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2023 | Buch

Advances in Glass Research


Über dieses Buch

This book covers preparation methods, characterization, and applications of most glass families. It reports the fundamentals of glass, challenges in the development, traditional and new manufacturing processes, characterization techniques, structural, thermal, and optical properties. The book reviews redox reactions in glasses and the factors affecting them, in addition to the techniques for determining the redox states and speciation of polyvalent ions in glass. A special chapter is dedicate to phosphate glasses, their importance, preparation methods, structure and properties. The use of different types of phosphate glasses in biomedicine, optics, electrochemistry, and as hosts for nuclear wastes is thoroughly discussed. Moreover, the applications of phosphate glasses in electronics and laser technology are also discussed in this book. Recent experimental studies such as the development of a novel bioglass system and the influence of ZnO, TiO2, and Al2O3 incorporation on structural, mechanical strength, degradation, pH variation, and formation of hydroxyapatite (Hap) layer on the glass surface are reported. Promising aluminum-silicate glassy system and its glass-ceramic counterpart are also presented in this books. An overview of the calorimetry approaches related to rare earth improvements on the thermal stability of glass is provided. The book discusses the advances in the chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) and based devices. It also reports their applications in optical devices, semiconductor circuits, and other applications. In addition, lanthanide and/or QDs doped luminescent glasses and their use in solid-state lighting and displays, security (anti-counterfeiting), optical temperature sensors, and solar energy (solar spectrum conversion) are reviewed along with a comparison of their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the nature of phthalocyanines as materials for glass coatings and most widely used synthesis methods of porphyrins and phthalocyanines are discussed.


Overall Aspects of Glasses for Photonic Devices
This chapter is a review dedicated to recent advances in the science of glass and its application in photonic devices with a straightforward, easy-to-read style. It is important to mention as a starting point that recent advances in this material indicate that the glass network has significant implications both in terms of the optical and mechanical properties and, therefore, the functionalities of glass as a smart material. In this sense, it is essential for the development of new technologies or innovations to better understand the effects of manufacturing techniques to achieve the desired product. In this context, we provide an overview of the history and challenges in glass development, traditional and new manufacturing processes, characterization techniques (structural, thermal, and optical properties), glasses family, and photonic device applications.
J. L. Clabel H., G. Lozano C., I. C. Pinto, R. F. Falci, V. A. G. Rivera, Y. Messaddeq, E. Marega Jr.
Redox Reactions in Glasses
The multivalent ions include some of the rare earth ions, transition metal ions and non-metal ions. There are many factors that affect the redox reaction of multivalent ions in glass, these factors include glass composition, melting conditions, type and concentration of the element and irradiation of the glass either by high energy ionized radiation or by laser. Different techniques were proposed for determining the redox states and speciation of polyvalent ions in glass that include analytical chemical titration methods, potentiometric methods, optical and photoluminescence spectroscopy and other techniques that rely on the use of X-rays such as X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Many of these techniques not only encounter some limitations that would be related to the applicability, accuracy or detection limit, but also some of them would impact the obtained result as it may over/underestimate the redox speciation; for example, the interaction between intense focused X-ray beam or electron beam and the sample during measurement could change the multivalent ion speciation. Some of the multivalent ions could be used as an indicator for the glass structural changes and could be also used to examine the formation of defect centers in glass upon irradiation. Glasses doped with multivalent elements are of practical importance as radiation shielding materials, optoelectronics materials, and optical data storage in high density memory devices, biomedical materials and white light-emitting diodes and in nuclear waste industry.
Hosam Othman
Phosphate Glasses: Synthesis, Properties and Applications
Glasses have been a focus of numerous investigations because of their mechanical, electrical, optical, and magnetic properties, related to their structure and short-range atomic arrangements. Phosphate glasses have special properties compared to many other glasses. Properties of phosphate glasses are related to the changes in the composition and structural network with additions of different metal oxides. In the past decade there has been continuous research to understand the structure and properties of phosphate glasses in the presence of various metal or non-metal elements. In variety of multidisciplinary technological applications, phosphate glasses are used particularly in biomedicine, optics, electrochemistry as low temperature sealing glasses, and as hosts for nuclear wastes. Considering the importance, synthesis, structure, properties, and applications of different types of phosphate glasses have been discussed in detail in this chapter.
Bhasker Pratap Choudhary, N. B. Singh
Structural and In Vitro Bioactivity of Phosphate-Based Glasses for Bone Regeneration
The primary goal of this chapter is to investigate the physical properties, structural makeup, and in vitro bioactivity of a few bioglasses based on phosphate that have been doped with metal ions for bone regeneration and tissue engineering. In this chapter, three series of phosphate glasses have been created using varying amounts of ZnO, TiO2, and Al2O3 and have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) before and after incubation in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for 3, 7, 14, and 21 days. The physical properties of samples, including density and microhardness, evaluation of pH and weight loss of glasses in physiological fluid and cell culture studies, like cytocompatibility and cell proliferation by seeding rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) on the glass samples were studied. The results showed that, the density and Vickers microhardness were found to increase with the increase in content of dopants in the phosphate network. The formation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer enhancing with immersion time demonstrates the glass sample’s bioactivity. The formation of the apatite layer is supported by the initial rise in pH and the controlled dissolution in SBF. The growth of the rMSCs cells on all samples exhibited good cytocompatibility up to a certain mole percent dependent on the metal ion, as well as a minor decrease with an upsurge in content since the network's rigidity increased. The outcomes support the application compatibility of these glasses involving bone regeneration and repair.
M. Mohan Babu, P. Venkateswara Rao, Nibu Putenpurayil Govindan, Raghavendra Gujjala, P. Syam Prasad
Advances in Chalcogenide Glasses (ChGs): Past, Present, and Future Applications
Since their birth in the early 1950s, ChGs are now recognized as multifunctional substances due to their suitability for applications in diversified fields like memory applications, fiber optics, infrared sensing devices, etc. ChGs fulfill multitask demands by playing the role of electronic materials in resistive switching, optical materials in fiber sensing, and ovonic materials for phase-change memories. This makes them one of the fascinating members of the family of glasses. A huge number of applications in different areas like in applied branches of science (e.g., environmental science, space science, medical science) in addition to the conventional branches of science (physics, chemistry, biology) attracted the different groups of technologists/scientists of various developed and developing countries around the world. This chapter is designed to cover the advances in the field of ChGs from their early developing stage to the present time. An attempt has been made to cover past, present, and feature outlooks of ChGs based devices.
Neeraj Mehta
Advances in Luminescent Glass Research Towards High-End Applications
Lanthanides and quantum dots (QDs) have attracted great interest as luminescent materials for various cutting-edge applications due to their outstanding and tunable emission properties. However, an extra-durable encapsulant material is often required as the emission features of luminescent ions usually degrade upon exposure to oxygen, moisture, and light. At this point, glasses have taken the center stage with their extraordinary properties including thermal, chemical, and mechanical durability, high recyclability, low cost, and simple manufacturing methods. In addition, the excellent lanthanide ion solubility and homogeneous QD size distribution ability of glasses make them promising candidates as stable and highly efficient color converters. Therefore, in this book chapter, an introduction is given at the very beginning by outlining the motivation, scope, and objectives behind the studies of luminescent glasses. The next sections summarize glass synthesis methods and highlight the latest developments in luminescent glasses for a variety of high-tech applications such as solid-state lighting and displays, security (anti-counterfeiting), optical temperature sensing, and solar energy. Each application is presented and explored in detail with a broad overview and references to up-to-date studies. In the final section, perspectives and conclusions are presented. The purpose of this book chapter is to provide brief yet insightful introduction and interpretation of the subject to both new and experienced luminescent glass researchers.
Erdinç Erol, Miray Çelikbilek Ersundu, Ali Erçin Ersundu
Synthesis and Characterization of Rare Earth Doped ZnO–Al2O3–SiO2 Glasses and Transparent Glass-Ceramics
In the last decades, glass-ceramic technology has attracted significant attention due to its vast applications. Rare-earth doped glasses and glass-ceramics are essential optical materials for designing advanced optical devices such as sensors, light emitting diodes (LEDs), optical fibers etc. This chapter summarizes some of the most recent results on the mechanical, thermal, structural, and optical properties of a promising aluminum-silicate glassy system and its glass-ceramic counterpart. Once doped with rare-earth ions, we succeeded in improving the transparency and thermometric properties of glass-ceramics. Moreover, this chapter includes a review of the calorimetry approaches related to rare earth improvement of the thermal stability of glass, besides modifying the activation energy of crystallization, and discussions about higher sensibility reached in Nd3+/Ce3+—co-doped aluminosilicate glass applied in optical thermometry.
Itamar Nunes de Assis Junior, Alisson Torquato, M. Reza Dousti
Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine as Materials for Glass Coating—Structure and Properties
The chapter is an introduction to the nature of phthalocyanines as materials for glass coatings. Data of the close analogues porphyrins is reported. The most widely used synthesis methods of porphyrins and phthalocyanines are discussed. The spectroscopic characteristic of the compounds is provided based on UV-ViS and photoluminescence studies. The nonlinear optical and electric properties of various metal-phthalocyanines are discussed. Current and future applications of the phthalocyanines are presented. This chapter is an introduction to the second one entitled “Phthalocyanine and porphyrin films on glass substrate—processing, properties, and applications” where characterizations of hybrid materials are described in detail.
Barbara Popanda, Marcin Środa
Phthalocyanine and Porphyrin Films on Glass Substrates—Processing, Properties, and Applications
Methods of coating preparation, which are commonly applied to phthalocyanines and porphyrins formation on the glass substrates are discussed. Three most popular methods: Langmuir–Blodgett, physical vapor deposition (PVD), and sol–gel are described. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are reported. Characteristics of the double layer materials based on metallophthalocyanines or metalloporphyrins and the semiconductor inorganic oxide applied on glass are presented. The optical and electrical properties of the coatings are summarized in the chapter. Finally, the application of phthalocyanines and porphyrins in organic light emitting diodes (OLED’s) and solar cells are presented.
Barbara Popanda, Marcin Środa
Advances in Glass Research
herausgegeben von
Shadia Jamil Ikhmayies
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