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This book reports on cutting-edge research in innovative systems interfaces, with an emphasis on both lifecycle development and human-technology interaction, especially in the cases of virtual, augmented and mixed reality systems. It describes advanced methodologies and tools for evaluating and improving interface usability and covers new models, as well as case studies and good practices. The book reports on considerations of the human, hardware, and software factors in the process of developing interfaces for optimizing total system performance, especially innovative computing technologies for teams dealing with dynamic environments, while minimizing total ownership costs. One of the main purposes is to discuss forces currently shaping the nature of computing and systems including: the needs of decreasing hardware costs; the importance of portability, which translates to the modern tendency of hardware miniaturization and technologies for reducing power requirements; the necessity of a better assimilation of computation in the environment; and social concerns about access to computers and systems for people with special needs. The book, which is based on the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Factors and System Interactions, held on July 27-31, 2016, in Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA, offers a timely survey and practice-oriented guide for systems interface users and developers alike.



Human Systems Integration Applications


Blind Waypoint Navigation Using a Computer Controlled Vibrotactile Belt

Tactons are computer-generated tactile cues that work in conjunction with a vibrotactile device placed on the skin surface. A belt prototype was designed and controlled wirelessly from a laptop. Each tacton was encoded as four pulses at 250 Hz. The vibrotactile belt was secured along the waistline of 22 participants (20–26 years old); who were blindfolded and asked to alternatively navigate to a waypoint through one of two courses of equivalent complexity, guided one only by audio cues and the other only by vibrotactile cues. Half of the participants first navigated using audio cues and then tacton cues, while the other half navigated in the alternate order. Although the analysis showed average completion time through the tacton-guided course was slower and with more errors, than the audio-guided course, those who navigated first using audio cues completed the tacton maze faster and with less errors.

Ricardo Jimenez, Ana M Jimenez

Horizontal and Vertical Handheld Pointing Devices Comparison for Increasing Human Systems Integration at the Design Stage

In addition to postural and biomechanical aspects related to usage of handheld pointing devices it is also important to perform usability assessment. The paper reports on an experimental study comparing two computer pointing devices, a standard horizontal PC mouse and a vertical device (for neutral pronation of the forearm), both commercially available. The standardized tasks implemented by software and performed by 20 experienced computer mouse users included pointing, dragging and steering. The usability parameters of effectiveness and efficiency were calculated and the participants subjectively assessed their discomfort, effort and ease of use in relation to each device in each task. Efficiency and effectiveness were higher for the horizontal device. Assessments of discomfort, effort and ease of use across the different tasks also supported the consideration of preference for the horizontal device in detriment of the vertical model. The results suggest that designing hybrid configurations may configure a better compromise.

Miguel L. Lourenço, Rui A. Pitarma, Denis A. Coelho

Cultural and Innovation Shaping of Human Systems Integration Path to Design

The paper develops on the Human Systems Integration (HSI) community notion brought forward by Norman [1]. ‘Labeling and identity’ is revisited, concerning various close disciplines sharing the encompassing aim of designing human systems integration. Problems brought about by the nature of academic disciplines in Implementing Human Systems Integration in the Design stage are contrasted to the solutions suggested by Norman in an effort to pave the path that leads to transformation from a reacting stance to a designing stance. These are juxtaposed to the diverse achievements and scope of innovation and design activities in EU countries with alternative innovation performance and national dimensions of culture, with implications for tailoring the solutions proposed by Norman. The paper concludes with an outlook on the differing rate of adoption of the solutions recommended and actual transformations envisaged within the HSI community, depending on cultural and innovation performance dimensions in 31 European countries.

Denis A. Coelho

Dynamic Gesture Analysis for Distinguishing Between Intentional and Unconscious Motions

In human communication, nonverbal information such as gestures and facial expressions plays greater role than language, and it is known that gestures serve as a major channel when designing an intimate conversation systems between human and robots. However, one of the chief problem with such gesture-based interaction is that it’s difficult to realize the effective actions and distinguish reliably between unconscious and intentional gestures: they tend to respond erroneously to unconscious movements, which impedes the natural communication. In this study, the authors propose a method for analyzing the mechanisms of effective gestures using dynamics: they have extended their analytical method to specifically identify intentional gestures, and found that they can be quantified by the value and slight changes in the torque of the main joints. Humans tend to add “preparation” and “follow-through” motions just before and after the intentional motion, and each behavior can be distinguished by using the “undershoot” or “overshoot” value if torque changes are measured with high precision. These proposed method has the potential not only to solve the problem facing the gesture-based interface but also to design human and robots communication strategy which can exceed the “uncanny valley” [1].

Toshiya Naka

Reduction of Human Induced Uncertainty Through Appropriate Feedback Design

Due to the reduction of development periods and a concurrent increase of product complexity, knowledge about the usage and resulting strain of products becomes more and more important. Thereby the human impact on the uncertainty of usage is essential, yet hardly known or quantified. A first approach for the reduction of uncertainty could be the enhancement of information by means of additional feedback. Therefore, a laboratory study is conducted to investigate the amount of uncertainty as well as the impact of feedback on uncertainty, using a simple placement task. The study shows that by enhancing the amount of information given to the user, the systems strain and with this the uncertainty can be reduced significantly. Further an appropriate concept for the representation of information has to be developed, as the mere enhancement of information could also lead to an enhancement of uncertainty.

Marius Oberle, Eugen Sommer, Christina König

The Effects of Extend Compatibility and Use Context on NFC Mobile Payment Adoption Intention

The purpose of this research was to investigate whether devices compatibility, lifestyle compatibility and use context had an effect on the individuals’ NFC m-payment adoption intention and the influencing mechanism. To implement this research, a questionnaire was carried out on the Internet based on sampling survey method, in order to test the developed research model towards NFC m-payment. Through SEM analysis we got four findings: (1) devices compatibility had an active influence on NFC m-payment adoption intention, while lifestyle compatibility did not show significant influence. (2) However, lifestyle compatibility had an influence on individuals’ use context and thus indirectly influenced individuals’ NFC m-payment adoption intention, (3) further, use context was a vital factor and had an active influence on individuals’ NFC m-payment adoption intention, (4) finally, we found perceived risk had no effects on NFC m-payment adoption intention.

Pan Liu, Shu-ping Yi

Evaluation of Data Transfer Speed Between a USB Flash Drive and Laptop

Transferring data between a PC and an external drive is an important task in today’s life. The objective of the study was to determine factors affecting the file transfer rate and assess the statistical significance of each factor. Based on the literature review, three factors were determined: file size, file location, and available space in a USB 2.0 flash drive. Three levels were designed for each factor. There are three factors, each with three levels in a factorial experiment. So, 3-way Anova was used to understand the significance of each factor and their interactions. As a result, space availability in the USB flash drive has the most significant effect on data transfer rate. Furthermore, data transfer rate is also affected by the file size and file location. Hence, it is recommended that USB flash drives should have adequate free space to maximize the file transfer rate.

Uvika Chaturvedi, Harsh Limbasia, Aditya Shobhawat, Hyung Jun Ahn

Diffusion of Knowledge Information to Industry Workers

The cooperation between the knowledge industry and the foundry enterprise is an important element to become viable the access to the information and the acquisition of knowledge. This paper has an objective to report results obtained by analyzing the contributions of the knowledge industry project for the access of the worker to information and knowledge. In the methodological aspect, the research characterized as an exploratory, descriptive, quantitative, qualitative, making the use of the case study type. Utilized as data collection tool the annual reports of attendance, the borrowing of materials from the library and the personal questionnaire distributed to users, which allowed to identify the needs, the search and use of information in the perspective of the model of use of information. It has concluded that the implantation of the unit of project, in the foundry enterprise, resulted in the promotion of access to the information and knowledge of worker.

Telma Tupy de Godoy, Elsa Cristina Giostri, Kazuo Hatakeyama

Increasing Control Room Effectiveness and Security Through Proximity-Based Interaction Technologies

In the context of ARTEMIS project HoliDes, a demonstrator was developed that employs the combination of novel proximity-based interaction technologies and adaptive support functionalities in order to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of emergency response operations. The paper presents five use cases for a border security control room.

Martin Boecker

Innovative Human-Machine Interfaces in the Automotive Domain


Use Your Brain (and Light) for Innovative Human-Machine Interfaces

The human machine interface (HMI) system of a vehicle is made up of a number of input and output devices that work in harmony to allow the driver to access a number of features and functions. The HMI of motor vehicles has evolved slowly up until the late 1990s when the first automation systems (e.g., Cruise Control) and touch screens were introduced. Since then, the amount of technologies being introduced into the car, especially over the last few years has sky-rocketed. Of these technologies none can be considered more challenging than that of the move towards vehicle automation. Given this push, new ways of interaction with the vehicle will be needed. In this paper we present two new innovative HMI techniques that will be key to addressing this challenge, namely brain-computer interfaces (BCI’s) and ambient display technology aimed to make the driver (or passenger) interaction less demanding and more intuitive.

Frankie Biondi, Lee Skrypchuk

Gesture-Based and Haptic Interfaces for Connected and Autonomous Driving

While user interfaces for in-vehicle systems in the market are mostly button- and screen-based, advances in electronic technology provide designers with new design opportunities. In this paper, we propose applications of these novel technologies for several aspects of the current and future driving context. We explore opportunities for gesture-based and haptic interfaces in three different areas: establishing shared control between the driver and the autonomous vehicle; providing situation awareness to users of autonomous vehicles while engaged in other activities; connecting drivers to fellow drivers. We argue that these interface technologies hold the promise of creating richer and more natural interaction than the traditional vision- and audio-based interfaces that dominate the current market. We conclude by outlining steps for further research.

Jacques Terken, Pierre Levy, Chao Wang, Juffrizal Karjanto, Nidzamuddin Md Yusof, Felix Ros, Sergej Zwaan

Somatosensory Interactions: Exploring Complex Tactile-Audio Messages for Drivers

We present early results of a study on tactile acoustic devices as a somatosensory communication system for drivers. A series of studies were conducted to explore this alternative mode of tactile communication and to illustrate some of the perceptual differences between tactile audio and haptic vibrations. Results from this research suggest that speech and other sounds can express information to the body with little or no advance training, and that tactile acoustic signals can function as an augmentation to haptics, leveraging the complexity of human somatosensory interactions (HSI) to increase driver’s awareness of their environment using sound as a tactile sensation.

Maria Karam, Rebecca Wilde, Patrick Langdon

Information Model for Intention-Based Robot-Human Interaction

Safe robotic-based systems gain more and more importance in an aging society. To enable all members of society to continue participation in social live, private and professional, robots are required to identify the intentions of people and the robots must be able to convey their intention to the people who use it. In this paper, an information model is introduced which matches the robot’s atomic capabilities like rotational or translational motion or grasping which must be aggregated to more complex skills. These skills must be associated with an application context. Furthermore, the mapping between the robot’s capabilities must be transparent and comprehensible to the human user, so that in fact intentions can be derived from an actual handling procedure. The information model is based on the following steps: 1st system design, 2nd gather, 3rd recognition and evaluation and 4th response.

Daniel Schilberg, Sebastian Schmitz

Augmented Reality for the Support of Space Exploration Missions and On-Ground/On-Orbit Operations

The work presented in this paper is the result of two different but connected studies related to the adoption of Augmented Reality (AR) technologies in the field of space exploration and operations scenarios. During the first three years study an innovative Graphical User Interface (GUI) utilizing Augmented Reality technologies (GUI-AR) have been developed for space exploration scenarios and relevant interaction methods and metaphors have been conceived. The second study, named EdcAR, commissioned by ESA and currently ongoing, has always to do with AR technologies but this time in two different operational scenarios. In the first scenario the AR system is used to support on-ground operators during telecommunications satellites integration and testing activities while the second scenario deals with on-board training and the ground control remote support to the crew during malfunction and recovery activities onboard the ISS. The final AR system demonstrator will be delivered to ESA on October 2016.

Domenico Tedone, Manuela Marello, Giorgio Musso, Nikos Frangakis, David Martinez Oliveira, Sergio Agostinho, Kaj Helin

Human-Machine Interactions and Emergency Management Applications


Teaching Usability to Industrial Engineering Students

Industrial Engineers determine a better way to do things and work in varied professional areas, which includes Ergonomics. Usability is a key topic in Ergonomics, related with the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of human-system interactions. Usability impacts companies’ productivity and economic success since, e.g. the occurrence of errors can lead to incidents and/or accidents; to do unnecessary operations increases the load and/or the gestures repetition, with potential for the development of work related musculoskeletal disorders; and users’ dissatisfaction can become a risk factor for the development of stress, with all the consequences associated with it. In this context the thematic of Usability was initiated in the Master program of Industrial Engineering. A learn-by-doing approach was introduced in order to assist students’ reach the defined learning outcomes. The paper offers some insights on the benefits of the adopted methodology, analyzes results of the last four years and discusses some observed trends.

Isabel L. Nunes

Comparing the Effectiveness and Accuracy of New Usability Heuristics

Nielsen’s usability heuristics are the most recognized assessment tool to conduct heuristic evaluations. However, in a previous study we demonstrated these principles fail to cover all aspects of usability in the emerging categories of software products. The current generation of applications is embedded of special features that are not considered by the conventional principles. For this reason, we have developed a new set of usability heuristics that provide accurate results when are used to evaluate transactional Web applications. In this paper, we present a comparative study, in which the effectiveness of our new proposal and the Nielsen’s approach are contrasted. For this purpose, two groups of students were trained in a different set of principles. Subsequently, they were requested to conduct a heuristic evaluation using the approach that was assigned. Then, the results were compared. The analysis establishes that our new proposal covers more features, is more understandable and is perceived as easy to use. Although the promising results, some improvements and more experiments are required in other scenarios.

Freddy Paz, Freddy Asrael Paz, José Antonio Pow-Sang

When to Interrupt: A Comparative Analysis of Interruption Timings Within Collaborative Communication Tasks

This study seeks to determine if it is necessary for a software agent to monitor the communication channel between a human operator and human collaborators to effectively detect appropriate times to convey information or “interrupt” the operator in a collaborative communication task. The study explores the outcome of overall task performance and task time of completion (TOC) at various delivery times of periphery task interruptions. A collaborative, goal-oriented task is simulated via a dual-task where an operator participates in the primary collaborative communication task and a secondary keeping track task. User performance at various interruption timings: random, fixed, and human-determined (HD) are evaluated to determine whether an intelligent form of interrupting users is less disruptive and benefits users’ overall interaction. There is a significant difference in task performance when HD interruptions are delivered in comparison with random and fixed timed interruption. There is a 54 % overall accuracy for task performance using HD interruptions compared to 33 % for fixed interruptions and 38 % for random interruptions. These results are promising and provide some indication that monitoring a communication channel or adding intelligence to the interaction can be useful for the exchange.

Nia Peters, Griffin Romigh, George Bradley, Bhiksha Raj

The Impact of False and Nuisance Alarms on the Design Optimization of Physical Security Systems

Despite the known degrading impact of high nuisance and false alarm rates (NAR/FAR) on operator performance, analyses of security systems often ignores operator performance. We developed a model to analyze the impact of nuisance alarm rates on operator performance and on overall system performance. The model demonstrates that current methods that do not account for operator performance produce optimistic estimates of system performance. As shown in our model, even low NAR/FAR levels and the associated alarm queueing effect can increase operator detect and response time, which in turn reduces the amount of time the response force has to interrupt the intruder. An illustrative analysis shows that alarm processing times can be higher than the assessment time due to queue wait times and that systems with only one or two operators can become overwhelmed as NAR increases, decreasing system performance.

Alisa Bandlow, Katherine A. Jones, Nathanael J. K. Brown, Linda K. Nozick

Facing Disasters—Trends in Applications to Support Disaster Management

Disaster Management is a complex process, usually dealing with a large amount of uncertain, incomplete and vague information, which normally requires the coordination and collaboration among a variety of actors. Technology offers new and exciting opportunities to deal with these challenges, but also may create new types of challenges that can overwhelm decision makers. The paper will offer insights on the innovative trends that can be found in applications designed to support disaster management addressing, in particular, the approaches that address preparedness and response stages. The work will look at the characteristics of different types of human interaction proposals considering applications, such as “serious games” for the preparedness phase or collaborative distributed intelligent systems for the response phase.

Mário J. Simões-Marques

Computing Technologies for Teams Dealing with Dynamic Environments


Accessibility, Adaptability, and Extendibility: Dealing with the Small Data Problem

An underserved niche exists for data mining tools in complex analytical environments. We propose three attributes of analytical tool development that facilitates rapid operationalization of new tools into complex, dynamic environments: accessibility, adaptability, and extendibility. Accessibility we define as the ability to load data into an analytical system quickly and seamlessly. Adaptability we define as the ability to apply a tool rapidly to new, unanticipated use cases. Extendibility we define as the ability to create new functionality “in the field” where it is being used and, if needed, harden that new functionality into a new, more permanent user interface. Distributed “big data” systems generally do not optimize for these attributes, creating an underserved niche for new analytical tools. In this paper we will define the problem, examine the three attributes, and describe the architecture of an example system called Citrus that we have built and use that is especially focused on these three attributes.

Travis Bauer, Daniel Garcia

Unconstrained Biometric Identification in Real World Environments

In this work, we introduce four topics that cover the most important problems and challenges for unconstrained face biometrics identification in real world environment. They are (1) off angle and occluded face recognition, (2) low resolution face recognition, (3) full craniofacial 3D modeling, and (4) hallucinating the full face from the periocular region. We will show the state-of-the-art results accordingly.

Marios Savvides, Felix Juefei-Xu, Utsav Prabhu, Chandrasekhar Bhagavatula

Predicting Team Performance Through Human Behavioral Sensing and Quantitative Workflow Instrumentation

For decades, the social sciences have provided the foundation for the study of humans interacting with systems; however, sparse, qualitative, and often subjective observations can be insufficient in capturing the complex dynamics of modern sociotechnical enterprises. Technical advances in quantitative system-level and physiological instrumentation have made possible greater objective study of human-system interactions, and joint qualitative-quantitative methodologies are being developed to improve human performance characterization. In this paper we detail how these methodologies were applied to assess teams’ abilities to effectively discover information, collaborate, and make risk-informed decisions during serious games. Statistical models of intra-game performance were developed to determine whether behaviors in specific facets of the gameplay workflow were predictive of analytical performance and game outcomes. A study of over seventy instrumented teams revealed that teams who were more effective at face-to-face communication and system interaction performed better at information discovery tasks and had more accurate game decisions.

Matthew Daggett, Kyle O’Brien, Michael Hurley, Daniel Hannon

Improving Anomaly Detection Through Identification of Physiological Signatures of Unconscious Awareness

It is well-known and accepted in the field of cognitive psychology that people have no conscious experience of most of what happens in the human mind. Nevertheless, appropriate actions or conclusions are often still made without this conscious effort. This phenomenon has many potential applications, ranging from driving a vehicle to detecting threats in military video feeds. Investigation of these unconscious processes could provide an insight into potential errors that occur. The present study explores missed anomalies in a visual search task and the possibility of unconscious awareness. A total of 24 subjects participated in the task, in which the goal was to locate targets hidden in an image. Eye physiology was recorded with a Tobii T120 eye tracking monitor in order to characterize the eye physiology of detection, non-detection, and possible unconscious detection. Preliminary results indicate outliers in eye-physiology of non-detections, indicating a possible unconscious detection.

Alyssa M. Piasecki, Mary E. Fendley, Rik Warren

Human-Machine Interaction in the Cockpit and Applicable Design Changes Towards Better Collaboration

Current flight deck automation has improved the safety and efficiency of commercial aviation but a broad consensus has developed over the last 20 years that this technology is deficient in some areas. It has been developed in an ad hoc manner and without a human centered approach; leading to problems regarding the human/machine interaction and adversely impacting decision making throughout the flight. Current procedures and design do not give automation liability although it has great authority and autonomy during most phases of flight. Cockpit automation has not been designed in such a way to provide adequate and unambiguous feedback to the human operator as to its current and intended actions. More or different training is the most common response to this problem but has failed to fully compensate for the design flaws in current automated systems. Accidents that cite pilot error do not always acknowledge how difficult it is for human operators to overcome fundamental, system level, flaws in the design of the machines they work with. This paper proposes some changes in cockpit automation design that will improve the vigilance of the pilots and therefore create better decision-making. Numerous accident and incident reports have been cited by regulatory authorities when making changes in automated flight operation regulations. This reflects a “reactive” approach to FAA automated flight safety guidelines and highlights the need for an improved governance system in the cockpit. This paper also provides a literature review for current studies on human-machine interaction related to the cockpit.

Aysen Taylor

Human Interaction in Automated and Collaborative Systems


Effect of the Implementation of the Two-Third Power Law in Teleoperation

This research consists in studying the effect of the implementation of a biological law on the teleoperation of a mobile robot. Two experimental conditions are compared: a Manual one, in which the velocity of the robot is controlled by the human operator, and a Biological one, in which the vehicle’s speed is automatically calculated by using the 2/3 Power Law. Results show that the robot is driven faster and safer with the human-like behavior than without. The objective of the study is to propose an innovative method for the development of semi-autonomous vehicles, which is based on an anthropomorphic approach.

Yves Rybarczyk, Diogo Carvalho

Speed and Accuracy Improvements in Visual Pattern Recognition Tasks by Employing Human Assistance

This study investigates methods of enhancing human-computer interaction in applications of visual pattern recognition where higher accuracy is required than is currently achievable by automated systems, but where there is enough time for a limited amount of human interaction. The first author’s doctoral dissertation research and experiments are summarized here. Within this study the following questions are explored: How do machine capabilities compare to human capabilities in visual pattern recognition tasks in terms of accuracy and speed? Can we improve machine-only accuracy in visual pattern recognition tasks? Should we employ human assistance in the feature extraction process? Finally, human assistance is explored in color and shape/contour recognition within a machine visual pattern recognition framework.

Amir I. Schur, Charles C. Tappert

Development and Evaluation of Augmented Object Prototypes for Notifications in Collaborative Writing Environments

In Ubiquitous Computing, augmented objects refer to those elements of the real world which have been provided with computational capabilities to meet a specific need. Meanwhile, Collaborative Writing Environments (CWE) allow groups of people to work together and increase the chances of success and share knowledge when they are working on shared documents. An extremely important aspect in CWEs is notification mechanisms as these are essential to provide users awareness about the collaborative work they are doing. In this paper, we describe a set of augmented objects created to support the notification in CWEs; these objects can improve the way in which the notifications are delivered to users, according to the writing strategy defined by the collaboration team.

Jose A. Brenes, Gustavo López, Luis A. Guerrero

Connecting Small Form-Factor Devices to the Internet of Things

The proliferation of inexpensive, small form-factor devices, such as Raspberry Pi, have enthused electronics hobbyists for years. IBM has recognized the opportunity for such devices to sense and control at the very fringes of the Internet. This paper will provide an overview of how to connect devices using IBM Bluemix, the IBM Watson IoT Foundation Platform, and other freely available technologies to bring unique IoT solutions to the enterprise.

Andrea C. Martinez

GPU-Based Parallel Computation in Real-Time Modeling of Atmospheric Radionuclide Dispersion

Atmospheric radionuclide dispersion systems (ARDS) are important tools to predict the impact of radioactive releases from Nuclear Power Plants and guide people evacuation from affected areas. To predict radioactive material dispersion and its consequences to environment, ARDS process information about source term (nuclear material released), weather conditions and geographical features. ARDS are basically comprised by 4 modules: Source Term, Wind Field, Plume Dispersion and Doses Calculations. Wind Field and Plume Dispersion modules are the most computationally expensive, requiring high performance computing to achieve adequate precision in acceptable time. This work focuses on the development of a GPU-based parallel Wind Field module. The program, based on Extrapolated from Stability and Terrain (WEST) model, is under development using C++ language and CUDA libraries. In comparative case study between some parallel and sequential calculations, a speedup of 40 times could be observed.

André Pinheiro, Filipe Desterro, Marcelo Santos, Claudio Pereira, Roberto Schirru

Interfaces for Distributed Remote User Controlled Manufacturing as Collaborative Environment

Recent advances in information and communication technologies that support the concept of collaborative networks have allowed manufacturing enterprises to use remotely controlled decentralized manufacturing processes. This survey is based on the experiment that involved 34 small collaborative groups at Serbia, that have used the interface for remote collaborative control of manufacturing systems to control of CNC machine located in Portugal. The experiments on collaborative environment are done using two types of “client” user interface, “Wall” and “Window”. Measured characteristics included: collaborative effort, involvement, awareness, representational fidelity features and co-presence. Results show that “Wall” interface has higher values of index of interdependence of collaborative virtual environment characteristics. Conclusion is that characteristics of collaborative environment are less interdependent when “Window” is used opposite to the “Wall” interface. Future research ideas are to test similar platforms with more users and to study aspects such as group leader choice and role, possible conflicts etc.

Vesna Spasojevic Brkic, Goran Putnik, Zorica A. Veljković, Vaibhav Shah, Ahmed Essdai

Novel Helicopter Flight Director and Display

A helicopter’s final approach and landing are critical phases of flight that are highly susceptible to spatial disorientation when external visual cues are degraded or absent. Current visual landing aid systems display tracking error which the pilot attempts to null in a compensatory fashion. This paper presents theoretical and preliminary empirical support for performance enhancement when providing pilots guidance preview and prediction of states, rather than just a compensatory display of the tracking error. A novel space-time format is proposed for displaying: (1) Previewed 4D guidance information; (2) Projected (predicted) state relative to the guidance preview; and (3) Current state relative to current guidance and terminal objectives. A key objective of the display is to allow the pilot to perceive and control each axis of translation as part of an integrated pattern, thus distributing attention equitably.

Edward Bachelder

Trust Transfer Mechanism and Intention on Accepting NFC Mobile Payment: An Empirical Research

The purpose of this research is to investigate whether individuals’ trust in remote mobile payment (m-payment) had an effect on the individuals’ initial trust in Near Field Communication (NFC) m-payment, and the mechanism of trust transfer also was explored. To implement this research, a questionnaire was carried out on the internet based on sampling survey method, in order to test the developed trust transfer model towards NFC m-payment. Through SEM analysis we got four findings: (1) trust in remote m-payment had an active influence on trust in NFC m-payment, (2) in addition, initial trust influenced individuals’ NFC m-payment adoption intention directly and indirectly, (3) further, use context was a vital factor and had an active influence on individuals’ NFC m-payment adoption intention, (4) finally, we extended the construct of compatibility and confirmed its effects on NFC m-payment adoption intention. This paper is a van research on the adoption of NFC m-payment, analyzing trust transfer mechanism and its effects on NFC m-payment.

Hongyu Shen, Pan Liu, Shuping Yi

From User Scenario to Design Strategy: Practice Research on Product Innovation

In the mobile internet era, the meaning of a product depends much more on “scenario”, emphasizing better thinking about the future from the present. The competition on the mobile internet is essentially the vying between scenarios. Based on the analysis of user scenarios and the professional insights, designers can adopt efficient and rational design strategies. Through case studies on user scenarios, designers can evaluate the effects and changes a new design and a new product cause on different customers’ psychology and behavior. Then they can employ targeted measures in design, so as to realize the design goals, promote customers’ understanding and acceptance, and even create both commercial and customer values by product innovation.

Jun Hu, Kun Zhou
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