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Über dieses Buch

This book deals with human factors research directed towards realizing and assessing sustainability in the built environment. It reports on advanced engineering methods for sustainable infrastructure design, as well as on assessments of the efficient methods and the social, environmental, and economic impact of various designs and projects. The book covers a range of topics, including the use of recycled materials in architecture, ergonomics in buildings and public design, sustainable design for smart cities, design for the aging population, industrial design, human scale in architecture, and many more. Based on the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Factors and Sustainable Infrastructure, held on July 27-31, 2016, in Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA, this book, by showing different perspectives on sustainability and ergonomics, represents a useful source of information for designers in general, urban engineers, architects, infrastructure professionals, practitioners, public infrastructure owners, policy makers, government engineers and planners, as well as operations managers, and academics active in applied research.



Ergonomics and Material Environment Design


Comparison Between Domestic Water Heating Systems Based on Either Solar Heaters or Electrical Boilers by the Life Cycle Assessment Approach

The construction sector is one of major consumers of energy in the world. In this paper, the domestic water heating systems was compared based on solar heaters and electrical boilers by the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. We considered both energy spent and emissions related to the production and use of these systems. The results indicate that the use of solar water heaters is a more attractive choice. Higher energy and economic savings are obtained when they are used, especially in Brazil, where occurred an expressive increase of the electrical energy costs over the past years. This option also has a shorter payback period than electrical boilers. However, it observed that the environmental impact associated with solar water systems is higher because of the flat plate collector’s production. The findings exhibited in this work can provide a useful way to help the consumer to make his decision.

Raquel Diniz Oliveira, Eduardo H. M. Nunes, Jessica de Oliveira Notório Ribeiro, Rodrigo de Mello Morado Penna

Aggregate Replacement and Its Usefulness in Cement Concrete for Sustainable Development—A Study on Rubber, Jarosite and Sandstone Aggregates

Disposal of wastes such as tire rubber, jarosite and sandstones have become a major environmental issue in all parts of the world especially in India. Every year millions of tires are discarded representing a serious threat to ecology. It was estimated that almost 1000 million tires end their service life every year and out of that, more than 50 % are discarded to landfills or garbage without any treatment. By the year 2030, there would be 5000 million tires to be discarded on a regular basis. Similarly, huge quantity of jarosite is being released as solid residues during the process of metallic zinc extraction from sulphide ore or zinc sulphide. Rajasthan in India alone produces 900 million tons of sandstone waste thus leading to a large dumping of these materials without any essential utilisation. The increasing annual production and those already accumulated is one of the major sources of environmental pollution. This study focusses on the effective utilisation of these wastes as aggregate in cement concrete which leads to an overall sustainable development in the field of concrete research.

Sanjeev Kumar, Ramesh Chandra Gupta, Blessen Skariah Thomas, Priyansha Mehra

Incubating and Nurturing Sustainable Practices Through Staged Social Engagements

Social interventions emerging from the field of social psychology and sociology have been quite effective in encouraging a positive change in environmental behaviour under the influence of a social setting. They also provide a suitable social environment for learning, adopting, incubating, and nurturing the new behaviour. The study analyzes several such cases through an exhaustive document analysis. It aims at building a deeper understanding of the complex mechanics of such contrived social engagements including their process of encouraging sustainable behaviour. It dissects the whole process into smaller activities, and maps them against the behaviour change techniques (BCT) and the relevant theories to identify their role in the process of change. Further classification of these activities on the basis of their role resulted in a model, which comprises of five key phases through which a participant undergoes during the process of change. The model provides an overview of the process, which can be useful in understanding and devising such social engagements for encouraging a positive change in behaviour for environmental benefit.

Satyakam Sharma, Kin Wai Michael Siu

Public Facilities Driven by Service Demand for Space

Pubic facilities provide spatial conditions for public services delivery. In the ideal case the amount of space available in a facility should be adjusted to the amount of space demanded by the service. However demand for space is very susceptible to fluctuations of the socio-economic environment and changes with time. This causes maladjustment between the amount of space demanded by the service and the area available. It results in either wastage of spatial resources or worsening of the working conditions. Thus we argue that the space of public facilities is a valuable resource and should be managed in function of space demand rendered by public services. To this end we propose and exemplify a method that allows us to determine the service demand for space and compare it with available spatial resources. The method uses only basic and inexpensive data, which makes it accessible for any municipality.

Robert Rusek, Joan Colomer-Llinas

Adaptive Reuse of Buildings as an Important Factor of Sustainable Development

Adaptive reuse is a successful global strategy applied in many types of facilities around the world, including prestigious heritage buildings. The aim of this article is to illustrate the potential of the adaptive reuse of buildings and their impact on sustainable development. Implementation of solutions for sustainable construction in this case entails the opportunity to combine tradition with modernity. The analysis of adaptations shows the main strategies, design criteria, and the scope of implementation, because the adaptations usually include not only the objects, but also their immediate surroundings.

Krystyna Strumiłło

Ergonomics in Building and Architecture


New Concepts in Arrangement of Living Spaces for Students

Designing living spaces for young people studying in secondary schools and universities is now a big challenge, because the needs, requirements, behaviors and habits of this social group to a large extent are influenced by social processes and social and cultural transformations resulting from technological progress and innovations. The ability to provide an adequate level of comfort needed for daily activities associated with learning, recreation and entertainment necessitates a number of insightful observations and understanding of the needs of users. The analysis will be concerned with student accommodations and living quarters in boarding houses, dormitories, hostels as well as individual private apartments and flats designed with a view to the preferences of this social group. Article will focus on possibilities in the area of innovative methods for functional and spatial shaping these objects, and will present the abilities of modern technologies and materials which allow for adaptation of these objects and facilities to the different requirements and needs of users.

Anna Jaglarz

Re-consumption of Materials in Architecture

In the paper we present the statistics showing how the building industry influences natural environment. The conclusion drawn will make it possible to define the connections between the re-consumption architecture and the issues within ecology, as well as eco-ergonomics. The further issue discussed in the paper refers to the review of modern strategies within pro-ecological engineering design, which are now obligatory in the European Union countries, including Poland. At this background, the hierarchy of actions towards those buildings which are close to the end of their primary lifetime, developed by the Author, will be presented. In the main part of the paper the results of the analysis concerning the branch literature will be presented, which is to examine the technical potential of the re-using materials in architecture. The results mentioned will give practical recommendations as to the guidelines, showing how reclaimed materials and elements of buildings can be used.

Jerzy Charytonowicz, Maciej Skowroński

Le Corbusier in Algeria: The Quest for the Human Scale in Architecture

During the french colonisation of Algeria (1830–1962), and after more than one century of discrimination, some studies were done in the aim to understand, search and draft a new form of housing for Muslim population. At this moment, the visit of Le Corbusier was done (1931). The question of housing brings other interest on human proportion, habits, ways of life, religion and culture. Consequently, new concepts appeared such as «habitat», «échelle», «cité de recasement». The principal questions were the integration of human scale as a complex paradigm. Our aim through this paper is to draft at first, a brief theoretical overview on the quest of human scale in the vernacular architecture of Algiers, which were classed universel heritage by UNESCO (1992), then, to demonstrate the evolution of this question and their relationships with the «Modulor».

Leila Chebaiki-Adli

Design Aspects Applied to Engineering: Technology Sustainable Development and Innovation in the Science Parks

Science Parks are sustainable environments where design, aligned with engineering, can achieve its maximum concept by linking scientific research and practical application. This action can facilitate implementation of new sustainable systems and methodologies in project areas as “design process” and “design driven Innovation”. The development of products focusing on R&D mixing engineering and design can produce conscious sustainable technological innovation. In Neo-Schumpeterian view, the development and evolutionary economics require constant innovation. Innovation creates new research-based frameworks applied in R&D. It allows the scientific production associated with scientific results, tested by design concepts and techniques and associated to engineering technical basis. The return of knowledge in a continuous systemic transfer system of science and practice in design promotes the improvement of the innovative technology in a more conscious way, which excels for verifying the theories and innovative ideas. in a more conscious contemporary lifetime.

Ekaterina Emmanuil Inglesis Barcellos, Galdenoro Botura, Luiz Carlos Paschoarelli

Cross-Cultural Design and Its Application in Architecture

The article presents the author’s view on multicultural context in architectural design as a key to spatial and social harmony. The review that was carried out suggests that multicultural context is an important element in the identity and in the history of a place and points out that multicultural context is an essential feature of sustainable development. The analysis led to selecting a range of elements of multicultural approach in architecture: cultural patterns, cross-cultural communication, glocalization, space branding, and multicultural canons. By placing the problem within current debates in multicultural context, we offer a new approach to amplifying architectural identity through developing intercultural capital that enables attaining creative architectural solutions. We conclude that the cross-cultural context is an important element of contemporary architecture.

Wojciech Bonenberg

Aesthetics and Composition of Forms in the Design of Means of Transport and Rehabilitation for People with Disabilities

The paper presents practical design achievements, which are the result of research in the field of human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) for persons with disabilities. The implementation of design solutions for transportation and rehabilitation purposes has been shown on the example of two constructions: electrically powered transporter and quadriplegic training device. The aim of the research was to determine both the design phases of device body-forms and aesthetics proposed to the specific target group. All presented solutions have been developed within the project “The new product line to support mobility and accessibility ambient seniors and people with disabilities” at Poznan University of Technology.

Agata Bonenberg

Application of the Green Roof System in Small and Medium Urban Cities

The urban green roof has been built in many large cities, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore, New York, Tokyo and in the like around the word. Anyhow, this idea already brings a lot of benefits to the society, environment and the economy. However, in my opinion, a lot of small towns also need to develop the green-roof system in order for it to be promoted as an easy and effective strategy for beautifying the living environment and increasing investment opportunities. In this research including functional analysis based on the designed projects, there are some high buildings in small cities used to be designed with the Green roof system; Furthermore, green roofs can also help reduce the dispersion of dust and particulate matter throughout the city, and limit smog. This can play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting urban areas to the hot summer season climate of the future.

Mo Zhou, Wojciech Bonenberg

Shift of the Function of “Temple of the Travelling” from Railway Stations to Airports

Human culture, lifestyle and economy are strictly connected to traveling and shipping goods at long distances. Means of transport have influenced societies and architecture through history, however the strongest impact was related to industrial revolution of XIX century and invention of rail. Possibility and commonness of covering long distances in a short time gave impact of developing whole cities and regions, as well as creation of specific architecture of transportation. Serving as not only a shelter and distribution hub for travelers, but allowing fulfilling certain journey habits and specific customs, train stations became kind of “Temples of Traveling”. Nowadays traveling function has shifted towards new means of transport—airplanes and their sanctuaries—airports. New religion become shopping and usage of all commercial services, offered in ever-expanding terminals. Also neglected and forgotten to some point railway stations are nowadays being subject of transformation and upgrading. This article was devoted to presentation of conclusion from research on European “Temples of Travelling” with a special focus on: architecture and structure significance, users, their needs, ergonomic aspect and surprising shifts of functions. It seems that architecture of transportation is now balancing between commercial and cultural function, therefore is especially interesting scientific study object.

Romuald Tarczewski, Elzbieta Trocka-Leszczynska, Joanna Jablonska
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