-making models for adaptive reuse. The analysis will help in taking decision between adaptive reuse against demolition/redevelopment.

Deepak Tulsiram Patil, Anushree Patil, Jayashree Patil

Influence of Size and Depth on Load Capacities of Shallow Foundations Under Limiting Settlement Criteria

Structural engineers always look for options in selecting the foundation sizes for buildings. For a project in Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates), where very weak clayey sand layer (average SPT N-value of 4) was encountered between 6.0 and 8.0 m depth below ground, it was required to ensure that stress influence zone shall limit within 6.0 m. Alternatively, it was required to estimate the load due to the influence of weak layer with the limiting settlement of 12 mm as per local guidelines. Bearing capacity, settlement and depth of influence zone were calculated for isolated square footings of four sizes using Geo5 software. One of the main objectives was to understand the influence of the weak layer from different scenarios. It was found that that as the size of footing increases, the depth of footing at which the depth of influence zone crosses the weak layer decreases. Settlements were found to increase at a closer proximity of the very weak layer.

Sanjana Sajeev, Tanisha Shetty, Mir Basith Ali, Ramesh Vandanapu, Vidya Mohanan

Investigation on Behaviour of Alternate Roofing System Using Arch Panels

Roof is one of the major components of a structure, and it utilizes the significant amount of materials in its construction. The conventional RC roofing system is subjected to larger bending moment and deflection. As a result, reinforcements to be provided is also more, which leads to the increase in cost of construction and embodied energy. Hence, to tackle this problem, many alternate roofing systems have emerged. Shell roofing is one such example, bending moments developed in them are very less due to its geometry, and hence in majority of the cases, it does not require any reinforcement. The efficiency of the arch panel roofing system is analysed in this research. The arch panels were made up of concrete of strength equivalent to bricks (M10). The potential of the demolished and crushed brick waste to partially replace the fine aggregate in concrete was investigated by assessing the compressive, split tensile strength and modulus of elasticity. In order to examine the effect of rise of arch on safe load-carrying capacity, arch panels with 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, 250 mm rise and 50, 60, 75 mm thickness were considered for the numerical analysis. Hence, a total of 21 different arch panels were analysed using finite element software by simulating two-point flexure test. The behaviour of full-scale arch panel roofing system of plan area of 3 m × 3 m was also analysed. The arch panel roofing system showed lesser deflection, and the stresses developed in the roof were well within the limits. Cost and energy analysis of materials used in arch panel roofing system (S-125-50) was carried out, and the results were compared with the conventional RC roofing system of same area. The arch panel roofing system proved to be cost efficient as well as energy efficient, when compared to conventional RC roofing system.

H. M. Pooran, M. V. Renuka Devi, S. M. Basutkar

Analysis of Interlocking Block Masonry

The key contributors for global warming are the widely used construction materials such as cement and steel. Significant depletion in the natural resources has led to the scarcity of river sand as well. On the contrary, there has been an ever-increasing demand on supply of these key construction materials due to rapid urbanization across the world. This has envisaged the development of many alternatives to conventional construction materials. Interlocking block masonry units (IBM) and stabilized earth block masonry units (SEB) are one such alternatives which have been explored from quite some time. There are enough evidences on the rise of buildings constructed using these masonry units in the construction industry. The reasons for its popularity are due to the aesthetic appearance and affordability. Although there has been literature reported on the studies of IBM and SEB [1–4], there is a need to revisit the behavior of these masonry units due to its wide usage in the construction industry. Hence in this study, experimental and analytical investigations have been carried out to compare the compressive strength between interlocking block masonry (IBM) and stabilized earth block masonry (SEB). Finite element model (FEM) for IBM and SEB has been created using the concrete damage plasticity model to simulate the inelastic material behavior. Analysis is carried out for prisms and walls under axial compression and cost estimation for construction of wall is conducted. The results indicate that interlocking block prisms without mortar joint has lower load-bearing capacity as compared to stabilized earth blocks with mortar joint. IBM is more cost effective to construct than SEB wall.

Y. N. Vinay, K. Srinivas, M. V. Renuka Devi, S. M. Basutkar

Studies on Properties of Compressed Mud Blocks

Stabilized and un-stabilized mud have been used as a building material since Indus valley civilization. Pozzolanic material such as burnt ash was used as stabilizers. As soil is most abundant, locally available material which makes it one of the most energy efficient and cost-effective building material. Extensive research on stabilized mud blocks was initiated at Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, for using of soil for making building blocks. The properties of compressed mud blocks are influenced by varying factors such as soil composition, moisture content, stabilizer content, compaction. Blocks are conventionally manufactured using Cinvaram, Astram, Itge Voth, Mardini, etc., having a compressive strength of blocks suitable for load bearing and non-load bearing walls. This technology is adopted for housing in many parts of India. This paper attempts to assess the properties of compressed mud blocks made by varying composition of soil, varying thickness and cement content. A total of 120 blocks are manufactured and tested to evaluate physical and mechanical properties such as dimensional stability, density, initial rate of absorption, water absorption and compressive strength. Compressive strength for blocks increased as the thickness was reduced. Increase in strength of 70 mm thick block was of the order 1.6 times as that of 100 mm thick block. As the fresh density of block was varied from 1.95 to 2.05 gm/cc, block compressive strength was found enhanced by 30%. Based on the mode of manufacturing, densification of the lower half of the block was more than the upper half of the block. When the sand-to-fines ratio is in the order of 1.5, highest compressive strength was achieved for stabilizing mud blocks.

M. Vinayak, M. Nitish, H. M. Siddarth Gowda, S. M. Basutkar, K. Madhavi, M. V. Renuka Devi

Effect of Grain Size on the Rheology of Fly Ash Slurry

Rheology is a very critical property of slurries in deciding the optimum solid concentration in slurry transportation system. Using advanced computerized rheometer, the rheological experimental investigations were performed and found that the slurry with lean solid concentration (10–40% by weight) consumes a huge amount of water and requires high energy power pumps. The rheological properties are strongly dependent on shear frequency, solid density, and distribution of particle size. With solid concentration, the plastic viscosity and yield stress increased. At higher solids concentrations, the experimental data fitted well with the Bingham plastic model. The results show that plastic viscosity and yield stress of the slurry samples get increased for the flow of finer solid particles. The viscosity of Bingham plastic depends primarily on the distribution of solid concentration and particle size.

Navneet Kumar, Gaurav Kumar Sharma, Desh Bandhu Singh, Anuj Kumar Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar Sharma

Studies on Influence of Variation in Joint Thickness on Strength of Masonry with the Emphasis in Bond Characteristics

Masonry structures have been utilized for a considerable length of time for a wide range of structures. The strength of masonry is governed by various factors such as shape and size of masonry unit, strength of masonry units—mortar, bonding of units and mortar, h/t ratio, and ratio of elastic modulus of unit and mortar. This article presents experimental and analytical investigations carried out using finite element analysis in Abaqus, to compare strength properties of brick masonry for varying mortar joint thickness of 10, 15, 20, and 0 mm. Physical and mechanical properties of the bricks were experimentally determined according to the specified code practices and are used to define the material properties in the FEA model. Plastic behavior of materials was defined by the concrete damage plasticity model which is available in FEA package. The study conducted exhibited increase in the mortar joint thickness and decreases the compressive strength and flexural bond strength of the masonry prism. Compressive strength of masonry prism decreased by 47% as mortar joint thickness increased from 10 mm mortar joint thickness to 30 mm mortar joint thickness. For every 1 mm increase of mortar joint thickness, flexural bond decreases by 0.48%.

L. Govardhan, S. M. Basutkar, K. Madhavi, M. V. Renuka Devi

Experimental Analysis of Flow Value of Cement Mortar with Various Admixtures

Cement mortar is unavoidable part of any construction. Strength and durability of mortar is necessary for long life of structure. At the time of preparation of mortar, various admixtures are added for enhancement of its various engineering properties. Addition of admixtures alters it workability, strength, etc. In this experimental study, it is observed that by adding some nano-materials, the flow value of the mortar decreases, but by increasing the content of the nanoparticles, workability increases slightly. Similarly by adding polymer PVA, the workability increases than the control mix, when content of polymer is 2% of cement. The workability of mortar increases with addition of nano and polymer when both are added.

Mohan Kantharia, Pankaj Kumar Mishra

Assessment of Real House Price Using Machine Learning

The broad and consistent real estate characteristics are frequently listed individually from the enquiring price and the overall description. Thus, these characteristics or the features are individually listed in a prepared organized way, such that they can be effortlessly compared across the entire range of prospective houses. Though, every house has its own distinctive features, such as a particular view, balcony 1 or 2, parking area, kids park, or type of sink, the sellers can provide a précis of all the important description of the house. Thus, the given real estate features can be measured by the probable buyers, but it seems to be nearly impossible to make available an automated evaluation on all features or variables due to the huge variety. This is as well true in the erstwhile direction: house sellers have to formulate an estimation of the worth based on its characteristics or features in similarity to the existing market price of related houses. Using the machine learning or the hypothesis function, an automated system is to be creating to predict the house price.

Shiv Shankar Prasad Shukla, Samir Kumar Pandey, Ujjwal Bharadwaj, Anil Kumar Yadav

Flexural Buckling of Concrete-Filled Aluminium Alloy CHS Columns: Numerical Modelling and Design

The current study deals with numerical modelling and design framework of concrete-filled aluminium alloy columns with circular hollow sections (CHSs) under pin-ended boundary conditions. The examined aluminium alloy is 6082-T6, and the concrete infill has cylinder compressive strength of 30 MPa. Finite element modelling was employed to simulate the investigated columns. Reported test data were used to verify the developed finite element models. Material and geometrical nonlinearities were considered during the analyses. Parametric analyses have been executed to generate structural performance results over a wide range of member slendernesses for a stocky and a slender cross section. The obtained load-mid-height lateral displacement curves were discussed. The ultimate capacities predicted by numerical analyses were utilised to assess the design strengths predicted using combined formulae of EN 1994-1-1 and EN 1999-1-1 and design criteria proposed by Zhou and Young for the plastic resistance of concrete-filled aluminium alloy CHSs combined with flexural buckling strength predictions suggested by EN 1999-1-1. It was shown that the latter provides more accurate and consistent design strength predictions.

Evangelia Georgantzia, Michaela Gkantou

Numerical Study of Aluminium Alloy Square Hollow Section Columns

Aluminium alloys are increasingly applied in the construction industry owing to their advantageous properties. This paper presents a numerical investigation on aluminium alloy square hollow section columns with pin-ended boundary conditions. The modelling assumptions are detailed and a parametric study is carried out. The investigation examines four structural aluminium alloys, namely 6082-T6, 6061-T6, 6082-T4 and 6063-T5. Aiming to cover a wide range of member slenderness, six member lengths are examined, while two cross-sections, one fully effective and one slender, are studied. The results are used to assess Eurocode buckling strengths. It is shown that Eurocode provides conservative estimations, particularly for Class B aluminium alloys. Moreover, the buckling strength predictions appear less accurate for slender cross-sections compared to fully effective ones.

Michaela Gkantou

Stability of a Structure Using Eurocodes

The paper gives a broad overview of the stability of structure. Stability is a fundamental aspect in order to ensure the safety of structure against collapse. There are two essential requirements of a structure: equilibrium and stability. It is rare for either to be maintained without the other. Stability is necessary to resist horizontal loads. There is a strong correlation between a structure’s resistance to horizontal loads and its overall stability. If a structure is resistant to lateral loads, it is likely to be enough to provide overall stability under vertical loads.

J. Bhattacharjee, Rabia Rafiq
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