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Über dieses Buch

This book reports on practical approaches for facilitating the process of achieving excellence in the management and leadership of organizational resources. It shows how the principles of creating shared value can be applied to ensure faster learning, training, business development, and social renewal. In particular, the book presents novel methods and tools for tackling the complexity of management and learning in both business organizations and society. It covers ontologies, intelligent management systems, methods for creating knowledge and value added. It gives novel insights into time management and operations optimization, as well as advanced methods for evaluating customers’ satisfaction and conscious experience. Based on the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Factors, Business Management and Society, held on July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA, the book provides both researchers and professionals with new tools and inspiring ideas for achieving excellence in various business activities.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Erratum to: Advances in Human Factors, Business Management, Training and Education

Jussi Ilari Kantola, Tibor Barath, Salman Nazir, Terence Andre

Competency-Based Education and Personalized Learning

Frontmatter

The Impact of Competency-Based Learning and Digital Self-assessment on Facilitating Students’ Cognitive and Interpersonal Skills

This paper aims to utilize a mixed-methods assessment for an innovative interdisciplinary course, Application Period, in a world-class Russian University. In order to examine how the cognitive (competency-based learning) and motivational (self-efficacy for interpersonal skills) concepts impact students’ achievement in engineering education, an exploratory sequential design was conducted by firstly collecting qualitative data to signify the students’ interactive learning process during the project-based collaboration and team communication. Subsequently, two instruments measuring the students’ learning outcomes were built based on the previous qualitative data and preliminary learning objectives. The suggestions and implications are provided to specify how to employ competency-based learning and self-efficacy for interpersonal skills in teaching and how to assess those content knowledge and pedagogical skills in contemporary education.

Yashu Kauffman, Douglas Kauffman

Keeping the HF/UX Curriculum Current with the Critical Decision Method

Vicious problems are problems that reinvent themselves. One vicious problem is how to educate the next generation of usability (UX) professionals. I borrowed a method from naturalistic decision-making research: the critical decision method (CDM). A CDM is an ethnographic approach that elicits the implicit knowledge of experts in their area of expertise. The methodology reveals the decision points, options, and outcomes with which a decision maker struggles. The decision points derive key attributes, meanings, and goals for the area of concern. UX businesses have a vicious problem similar to education: whom to hire for a UX position, who is qualified and who is not? I used the critical decision method to elicit required skills within the local UX market. These contributed to a reworking of the UX curriculum. The methodology and the results are discussed.

Lisa Jo Elliott

Virtual Environments for Competency-Oriented Education and Training

Highly trained soldiers are essential for successful military missions. Soldiers have to be optimally prepared to make the right decision and act successfully under complex and dangerous conditions. An optimal preparation requires a holistic approach, taking training objectives, content, processes and technologies into equal consideration. The recent military standard for education and training, which is just being updated by German military authorities, focuses a competency-oriented approach rather than training objectives. The military standard also highlights self-organized learning and quality management as essentials. This is not learned but experienced. Virtual Simulation and especially Virtual Reality (VR) and Virtual Environments (VE) are seen as innovative technologies with high potential. They allow for experiencing a broad range of training scenarios in a safe environment. Especially competency-based training can be supported by such innovative technologies. This paper will elaborate the potential of applying these technologies for enhancing and supporting competencies.

Thomas Alexander, Martin Westhoven, Jessica Conradi

Commitment and Motivation in Management and Leadership

Frontmatter

Delphic Maxims Based Applied Philosophy for Business and Governance Management

Knowledge analysis and representation is significant in defining situations before they are implemented through action. Knowledge engineering precedes knowledge management and knowledge utilization needs knowledge creation. In the race for capturing and mastering knowledge, emphasis is given to the development of intelligent methods and tools to understand the human mind, but not the human being itself. To tackle this complexity, it is necessary to seek knowledge in non-trivial sources via root cause analysis models of philosophical wisdom, which usually provides the answers. As problems become more complex over time, synergies of knowledge disciplines are critical and necessary. This paper presents a triadic categorization approach, based on classes, taxonomies, and ontologies of the Delphic Maxims, and their analysis by cognitive models in an attempt to reveal their contribution to modern business and governance management through the essence of the Hellenic contribution to the global economy, civilization and humanity.

Evangelos Markopoulos, Hannu Vanharanta

Commitment and Motivation in Professional Organization

Personnel is vital for the companies and the performance in organizations is based on competence of personnel. Motivation and commitment are critical preconditions for organizational success. The study focuses on evaluating commitment and motivation levels of experts. The aim was to discover the main exceptions between the current status and the vision regarding commitment and motivation. The fluctuations of commitment and motivation levels were analyzed in terms of departments, gender, age and years of service. The survey was conducted by using Helix, an Evolute-based application, which was developed for measuring and evaluating the personnel commitment levels. This survey strongly emphasized the significance of affective commitment. In observing either the creative tensions or the product of creative tension and importance, all surfacing main categories fall under the affective commitment component.

Johanna Koskialho, Jarno Einolander, Hannu Vanharanta

Master’s Students’ Commitment and Engagement in Their Course Behavior

Student commitment is a major concern for universities around the world. Research has indicated that students’ psychological attachment to their university, in other words commitment, can be a major predictor of student retention, as well as affecting many other attitudes and types of behavior. This makes university commitment critical to university success. The present study seeks to find out whether there is a relation between students’ grades and the degree of their engagement and commitment, using the Evolute approach. The research group in this study consisted of master’s degree students studying in faculties of Business and Built Environment and Computing and Electrical Engineering. In the newly developed instrument, respondents assessed 124 unique statements regarding their current situation and their vision for the future. This score and its sub-scores are compared in relation to individual course grades.

Jarno Einolander, Hannu Vanharanta, Ari Visa

Development of Students’ Commitment over Time—Case Study from a Finnish University of Technology

Using a fuzzy logic-based application that utilizes linguistic scale values, we have evaluated commitment and engagement of five individual university students from Finland studying Industrial Management and Engineering from bachelor’s to master’s level. The data was gathered over one year and the students answered the application three times during different management courses. This research paper concentrates on analyzing three different commitment categories to see whether there has been change over time, as expected. Our assumption is that academic commitment and engagement toward studies tend to increase as studies progress and students approach graduation.

Jarno Einolander, Hannu Vanharanta

Human Resource Management

Frontmatter

Skills and Human Engineering Issues at Task Design

The risk of inadequate critical task design is recognized by NASA as an important issue with potential risk to human health and performance in space. We propose an information system based on skills management to adapt the tasks and procedures time to time, after each new experiment in training or real operations.

Olivier Chator, Jean-Marc Salotti

The Role of Crowdfunding as a Business Model in New Media Industry

The business models in new media industry are in transformation. The Internet’s impact (both technological impact as well as participatory culture), decreasing readership, and audience fragmentation are among the most influential factors putting into question media management practices. In this changing scenario, the quest for new funding models of media is a priority. One new potential revenue source is crowdfunding—a distributed funding model in which projects funded by small donations or payments from a large crowd of people. In presented article a special attention is given to the case of new media. The focus of inquiry of this paper lies in exploring crowdfunding platforms. Finally, the role of crowdfunding as a funding model for new media is considered.

Anna Szopa, Tadeusz Marek, Magdalena Fafrowicz

Leader Integrity and Employee Outcomes: Where Do They Collide?

This study samples 270 employees from Ghana’s Civil Service to examine their perception of their leaders and the relative influence this leadership attribute has on their citizenship and unproductive behaviours at the workplace. The study finds that leader integrity is strongly related to the OCB of followers but has no significant relationship with their deviant behaviours. The study thus recommends that managers be mindful to demonstrate integrity in the search for positive employee outcomes. This study is the first to examine the relationship between these variables in an African context.

Kwasi Dartey-Baah, Reginald Arthur

Heterogeneity of Leadership Styles as Behavioral Units: The Role of Personality in Searching for Leadership Profiles

The main aim of the presented empirical study is verification that leadership styles are not homogenous. Using hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 477), we demonstrated heterogeneity of leadership styles expressed in behavioral configuration of leadership profiles. Individual differences in leadership profiles reflect authentic managerial leading styles, which managers deploy in real organizational circumstances. Presented findings yielded that configurations of leadership styles, i.e. leadership profiles, go beyond a two-dimensional pattern of task- and follower-orientation. This study also determined that there are differences in the personality configuration between leadership profiles (n = 333). By verifying differences in personality traits in each of the leadership profiles, we have also proven that they are psychologically consistent. Results deliver a distinction among leaders who are active, task-oriented, sociable and conscientious labeled Natural leaders; inactive but open to experience, agreeable and rewarding named Pseudo-democrats; active, oriented towards personal achievement, risk oriented and high on neuroticism labeled Machiavellians; and inactive, dysfunctional, absent, low on extraversion and conscientiousness named Pseudo-supervisors. This study shows that authentic managerial leading styles extend beyond “pure” task- or follower-orientation; rather they require abilities to utilize various kinds of behavioral styles in a given situation.

Jolanta Babiak, Beata Bajcar, Czesław S. Nosal

A Study of the Current Status of Diversity Faultlines in Japanese Work Organizations

Managing people from different backgrounds has brought great benefits to work organizations. However, previous research has shown that diversity may have negative effects on performance because of diversity “faultlines”, hypothetical dividing lines that may split a group into subgroups. We conducted an empirical study on faultlines for the first time in Japan to investigate the present status of faultlines and to assess the degree to which workers perceive that (certain) attributes (e.g. nationality, ethnicity, age, personality, attitude) may have an impact on the emergence of faultlines in Japanese work organizations. It has been shown that task-related attributes such as specialty and ability/knowledge are great factors affecting faultlines, and that every participant perceives faultlines based on such attributes as specialty, personality, and attitude.

Takumi Iwaasa, Naoto Shoji, Motoki Mizuno

A Segmented Abstraction Hierarchy Model for Business Process Modeling

Business process modeling (BPM) typically focuses on the definition and refinement of standardized rules governing typical operations. The accommodation of extraordinary events is not usually addressed in BPM. A process model based on an abstraction hierarchy framework, however, could benefit by borrowing from the tools developed for ecologic interface design, which relies on underlying abstraction hierarchy models to provide adaptability in atypical conditions. In this work, a modified abstraction hierarchy model is proposed for application to general-purpose information systems. The new model explicitly includes both human and technologic components as an agent-based construct, and seeks to better define their interactions with data/information. The model is intended to act as a framework for guiding the development of robust business process models.

Arthur C. Jones

Intuitive Number Evaluation Is not Affected by Information Processing Load

Numbers play a major role in decisions about vital life issues. This study compared the relative advantage of analytical vs. intuitive numerical processing in numerical average evaluations, while varying information load, complexity of the task and the information presentation formats. Thinking manipulation was based on Dehaene’s [5] model, which postulates two pathways for the numerical processing. The complexity level of the task was manipulated by varying the number of items to be averaged. The information presentation format were simultaneous vs. sequential. When few numbers were presented, analytical evaluations were more accurate. When task complexity increased and a sequential presentation was used, intuitive evaluations were more accurate. The results challenge the common position that analytical thinking is always advantageous in numerical evaluations, suggesting instead that the relative efficiency of each thinking mode is mediated by task’s factors. The cognitive mechanisms that might underlie our results are discussed.

Zohar Rusou, Dan Zakay, Marius Usher

Education Research and Applications

Frontmatter

Engagement in Social Learning: Detecting Engagement in Online Communities of Practice

The education in informal learning contexts is spreading over the world. In these contexts, from a pedagogical point of view, the most used approaches is the social learning and, in particular the communities of practice (CoP). From a technological point of view, the social network is the framework most used to allow users to interact and to share resources. Several aspects have been identified as key factors for the success of the community, the engagement is one of the most important. Thus, in order to guarantee a successful learning process in a CoP it is necessary to detect and monitor user’s engagement in a continuous and unobtrusive way. The research proposes a model to detect and measure the engagement in online communities by means Social Learning Analytics from log files.

Enrica Pesare, Teresa Roselli, Veronica Rossano

Incorporating Human Factors in Course Design: Utility of Wearable Technologies

The purpose of this paper is to describe efforts taken by Texas A&M University at Qatar to bridge the gap between traditional modes of instruction and a new tech-savvy student populace. The undertaking proved to be challenging as it required addressing the buildup of a technology infrastructure, development of training programs, and establishment of motivational strategies to encourage experimentation with innovative teaching ideas. One promising idea that resulted from the aforementioned efforts showed that the approach of incorporating elements of technologies that are pervasive among students in course design has the potential to promote acceptance and enable effectiveness. A pilot study that is discussed in this paper utilized a wearable technology with an optical head mounted display to develop multimedia instructions for chemical engineering students. Student surveys revealed mixed reactions to different parts of the study but the overall enthusiasm about the approach remained positive.

Mohamed Ismail, Hamid Parsaei, Konstantinos Kakosimos

Usability Evaluation of a Leap Motion-Based Educational Application

This paper describes the usability testing conducted to evaluate an educational application for exploring heart anatomies which utilizes the recently introduced Leap Motion (LM) device for hand gesture-based input. The aim of the testing was to identify any usability problems with the LM and the application interface and to assess the potential of gesture-based interaction for educational tools. The test exposed the need for providing demonstrations of required gestures at the interface, basing commands on simple and intuitive single gestures, and designing better icons with clear usage descriptions. It also showed that participants found LM-based interaction highly learnable and enjoyable despite the usability problems they encountered and revealed their willingness and enthusiasm for using educational tools which support gesture-based user interaction in the future.

Arwa Al-Razooq, Bayan Boreggah, Laila Al-Qahtani, Rabia Jafri

A Comparative Study on the Usability of Educational Platforms Used by Instructors in the University of the Philippines

A number of learning management systems were launched in an attempt to provide an online educational platform for teachers and students. Considering the perspective of the students, the researchers want to evaluate the usability of Facebook, Google Mail, and University Virtual Learning Environment (UVLe, the official educational website of UP), the most used websites by College of Engineering professors and instructors in University of the Philippines. Each subject was asked to perform a set of six constant tasks which were presented as scenarios. Four usability metrics, specifically, effectiveness, efficiency, learnability, and satisfaction were used for the evaluation. Each metric was measured by one or more parameters. After each task, the subject was asked to answer the Single Ease Question, Perceived Click Affordance Test and System Usability Scale. According to the study, Gmail dominated both Facebook and UVLe in all of the four usability metrics used.

Nicole Simon, Brent John Carbonera, Benette Custodio

A Preliminary Study of Using Avatars and Learning Companions for Junior High School Students in Enhancing Studying Chinese Classical Literature

This study focuses on whether preference of virtual avatars and learning companions in a virtual environment has influences on junior high students in learning Chinese classical literature learning. To understand this issue, we collected the target learners’ preference of cartoon characters, and images of avatars and learning companies that students like most in the virtual environments. Based on the feedback from the learners, we integrated the preferred emotions into the digital interactive system of the classical literature. Overall, the results of this study show that students have high achievements in learning Chinese classical literature because of their positive emotions toward the virtual avatars and learning companions, and students also have the positive feedback toward the virtual avatars and learning companions. In addition, by the positive emotions toward the virtual avatars and learning companions, students decrease their aversion to classical literature.

Shao-Jui Hung, Shelley Shwu-Ching Young

Gaps Between Practice and Education of Architect—A Study of India

Identifying right tools and techniques to be used for design education remains a challenge for architectural education in India. The study presented in this paper is part of author’s ongoing research on design-build studios. Various unresolved issues related to skills and intellect of an architect, demand new pedagogical models to be introduced in the existing pattern. Through observations, experience and literature, easily observable is the lacuna, that the graduates entering the field of architecture find it difficult to relate their design and construction education and real world practice. This paper also proposes specific means for bringing this gap in Indian scenarios of Architectural education. Results of questionnaires responded by several practicing architects and architecture students are presented.

Shweta Saxena, Sandeep Arora, Apurv Shrivastava

A Preliminary Study of Integrating an Action Role-Playing Game into an Ancient Prose

The purpose of this research is to build a role-playing game system based on ancient prose to help students increase the understanding of ancient prose through the exploration of the game tasks. Apart from other role-playing games, we put more emphasis on the enhancement of learning interests and integration of different game elements into our system, inclusive of an avatar system, whack-a-mole game, scrabble game, simulation game and so on. In the portion of content design of our game, we designed game elements based on conducting expert interviews in the fields of digital learning and teaching in Chinese and comparisons of different versions of Chinese textbooks. This research divided the system design into two stages: (1) system planning, and (2) system construction. In the first stage, we collected 56 questionnaires from junior high school students to investigate the degree and acceptance of learning ancient prose. In addition, we regarded preferences toward games from students as our design principles. In the stage of system construction, we invited the same students to test our game prototype in order to revise our game system. Moreover, we investigated the interests towards ancient prose from them through evaluation to improve the mechanism of our game. To sum up, this research aims to enhance the knowledge’s and learning motivation of ancient prose in the situation of self-directed learning through our system.

Pin-Chun Fang, Shelley Shwu-Ching Yang

The Usage of Social Networking Sites for Education in the Higher Education Context

This research aimed to study the usage of social networking sites (SNSs) for education in the higher education context. The survey research consisted of 412 university students who used social networking sites. The main purposes of students for the usage of SNSs in education were to communicate with their classmates and lecturers rather than collaborate on their academic work or use them as a space for information resource sharing. The students revealed that the main advantages they received from using SNSs were easy and convenient ways to search for information, effective ways to contact or communicate with classmates and lecturers, and closer relationship among friends. Regarding the psychological factors that influenced the usage of SNSs in the educational context were subjective norms, compatibility between technology and users, and attitude toward technology. In addition, SNSs usage also correlated with its positive outcome in the context of education. The problems and obstacles the students faced from using SNSs in the educational context were management of time spending online and misinterpretation of non-face-to-face communication.

Sasithon Yuwakosol

Knowledge Creation for the Future

Frontmatter

Knowledge Creation and Learning in a Sugarcane Industry in Veracruz, Mexico

In order to increase the success in the knowledge creation and learning process among sugarcane growers, a 120-h pilot program was created and implemented for a private factory in the southern region of Mexico. A total of 30 growers and 4 technicians of this private factory were chosen to participate in the program for the adoption of technical innovations. Trainers were asked to prepare their courses considering the following effective educational methodologies when teaching adult learners: self-directed, active, experiential, collaborative, and narrative. Results showed that 40 % of the growers dropped out of the program, technicians were not comfortable during the program as they felt they lost their status, and some innovations could not be implemented adequately due to the lack of available equipment and supplies.

Francisco Hernandez Rosas, Katia Angelica Figueroa Rodriguez, Shida Henneberry, Benjamin Figueroa Sandoval

Different Roles in Leadership Styles in Modern Organization

Today’s rapidly changing world has forced leaders to change their leadership styles aligned to the current situation faster than ever. What kind of leadership style should be utilized in modern expert organization? What are leaders’ own experiences and can leadership styles somehow been assessed? What have scholars founded regarding leadership styles? This paper examines different situational leadership approaches in order to reveal literature based ontology of leadership styles. Ontology includes leadership styles from over ten well known and tested leadership approaches. Case study is also used to test the possibility for find leaders’ styles and development needs via survey. A sample group of leaders answered to the survey with a focus to clarify the leaders of a conscious understanding towards of the working role styles of leadership. The perspective of this paper is the leadership styles and coordination between different leadership approaches. Paper handles results and points out future research suggestion.

Tero Reunanen, Jaana Kaitonen

Path of Creativity in Entrepreneur: Basic Concept of Creative Economy Development

Creativity and entrepreneurship are key success factors of creative economy driven policy. Understanding of relationship and mechanism between them will lead to economic growth rate and achievement. The objective of this study is to find the relationship between creativity and entrepreneurship, and the mechanism that lead to conceptual development of creativity-based economy. The finding of the study will contribute mechanism of creativity formulation on a man and how to change them to be entrepreneur that will make us understanding process of creative economy development in the future. The researchers have reviewed the literature on creativity, entrepreneur, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial characteristics, and entrepreneurial factors to form the theoretical framework and relating compartment between creativity and entrepreneur. The concept of creativity, entrepreneurship, and the relationship between both concepts are discussed in the paper. From the study, there is evidence to support that creativity is the basic requirement for entrepreneur. Environment conditions are critical factors inducing individual’s creativity through creativity process and practices. Along with business conditions on creativity process and practices, eventually the content would be reckoned as entrepreneurship. In summary, entrepreneur uses background knowledge, internal and external factors, to formulated creativity. Creativity is not enough to achieve business, but also experience in business is requirement.

Varit Intrama, Sammiti Sookbanjung, Kritchana Santawee, Phattira Teerasawad

Innovation Management and Leadership

Frontmatter

Space for Company Democracy

Space is a vital element in a system for the development of anything, as it defines the freedom needed to evolve, mature, and contribute. Lack of space is lack of freedom, which means lack of progress and development. Organizations are systems that are obliged to give space to new management and leadership initiatives. The Company Democracy Model, presented in this paper, is based on the space given to people to act in a democratic environment where ideas lead to meritocracy, valid knowledge, innovation, competitiveness, extroversion, and other benefits and ideals. Democracy, on the other hand, can be annoying to those resisting and reducing the space, freedom, and opportunity that people deserve to be judged upon. The paper presents numerous reasons why organizations fail to learn from their mistakes, and provides a democratic co-evolutionary and co-opetitive framework that can significantly contribute to organizational development, as long as a minimum of space is given to freedom of speech and communication.

Evangelos Markopoulos, Hannu Vanharanta

Innovativeness Through Time Management

As an imperative resource, time and the usage of it should be analyzed and planned in a proper way to maximize the individual effectiveness, and thus make the time management as a functioning tool. Innovativeness is not any easier issue to master, but if a time personality is understood and taken account, a person’s innovativeness can be effectively utilized. Innovativeness as a concept must be seen from a wider perspective, including both capability and willingness to act, resulting different kinds of target oriented activities in different stages of an innovation process. In this process, individual and group or network level can be separated and the meaning of a time personality for innovativeness can be analyzed to enhance an overall innovation performance of an organization. Research discussed in this paper was done by utilizing applications called Chronos & Kairos and Pursoid. Research results show that there are some very interesting combinations with conscious awareness of individuals towards time and innovativeness. There seems to be a lot individual variation where the amount of time in use is not necessarily correlated positively with the idea of high level of innovative capacity. Future research aspects and recommendations are also discussed in this paper.

Tero Reunanen, Riitta Windahl, Hannu Vanharanta

Integrated Service and Product Innovation on Life Cycle Business Co-evolution

The business of manufacturing companies is evolving towards knowledge-intensive industrial services. It is important to stay as near to the customer process as possible in this evolution to enable the growth of efficiency of customer business over the life cycle. In this type of business, in addition to managing material and financial flows, information and knowledge flows have to be managed much better. However, complexity is also increasing because of the new offerings and the need to network all operations and manage distributed information and competence. It is obvious that the business model and other supporting business structures of partners in the value network are in constant transition. It is thus important to master innovation in the customer process over its life cycle. The objective of this article is to introduce a concept of integrated service and product development during various types of innovation in life cycle business evolution routing. When business is changing, various types of innovations tackle it: business, market and life cycle innovation. Knowledge intensive service innovation needs open semantic infrastructure with master data structures provided by life cycle management architecture. The balance in running business comes by synergy management. The hybrid innovation model is been developed as a joint initiative between research institute experts and various international companies and was applied to individual enterprise strategies in order to validate how synergy management by hybrid innovation can be used to drive business value through creation of new services. Insight into one participant case study is provided to substantiate breadth of applicability and ease of use.

Vesa Salminen, Heikki Ruohomaa, Tapio Koivisto

Involvement of Accounting Firms in Companies’ Innovation Process

This study aims to understand the involvement of accounting firms in the innovation process of companies. Based on an exploratory methodological approach, eight semi-structured interviews were conducted between November 2014 and March 2015 with accountants working in accounting firms of different sizes, serving companies in the Chaudière-Appalaches region, province of Québec, Canada. The interviews have shown the entrepreneurs’ motivations to innovate, the profile of the initiator of innovative projects, the business profile involving accounting firms in their innovation projects, the entrepreneurs’ expectations, the services offered by accounting firms, and their ability to meet entrepreneurs’ expectations. This study provides insights to improve the innovation capacity of companies with the involvement of accounting firms. In short, this research makes several contributions to the scientific community, business environment, and accounting firms’ environment.

Yan Castonguay, Daniel Plamondon

Jewelry Packages: Some Interpolations on Design and Form

The study explores the efficiency of jewelery packages in the consumer’s home. The counterpoint of this proposal is in the interdisciplinary transit between design and the study of form. Smart packaging that stimulates new interactions with the user in their home ambient and an environmental awareness is possible. The possibilities for jewelry packaging described here, can instigate innovative thoughts toward a less voracious and induced consumption. The qualitative field research and literature review under the design scope led at first to projects investigation with a bias in geometric formulations.

Silvia Rocha, Maria Benutti, Roberto Nascimento

Transformational Leadership: A Leap Towards NPD Team’s Effectiveness

Transformational leadership has been the center of interest for organizational behavior theorists and management experts due to this leadership style’s significance and appeal with reference to organizational team performance, effectiveness as well as innovativeness. In addition, new product development is considered the core operation of each and every industrial concern. The success of new product development related operations are becoming more challenging in today’s’ turbulent economic conditions. Hence, the current study is an attempt to explore the inter-connection between transformational leadership and new product development team’s effectiveness to support organizational innovation. The empirical study was conducted based on the implementation of especially devised and validated quantitative and qualitative tools. The study sample represented the new product development team’s working at three different global locations of an energy sector company. The data obtained through the mixed mode survey tools was analyzed statistically and qualitatively by implementing statistical methods. The research outcomes revealed that the dimensions of management initiatives (innovation variable), collaboration (NPD team effectiveness variable), communication (NPD team effectiveness variable) and affiliation with leader (transformational leadership variable) have positive association among each other while product innovation (innovation variable), communication (NPD team effectiveness variable) and leader’s competence to empower its team (transformational leadership variable) have shown negative internal association.

Syeda Asiya Zenab Kazmi, Marja Naaranoja, Juha Kytölä, Jussi Kantola

Protecting Design: Leveraging Design for Robust Content and Knowledge Transfer into Patents

A key focus of this literature review is to assess whether the current practice for information transfer between design and patent agent is sufficient to result in the prosecution of patents that draw from the full design development process. The prevalence, purpose and growth of patenting is identified. The nature of design development with the production of many concepts prior to the commercialization of a single direction is reviewed. The building blocks of a patent and how the inventive content is assessed is also reviewed. Current methodology for exchanging information between design development and patent agent is considered. The authors recommend further study and consideration of the transfer of knowledge between designers and patent agents for the purpose of creating valuable patents and protecting design innovation efforts.

Robert Watters, David Craib

Gender Bias in the Perception of Outstanding Leadership in the Maritime Industry

While female participation in work places has increased over the last decades, women only make up 1–2 % of the 1.25 million seafarers worldwide. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Labor Organizations are making a concerted effort to promote women into the maritime industry. Still, there are barriers in the maritime industry that hinder female employment, particularly in leadership positions. The primary aim of the paper is to investigate whether there is a significant difference in implicit beliefs about leadership between males and females. In addition to this, it seeks to evaluate whether the aforementioned difference is within the context of masculine versus neutral work domains. The findings indicated that employees in the maritime industry might have lower expectations towards female leaders thereby indicating the presence of gender bias in the evaluation of leaders.

Bjørn Atahuallpa Bejar Fjærli, Salman Nazir, Kjell Ivar Øvergård

Human-Centered Learning Design

Frontmatter

Scale and Spatial Resolution Guidelines for the Design of Virtual Engineering Laboratories

In this paper we report on a pilot study conducted to identify tasks and understand scale and spatial resolution limits for the design of virtual engineering laboratories. The virtual environment is based on using the Oculus Rift SDK2 headset combined with the Leap Motion Controller (LMC) mounted on the headset. We first discuss a functional break-down structure to identify typical tasks conducted in a laboratory. From this functional breakdown basic gestures are identified to assist in virtual laboratory operations. Using this breakdown as a guide we developed two virtual environments. The first familiarizes the user with basic capabilities of the Rift and LMC. While the second environment was developed to measure scale and spatial effects of interfaces. This data will be used to guide the development of virtual laboratories environments for use in engineering degree programs and improve testing of these and other interfaces.

Brian Sanders, Dennis Vincenzi, Yuzhong Shen

Improvement to the Usability of Hybrid Courses in Degree Programs at URJC Online

In 2015, a study was conducted within the program for the improvement of hybrid and distance learning courses developed by the Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain. The purpose was to identify student difficulties that arise throughout the course, identifying possible improvements (regarding the design, interaction, and logic) and obtaining a list of items to be changed to improve students’ overall experience. A/B split testing was used in the development of the research, by means of 10 s judgment tests offering a variation in the distribution of the elements in the interface of two models. Activities were recorded by means of screen and sound capture of the users’ comments explaining the actions they were taking and the reason why they were doing so. The main conclusions are: facilitating recurrent access itineraries, improving tagging, offering documents in a standard and accessible format, differentiating types of content clearly and guaranteeing a single organisational logic for all courses.

Manuel Gertrudix-Barrio, Natalia Esteban, Mario Rajas, Maria Redmon

An Analysis of Learner Experience with MOOCs in Mobile and Desktop Learning Environment

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are now the most recent topic within the field of e-learning. They have the potential to influence the higher education environments significantly worldwide by creating a completely new and large market of educational resources by overpassing the traditional universities market share due to their physical limitations. However, due to the many differences between mobile devices and desktop environments, the introduction of mobile technology in MOOC environment is challenging. Hence, the main objective of this paper is to study and compare the learner’s experience in different learning environments by using mobile devices and PCs while performing given tasks related to MOOCs. To achieve this goal, we conduct a subjective experiment with various MOOCs related tasks to be performed in mobile and desktop learning environment. The results of the findings show that the difficulties learners have experienced in the mobile environment are more expressed. Moreover, their satisfactory level is much higher in the desktop environment.

Fisnik Dalipi, Ali Shariq Imran, Florim Idrizi, Hesat Aliu

Leadership Style

Frontmatter

Path Model Analysis of Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention: Study on Indian Generation Y Employees

This study attempts to understand the relationship amongst key psychological constructs in the context of Indian Gen Y employees who comprise almost half of the Indian working population and is growing at a rapid pace. Preliminary studies and efforts related to deciphering these young employees have classified them as the most demanding population with high expectations from the work environment in terms of better on-site support facilities and norms for work-life balance. The research proposed to understand the causal relationship between their expectations from organizations (POS) in terms of organizational support and its effect on outcomes related to job satisfaction and turnover intention through a critical analysis and fact finding process. This study indicated Indian Gen Y employees placing more emphasis on organizational support factors that highlight their capabilities and provide tools for advancement.

Soumi Rai

Charismatic Influence and Organizing Capability as Unique Managerial Self-efficacies for Effective Small Firm Performance in Developing Economy

In the past two decades, changes in the industrial environment of most developing countries and the increasing competition among firms has greatly influenced executives’ attitudes and behaviours in the effective management of their firms. There is evidence in the extant literature that the sustained superior performances of most firms is attributable to the unique capabilities used in managing their human resources, and which capabilities are rare, valuable, non-substitutable and imitable. This study therefore, explored the requisite self-efficacies that are exhibited by executives of small firms in Ghana in their day-to-day management of their businesses that leads to increase firm performance, since such self-efficacies are human-oriented capabilities that are rare, valuable, non-substitutable and imitable. This was necessitated by the observation that most executives of small firms in Ghana have not been able to achieve much for their firms, in terms of increasing their businesses productive efficiencies and effectiveness, because the requisite self-efficacies required of such executives for improved performances are unknown and unexplored. Guided by the self-efficacy theorization, data was collected from executives of seventy-two small firms in Ghana using a standardised questionnaire. Factor analysis was conducted to identify the plausible factors with the requisite weight to predict the executives’ self-efficacy, and the attribution of such factors. The factor analyses, with Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin as well as Bartlett’s tests, were initiated to measure the factorability of the data, using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) as the analytic tool. Principal Component Analysis was then used as a data reduction technique using the Rotation Method (Varimax with Kaiser Normalization). Indicator predictiveness was interpreted using Schumacker and Lomax’s (2004) recommendation that estimated factor loading must be 0.7 or higher. Based on the analysis, it is found that the executives of small firms in Ghana exhibit self-efficacies which they manifest variously as charismatic influences and organizing capabilities. The executives showed high levels of organizing capabilities and charismatic influences on the work they manage as a result of their self-efficacies. It is also found that the self-efficacy indicators reflecting the executives’ exertion of charismatic influences on their employees correlated significantly with their self-efficacy indicators reflecting their capabilities to organize their firms’ activities. It is concluded that the executives’ use of their charismatic influence-oriented and organizing capability-oriented self-efficacies has a positive influence on their abilities to manage their small firms. It is also concluded that, the executives ability to handle the time demands and the paper work required of their managerial jobs, on the one hand, and their ability to maintain control of their personal daily schedule, and cope with the stress aspect of their managerial job, on the other, had a direct positive impact on their abilities to carry out the following functions. The findings in this study contribute to knowledge in the management of small firms. Specifically, for Ghana, this research provides a platform for the development of a database that will help inform policy-makers on the requisite self-efficacies to be required of small firms’ executives in the daily management of their businesses.

Mohammed-Aminu Sanda

Applying Decision Analysis to Human Factors in Decision Making at Stanford University Medical Center

Decision-making is a fundamental life skill, yet people reliably and predictably make decisions which, upon a more careful consideration, they no longer agree with. Developed over the last 50 years, decision analysis drew from statistical decision theory, cognitive psychology, economics, and system engineering to comprise a philosophy, theory, and methodology for making better decisions in complex and uncertain situations. We briefly discuss decision analysis, then show how it was applied to making better decisions in medical malpractice cases at Stanford University Medical Center.

John Celona

Exploring Potential of Blue-collar Workers in the Information Manufacturing System

A case study gave an evaluation of work satisfaction of employees working with the information manufacturing system in Chinese furniture manufacturing firms. Indicators of general satisfaction, security satisfaction, social satisfaction, supervisory satisfaction and growth satisfaction were assessed by using questionnaire survey. Results of the study revealed that 5 indicators are significantly correlated. Comparing the differences among employees doing different jobs, supervisory satisfaction and growth satisfaction of blue-collar workers are both significantly lower than groups of managers and white-collar workers. The authors suggest that human factors is a key in the information manufacturing system, especially with the group of blue-collar workers. Dealing relationship between workers and their supervisors, and completing training system are helpful for the sustainable development of the furniture manufacturing firms.

Na Yu, Chang Zhang, Liming Shen, Siegfried Lewark

Global Challenges for the Universities and Managers Of the Higher Education Sector

Global system of higher education is subject to constant change. The growing internationalization of the university changes the strategy of universities. The business model of the university is subject to a number of trials. Among other challenges is the growing dependence of the university on its surroundings. At the same time social changes and technological support cause the growth of awareness of the needs of universities stakeholders. The ease of travel and the possibilities for studying in another country cause a real challenge for the strategy of universities. These factors represent a challenge not only for university management, but also for societies that increasingly more explicitly articulate their expectations in relation to the university. Meeting these expectations in an unstable economic and political environment turns out to be, perhaps, the most important challenge for the managers of universities over the next two to three decades.

Marcin Geryk

A Study of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers for Japanese Students in Extracurricular Activities

In Japan, several study have shown that satisfaction with extracurricular activities for junior and high school students influences satisfaction with their school life. However, there are some possibilities in satisfaction factors between junior and high school students. We conducted a study to clarity the differences in satisfaction factors (satisfiers) and dissatisfaction factors (dissatisfiers) for the students in extracurricular activities. However, there are little theories about their satisfiers and dissatisfiers. Here, we applied Herzberg’s “Motivation-Hygiene theory” to our specific area of extracurricular activities. It has been shown that bad “supervision-technical” is likely to cause junior high school students’ dissatisfaction, whereas not so for high school students.

Yutaka Nakajima, Naoto Shoji, Takumi Iwaasa, Motoki Mizuno

Training, Organizational and Team Learning

Frontmatter

Effective Use of Group Projects in Online Learning

Group projects have long been used in face-to-face instruction to improve cognitive learning among its students. Group projects not only provide practical experience and allow students to practice the concepts they have learned, but also teach the students creative construction and group dynamics. As important as group projects have proven in conventional learning, they are rarely used in online education courses. This paper examines the foundations of effectively using group projects, and then demonstrates how to integrate them into online learning courses.

Robert Ekblaw

Transferring Tacit Knowledge in Process Control

Experienced operators, who have worked in process industry for many years possess extensive tacit knowledge regarding how to operate and control the plant. The purpose of this study was to propose methods for knowledge transfer regarding process control. Four conditions are important for successful knowledge transfer: resources from the management, access to a control room environment, access to saved process data from incidents and disturbances, and motivated experienced operators with verbal skills. Methods recommended for catching tacit knowledge regarding process control are observations in the control room, operators using the think-aloud methodology during work, and expert operators creating and analyzing scenarios of disturbances. Methods for transfer tacit knowledge are scenario analysis of disturbances in focus groups, or role-play between experienced and novice operator. Also informal and spontaneous methods for knowledge transfer can be successful.

Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Anders Colmsjö

Approachability as a Prerequisite of Student Reflection

Research to encourage Indonesian undergraduate student engagement in graphic design courses is examined using the Hexagon Spindle (H-S) Model of Educational Ergonomics. The context of the study is the problems faced by first year Indonesian undergraduate graphic design students who struggle to become independent learners and engage in their studies. Two approaches were used to address this challenge, firstly to encourage increased student reflection by manipulating teaching methods (modelled on UK best practice) and secondly to encourage tutors to become more approachable, thereby creating a safer learning environment. In terms of the H-S model, the research highlighted personal, social and cultural issues and the importance of student–tutor interaction in creating an environment conducive to independent learning and reflection.

Rosa Karnita, Andrée Woodcock, Simon Bell, Kollette Super

The Creativity in a Virtual World: A Pilot Study

In recent years, there has been growing interest in the study of creativity and there is a great deal of general literature on cognition. Researchers of creativity have often suggest that manipulate nonconscious cognition with “priming”. Researchers of improving creativity have often suggest that it conduct to study behavior of individuals or team work in a virtual setting. This paper will examine that the creative priming environment developed by Bhagwatwar et al. [1] can provide a framework for creativity. To conclude, this study may be of importance in explaining the relationship between creativity and virtual world, as well as providing system designer with a better understanding of how user’s cognition about creativity relate to their strategy use.

Siao-Wei Huang, Yu-Chen Hsu

Nurses Students’ Perception About Learning Online Using Social Networks

Education is a complex process and the incorporation of technology into health education continues to be a growing trend worldwide. This trend can be attributed to Internet proliferation and the emergence of social networks. Furthermore, there are few graduate programs in nursing that use social networks to support to teaching-learning. This study aims to analyze the students perception about learning and usability in the use of social networks during the teaching-learning process. For conducting the study we performed a case study with the participation of 180 students. An evaluation was done through a learning and usability questionnaire applied to students. The results of the study showed that 95.5 % of students used the social network in the teaching learning process. These students reported that the interaction with the social network was simple and useful. We conclude that the use of social networks in pedagogical practice is important for learning and exchange of information.

A. S. Campos Filho, L. D. Castro, R. J. S. Moraes, A. S. Gomes

ICT Classroom LMSs: Examining the Various Components Affecting the Acceptance of College Students in the Use of Blackboard Systems

A number of different academic departments at both college and university level implement Learning Management System such as Blackboard System in an effort to achieve economical improvements to course management. ICT initiatives in universities also are known to have implemented this method. Nonetheless, the successful adoption of the Blackboard System in IT Graduation Project courses necessitates that students in such fields accept the system. The UTAUT (Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology) model has been applied in mind of examining the various factors known to effect the acceptance and use of the Blackboard system by students in IT Graduation Projects, which are known to comprise lab and theoretical lectures [4]. Moreover, this work seeks to represent ICT college students’ views on the various aspects known to effect the rejection or acceptance of such a system. With this in mind, a sample of 51 ICT college students was involved in the study, with ten focus group discussions carried out. The subjects communicated five key elements as impacting the application of the Blackboard System in the specific arena of IT Graduation Project classes in the KSA’s Taif University, namely effort expectancy, facilitating conditions, lab practice, performance expectancy and social influence.

Sara Jeza Alotaibi

Intelligence Training Research Exercise 15-1

The development of effective team training systems has a high degree of complexity. It is critical to balance fidelity for trainees and usability for trainers while optimizing training effectiveness. This paper focuses on the methodology leveraged to elicit the empirical data through a training specific study called a Training Research Exercise (T-REX). T-REX 15-1 kicked off the first combined user evaluation of the three primary components of the Distributed Common Ground System Weapon System Trainer (DWST). Thirteen individuals from the 480th ISR Wing, 27th Intelligence Squadron (IS), Distributed Ground Station-Indiana (DGS-IN), and the National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC) participated in a 4 day training event to evaluate the usability and fidelity of the DWST. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed on the data for the three different measures across all participants; crew trainer fidelity (M = 3.71, SD = 0.30), crew trainer usability (M = 3.69, SD = 0.41), and overall training experience (M = 3.43, SD = 0.42). Results indicate that participants from all groups were satisfied with the fidelity and usability of the crew trainer as well as the training experience in general.

Meghan T. Berlingo, Lisa Tripp, Justin Wilson

Visual Cue Streams for Multimodal Dialogue Interaction

This work examines the visual information streams as feedback to users engaging in multimodal interaction during specific settings. It reports on the findings from complexity and frequency of information presentation paired to user acceptance. It also addresses technical design issues by examining how multiple visual streams are presented in real situations, for the specific complex use case.

Dimitris Koryzis, Christos V. Samaras, Eleni Makri, Vasilios Svolopoulos, Dimitris Spiliotopoulos

Virtual Reality Museum of Consumer Technologies

Given the rapid pace of technical development in the past several decades, many people have fond memories of using devices that are no longer common. We built a prototype of a virtual museum of consumer technologies to explore this with the intention of prompting memories of using past tech in the visitors. The prototype was created using the Janus VR browser and evaluated on a 2D display by 7 young adult users. It successfully prompted memories in all of the evaluators and all users rated the pleasure of touring the museum neutral or better. Future work involves making a more comprehensive museum and exploring better ways to utilize virtual reality for more engaging experiences.

Avinash Subramanian, Jaclyn Barnes, Naveena Vemulapalli, Sumeet Chhawri

A Study on Communication Activity and Social Skills of Nursing Organization

In this study, a quantitative rating of the communication using the device (behavior sensor) which enabled the measurement of communication and social skills in the hospital, was implemented. The subjects of this study were two hospitals. The measurement of communication used the behavior sensor which electronic badges were capable of measuring social signals, it was measured for two weeks. The result of the communication activity between staffs was 58.0 min per day. In comparison with the communication time, male nurses were more than one and a half times larger than females (p < 0.001). Particularly, male nurses tended to regard cooperation as more nurses regardless of job status or sex. According to the result of social skills, more experienced nurses had high skill. In the GP analysis of the communication time, the skill of emotion processing of an upper rank group was higher than a lower rank group (p < 0.1). These observations led to the speculation that a male nurse made more communication in the workplace, and cooperated with more nurses. In addition, the nurse who had high communication skills tended to have high expression skill of one’s feelings.

Yuki Mizuno, Yasuyuki Yamada, Yasuyuki Hochi, Hideko Takahashi, Naoto Shoji, Hideko Aida, Aya Okada, Motoki Mizuno

Products and Value Networks in Management and Leadership

Frontmatter

Internet Marketing Strategy for Furniture Industry: A Research Based Ergonomics Sofa

The objective of this paper is to reveal the awareness of ergonomics as part of internet based marketing strategy in furniture industry. Based on Actor Network Theory (ANT), this study believes that internet marketing is an object that links buyer and seller. Empirical study of previous practices has failed to indicate common use of ergonomics term in this research area of marketing strategy. Most of the marketing strategy literature in furniture industry has focused more on aesthetic than ergonomics issues. Therefore, this study utilized qualitative research to analyze the use of ergonomics term in the websites for marketing strategy. This study has identified 33 websites of furniture industry to address the issues using purposive sampling technique and content analysis. The finding shows the ergonomics term is not a common exposure in the websites of furniture industry. It confirms the lack of awareness about the utilization of ergonomics term in the companies’ websites. This research recommends that future marketing strategy should highlight the ergonomics issues in the company’s website in order to promote public health. Hence, this new knowledge suggests that the furniture industry should be more health conscious. Furthermore, future research can also focus on other tools of digital marketing strategy.

Suriatini Ismail, Anis Amira Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Khairul Azhar Mat Daud, Nik Zulkarnaen Khidzir

The Design Service as an Improvement Tool of the International Show of the Bobbin Lace from Peniche

The starting point is the increasing decline of the bobbin lace from Peniche—Portugal. A product that has been the financial support for many families and today it is only cherished as Peniche’s people’s identity. Between the former and the latter, there is no straightforward path. It was necessary an interventionist approach from the local government so that the bobbin lace would not be forgotten. The service design is called to explain the current situation, the activities, the organization and the infrastructure built around this craft activity. The same service design is called to intervene in the event of the International Show of the bobbin lace which takes place in Peniche. The event is one of the most important activities undertaken by the local government for the encouragement of the bobbin lace. The intervention of the service design states the important relationship of the bobbin lace as a product in relation to the lace makers who are the responsible for its implementation. We are about to present suggestions that influence and strengthen the bobbin lace as a local identity product.

Isabel Bieger, Cristina Carvalho, Gianni Montagna

“Wow-Factors” for Boosting Business

WOW, that’s great, what that company is doing. This comment is human factor in business context in its purest form. Wow-factor is something that won’t only separate the company from others, but separates it superiorly. Wow-factor is the factor that already exists in companies’ business and affects to people in many cases. It just needs to be found consciously, to be defined clearly and utilized better in order to enhance business and profits. In this article, we show different points of view about the Wow-factor in business context. Paper presents the ontology of the wow factor by utilizing literature review. Paper also presents a model for Wow-factor analyses in business. Article presents the idea of a new kind of factor for the corporate business development and brings up the overall concept of the Wow-factor in business models. Future research needs and actions are handled at the end of the article.

Tero Reunanen, Marcus Penttinen, Arndt Borgmeier

City Branding and the Way It Is Perceived in People’s Mind, a Case Study of Milad Tower in Iran

In today’s world city branding is one of the important instrument in order to receive the city to high economic situation. Historically, city branding has started with establishing the first city by human, where people wanted to use some structure to show their power to their enemies. Cities today are in challenge together to attract tourism and creative class in order to promote economic finance and their World-renowned and global credit; so that the concepts of brand strategy for cities are increasingly considered from the commercial world and used as a process in pursuit of urban development, regeneration and quality of life. Place branding is the management of place image through strategic innovation and coordinated economic, commercial, social, cultural, and government policy. In this paper the term City Branding is been explained and it is investigated that whether the Milad tower in Tehran metropolis is a brand in observer’s mind or not.

Ashkan Bayat

Psychic Distance, Purchase Intention and Life Satisfaction. An Analyzing of International Purchase Websites

The e-commerce through international shop web-sites has gaining more space around the world. The study this phenomenon is still under development. In this work, we contribute to the literature extending and testing an existing conceptual model in a new scenario. It was included the independent variable to explain: Life Satisfaction, Purchase Intention and the Psychic Distance in using international shopping sites. An online survey of university students (n = 211) was performed. Our structural equation model revealed that Life Satisfaction influences Purchase Intent and Psychic Distance, when mediated Interactivity, Informativeness and Convenience of Use. Our results reveal a new approach among the factors that influence these constructs.

Mauro José de Oliverira, Rodrigo Martins Baptista, José Manuel Baptista Meireles de Sousa

Training Applications in Military and Operational Environments

Frontmatter

Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis for Military Tactics Instruction

This experiment determined how 19 Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) cadets rationalize military tactics decisions using two different displays through qualitative data analysis. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to understand platoon and squad level decision-making to help influence the development of adaptive training systems. IPA is a process through which the participant experience is analyzed through a dual interpretation methodology, where participants provide meaning of their world, followed by an empirical assessment to categorize and define the participants’ perspectives of their experiences. The tactical questions covered topics that would typically be covered in a military science junior level class. Results include the importance of terrain elevation differences between friendly and enemy forces, as well as the importance of cover and concealment and distance. The findings from this experiment are currently being developed into a large scale assessment in collaboration with the United States Military Academy at West Point.

Michael W. Boyce, Deeja Cruz, Robert Sottilare

Exploring the Impact of Simulator Sickness on the Virtual World Experience

This research initiative seeks to understand training effectiveness for Virtual World (VW) technologies. The advancement of VW training platforms in both academia and industry demonstrates the need to investigate the effects of simulator sickness (SS) on the VW experience. This paper uses the Military Open Simulator Enterprise Strategy (MOSES) VW platform to train 32 Reserve Officers’ Training Corps Cadets from the University of Central Florida on a room clearing task. A between-subjects design was conducted with an emphasis on the VW training condition. The data collected included both individual and collective performance as well as perceptual data (SS, Presence, Flow, and Engagement). Data analysis comprised of a series of Pearson product correlation coefficient for understanding the relationship between SS and Presence, Flow, and Engagement in addition to explaining performance outcomes. The results found moderate to strong, negative correlations between SS and Presence, SS and Flow, and SS and Engagement. The results reveal that SS interrupts presence during the VW training which can lead to negative training transfer. Alternatively, the increase in presence, flow, and engagement associated with a decrease in SS may be linked to motivation which is essential to effective training. Finally, this paper discusses limitations related to VW research (e.g., internal and external validity, expertise level, etc.) but also provides a basic foundation from which SS research may enhance VW training.

Crystal S. Maraj, Karla A. Badillo-Urquiola, Sushunova G. Martinez, Jonathan A. Stevens, Douglas B. Maxwell

Behavior Cue Detection Training: Understanding the Impact of Simulator Sickness on Performance

In order to survive in combat zones, an individual soldier must be proficient in the following skills: Pattern recognition and Behavior cue detection. Although, current military training requirements are inadequate for developing pattern recognition and behavior detection, research shows that Simulation-based Training, via virtual environments (VE’s) can improve pattern recognition and behavior detection skills. However, the use of VEs for visually dependent tasks may also increase simulator sickness in some individuals. This experiment compared a virtual version of Kim’s game (i.e., an observational game to increase memory and performance) to a control group to assess the role of simulator sickness on performance. Participants were randomly assigned to either the Kim’s game or control condition and completed a pre-test, training vignette, and post-test. During the experiment, participants recorded their level of simulator sickness using a questionnaire developed by Kennedy et al. (International Journal of Aviation Psychology 3:203–220, 1993 [1]). The data analysis revealed that the Kim’s game group reported higher levels of simulator sickness symptoms which had a negative effect on performance (i.e., detection accuracy and false positive detection). The results also indicated that there was a positive correlation in the control group between disorientation and detection accuracy. This implies that the control group may have become familiar with the experimental task, suggesting that simulator sickness did not negatively impact their performance. The following paper discusses the influence of simulator sickness on performance and offers new ways to reduce simulator sickness for behavior cue detection training.

Crystal S. Maraj, Karla A. Badillo-Urquiola, Stephanie J. Lackey, Irwin L. Hudson

Game-Based Learning

Frontmatter

Game-Based Evacuation Drill Inside Google Street View

Evacuation drills should be conducted repeatedly in various conditions. Therefore, we have implemented game-based evacuation drill inside Google Street View (GSV) to realize evacuation drills in GSV with high situational (evacuation scenario) and visual realities (digital materials). In the evacuation drill, people can (1) participate easily and safely in evacuation drills regardless of time, place, weather, and their conditions, (2) participate in various evacuation drills for their local regions and other places, and (3) repeat the same evacuation drills with routes or behaviors that differ from their previous drills. We experimentally found that this type of evacuation drill has strong potential as a new evacuation drill.

Hiroyuki Mitsuhara, Takehisa Inoue, Kenji Yamaguchi, Yasuichi Takechi, Mari Morimoto, Kazuhisa Iwaka, Yasunori Kozuki, Masami Shihibori

Ergonomic Considerations of the Gaming Classroom

As the game-based training industry grows, games are increasingly being used within traditional classroom environments. In at least one case, an entire classroom-based course will feature daily training game play over the course of several weeks. To date, there has not been an ergonomic evaluation of the so-called gaming classroom. This work summarizes the existing literature with respect to the ergonomics of two similar contexts—office work and prolonged gameplay. This includes topics such as the ergonomics of various input devices for prolonged use (e.g., mouse, keyboard, game controllers), work station design, and overall course time management to prevent muscle strain and fatigue. Recommendations with respect to the above are provided.

Katelyn Procci

Effective Game-Based Training at the Point of Need

The military requires delivery of training to the warfighter at the point of need, which means whenever and wherever the training is needed. We set out to determine if a soldier could train using a graphically intensive game hosted in a “cloud.” We conducted a usability study in a lab with twelve participants trying to complete a mission using a military simulation training game. The participants played the game in ten different configurations that varied the number of VMs per server, CPU cores and CPU topologies of the VMs, screen resolution settings, and WAN emulator bandwidth and latency settings. The usability study found that the simulation training game performed acceptably in a virtualized environment. It also determined that with the specific hardware and network characteristics used in the study, participants rated 6–8 VMs set to low-resolution best.

Erika Darling, James Benslay, Rick Osborne, Joe Clapis, Rich Crutchfield

“How Good Is Good Enough?” Exploring Validation for Serious Gaming in Air Traffic Control

This paper describes the iterative validation process used in the development of a serious game for training air traffic managers in the National Airspace System. For complex system simulations, it can be difficult to determine when is “enough” validation. Several development cycles of NASPlay are described and the validation effort examples within each cycle are presented. A process model for piece-wise functional validation is proposed, and how to draw the threshold for “enough” validation from a practical standpoint is addressed.

Hayley J. Davison Reynolds, Rich DeLaura, Brian Soulliard

Immersive Games and Expert-Novice Differences

Immersive game-based training has been used effectively for years to train within numerous domains. Immersive simulations and games, however, are frequently used to train at the pinnacle of instruction, though research shows that game- and simulation-based training platforms are consistently more effective than traditional training across all phases of instruction. Game-based training has potentially limitless variables on which training can be adapted: troops can change efficacy, weather can turn and equipment can malfunction. Understanding the relationships between adaptive variables is key to effective game design that distinguishes expert and novice performers for assessment. This paper describes the development of a simulation-based game using distributed concept maps for expertise categorization. The expert models were incorporated into a real-time strategy game intended for use to train and assess understanding of and adherence to Army doctrine. Preliminary validation data are also presented comparing the game to traditional Interactive Multimedia Instruction (IMI) courseware.

Amanda J. H. Bond, Jay Brimstin, Angela Carpenter

Organizational Learning and Performance Management

Frontmatter

Change Agent Infrastructure (CHAI)—A Stakeholder Analysis Tool for Ergonomics- and Work Environment-Related Change Projects

This paper is a short communication introducing a novel method for stakeholder analysis, Change Agent Infrastructure (CHAI). The method is specifically developed in the context of ergonomics/work environment-related change projects and is meant for early stages of change projects. It maps potential stakeholders against eight distinct “roles” that have been found in previous research to facilitate or hinder workplace change. Mapping the “decision dilemmas” that stakeholders may face, as well as identifying over- or underrepresented roles, may benefit the change project in terms of determining information needs and how the project team should be staffed. The method has been iteratively developed and tested in educational and research projects. The method is visual, participative and helps to clarify the various participants’ understanding of the change at hand and what it means for them—this contributes positively to information strategies and decisions that facilitates the planning and execution of a sustainable change.

Cecilia Berlin, Jonatan Berglund, Erik Lindskog

Improvement of Productivity and Employee Performance Through an Efficient Human Resource Management Practices

The role of employees within organisations are very vital in the management and survival of any organisation; this is because their performance is influenced by a set of human resource management (HRM) practices. Similarly, the process of attracting, developing, and maintaining a talented and energetic workforce to support the organisational goals and objectives is the ultimate aim of HRM. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the improvement of construction workers productivity through an efficient Human Resource Management practices. Hence, this research identified the HRM practices and comprehensively evaluated the impact of these practices on productivity and employee performance. The data used in this paper was derived from both primary and secondary sources. Twenty-eight structured questionnaires were distributed to the HR department of a construction company that was used for the study. A return rate of 100 % was achieved since the respondents were purposively selected. The data received were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). The result of the analysis showed certain HRM practices enhances productivity and employee performance in a construction company. Therefore, it is highly recommended that HRM practices are effectively implemented to enhance productivity and employee performance. Thus, obtaining and sustaining competitive advantage. Moreover, the study observed that happy and satisfied employees have higher performance, therefore making it easy for management to motivate them thus attaining the firm targets. The study contributes to the body of knowledge on the improvement of construction workers productivity through an efficient Human Resource Management practices.

Lerato Ngwenya, Clinton Aigbavboa

Organizational Communication: Discussion of Pyramid Model Application in Shift Records

This work aims to discuss the flow of internal communication through a pyramid model of organizational communication. The first part is a reflection on the “ideal” model of organizational communication and its flow represented in the figure of the pyramid. The operator’s speech in the operational process helps decision-making in the managerial sphere. The second part of this work is a reflection on highly subjective factors that may affect this speech. Finally, there is an analysis of the operators’ records in the shift book of a Water Treatment Plant (WTP), located in northeastern Brazil, with a view to suggest procedures for implementing the communication pyramid model in the organization. The work is mostly qualitative method and provides quantitative data on the communication implement. The results suggest the need for improvement in the events shift book format of and trainment for operators and leaders.

Edmara dos Santso Drigo, Salvador Ávila Filho

Human Factors for Development of Corporate Internal Social Investments Portfolio

The chapter discusses the problem of the formation of social investment in Russia. Obstacles to the development of social investment are considered. The problem of the influence of the human factor on the social activity of companies is analyzed. The research identification of the reaction of the internal stakeholders of a corporation in carrying out the social activity of the company enables the main factors that guide the corporation during the implementation of social investment projects to be identified. Recommendations are formed for corporations to enhance social activity.

Aleksandr Kozlov, Anna Teslya

Job Satisfaction Level of Federal/Provincial/Semi Government Officers of Pakistan

Job Satisfaction has now become one of the most important factors for optimal utility of Human Resource. Because of its importance, many researches have been carried out from almost all sectors. Organizations have realized the importance of job satisfaction and have included things like bonuses, awards, performance rewards and conducive working environment etc. Federal/Semi government employees are the most important people in a nation as they are the policy makers or provide the basic input for making any policy and they drive a nation as all the institutions of country are run on the policies which are formulated by them. If they are not satisfied with their jobs, then it is an alarming situation. Our basic purpose of this research was to determine and analyze the officers of Government/provincial and Semi Government organizations for their job satisfaction level. Research is based upon Salary, Fringe benefits, Working environment, Use of skills and activities, Work activities etc. Data will be analyzed for job satisfaction with respect to difference of age, gender, experience, level of employee and different types of government. In this research we have tried to evaluate the job satisfaction level of Federal/Semi government employees of Pakistan. A quantitative type of study was conducted having questionnaires developed from already researches carried out. It was kept in mind that maximum departments and people at different levels should be contacted to have a clear picture of the situation. The results show that as the grade increases, the satisfaction level also increases. It is concluded that officers specially initial grade officers are not very satisfied with their jobs.

Rao Zeeshan Aziz, Umer Asgher, Tanveer Ahmed

Learning Process and Higher Education

Frontmatter

How Do Design Blended Learning Base on Authentic Learning Theory to Enhance Pre-service Teachers’ Ability in Professional Practices of the Pre-service Teacher and Instructor Point of View

This paper aims to study pre-service teacher’s opinions and education technology instructor’s opinions about how to design blended learning base on authentic learning theory to enhance pre-service teachers’ ability in professional. The sample were 1037 pre-service teachers and 41 education technology instructors from 11 universities in Thailand by simple random sampling. The investigation showed that: The classroom in blended learning base on authentic learning should be 11–20 students. The number of members to do activities in small groups should be 3–5 students. Instructor should create a lot of problem situation cases, and then let the student select the case to use in the group activities, the case should be consistency with the current situation, and it should be presented by video format. Instructor should follow up and evaluate the group activities by letting student reports progress form their activities periodically by themselves via online tools. Other details will be approached in the paper.

Nuttaphong Kanchanachaya, Kanita Nitjarunkul

Social Sciences and Humanities Researcher Development of a Higher Educational Institute in the Context of Violent Conflict in Thailand’s Deep South Region

This paper presents factors affecting social sciences and humanities researcher development of a higher educational institute in the context of violent conflict in Thailand’s Deep South Region. The quantitative research was conducted using questionnaire survey and the qualitative research was conducted using focus group discussion, group interview, and in-depth interview. The purpose of finding the factors are to understand the situation of current researcher development and what have been introducing as solutions to improve the researcher development.

Kanita Nitjarunkul

Helping College Students to Manage Stress: A Human Centered Smartphone Application for Stress Relief

This paper discuses a major topic, i.e. “stressed students while in college”, that is essential to both society and students. It includes only the first two stages of the Human-Centered Design life cycle (Identify Needs, Research/Analysis, Design, Evaluation and Delivery). The importance of this topic is revealed when we realize that stress can affect students internally and externally. In addition, knowing the possible causes of stress helps students to manage and relieve their stress. Three major factors (i.e. academic, social and personal/family) are identified to be the main sources of stress and each factor has sub-factors that are discussed in detail. Based on our findings and analysis, we propose two approaches for students to handle stress in college: time management systems and social support systems.

Saad Almesalm, Lucas Stephane, Guy Boy

The Degree of Importance That Built Environment Postgraduate Students Attaches to Specific Library Services: A South Africa Higher Education Case Study

Over 10,000 students register each year for various postgraduate (PG) degrees across institutions in South Africa with majority of the students relying on the resources that the host universities libraries offers. This paper assesses the degree of importance that the Built Environment Postgraduate Students in a South African higher education attach to specific library services when undertaking their Postgraduate studies. The data used in this research were derived from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data were collected via an online questionnaire that was sent out to Built Environment Postgraduate students who include: Postgraduate diploma degrees, Masters, doctoral and post-doctoral students. Out of the 500 questionnaires that were sent out, an 82 % response rate was achieved, representing a total of 410 collected questionnaires. The questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistic procedures. Findings from the questionnaire survey revealed that research commons, learning commons, archives and the online databases were what the PG students attached the most importance as contributory to their studies. The study does not only contribute to the body of knowledge regarding the degree of importance that built environment students attaches to library services but also assist with an understanding of the factors that higher institutions need to focus on when updating services in their Postgraduate Learning Centers; the library.

Katlane Seema, Clinton Aigbavboa

External Business Factors and Change Issues

Frontmatter

Hierarchal Cabal Leadership in the Workplace

Case Studies and Phenomenological studies repeatedly showed that the physical effects of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) are still present in the workplace today. However, what was missing from these studies was how the effects of CTS plague an employee with CTS psychologically, psychosomatically, physically, and sociologically after they have been exposed to repeated hierarchal cabal leadership tactics from their employer in the workplace.

Stella Marie Rostkowski

Simulating the Outcomes of Contracts: A Visual Interface Supporting Start-Up Financing

The potential of visualizations for negotiating and representing contracts has been explored in current research around the innovation of law. Visualizations help to increase transparency of legal matters and contribute not only to a better understanding of agreements, but to the overall deal-design. We propose a visualized simulation displaying the outcomes of complex start-up investment agreements at various points in the future. By capturing the standard variables of start-up financing term-sheets, the system supports the pre-negotiation phase between entrepreneurs and investors. Relying on the agent-based modeling framework NetLogo, we facilitate dynamic simulations with parties entering their own priorities and assumptions about the other side. We believe such a tool could prove useful on crowd-funding platforms with their increase of investor-founder relationships. In further research, specific contracts may be tested with populations of entrepreneurs and investors, yielding insights on the desirability of various deal structures.

Daniela Alina Plewe, He Lee

The Effect of Social Rewards and Perceived Effectiveness of e-Commerce Institutional Mechanisms on Intention to Group Buying

Previous studies have stressed the functionality and usability of group buying systems, although few studies have focused on social and psychological factors and the business perspective of online group buying. We believe that factors related to consumer psychology, relation exchange, and institutional mechanisms have not been fully explored by previous studies. These psychological and consumer behaviors are crucial for marketers seeking to increase sales rates. The phenomena are worthy of attention, given the potentially significant market gains offered by this novel business model. This study focuses on the application of social rewards in the group buying context and identifies the issue in the context of online group buying by incorporating factors such as reciprocity, reputation, trust, satisfaction, and perceived effectiveness of e-commerce institutional mechanisms (PEEIM). These factors are identified as critical factors affecting both online and physical shopping. With an online survey, we perform PLS analysis and the results suggest that PEEIM has significant effect towards online group buying intention. The results also suggest that SET factors contribute substantial impact to customer’s online group buying intention. Theoretical and managerial implications were discussed.

Margaret Meiling Luo, Sophea Chea

Tackling Barriers to the Inclusion of Disabled People in the European Workplace Through Ergonomics

The ERGO WORK project is a collaboration of academic and business partners in six European countries. The project is focused on understanding barriers to workplace inclusion, and tackling these barriers through education in ergonomics and universal design and collaboration between academia and business. An exploratory study suggested that workplaces could be further improved in the partner countries to meet the needs of disabled people and there was considerable scope for training within companies to raise awareness about employees’ needs, employers’ obligations and workplace adaptation. The findings led to the development of new Ergonomics curriculum content in Slovenia and Poland that was implemented in two partner universities. The curriculum was then tested through a series of industry-based projects. The projects formed collaborations between business, employees with disabilities, students and academics and involved adapting the workplace, job design and products to specific employee needs.

Louise Moody, Janet Saunders, Natasa Rebernik, Marjan Leber, Andreja Čurin, Marzena Wójcik-Augustyniak, Marek Szajczyk

Survey of Strategic Design for Public Transportation

After completion, inter-city railway, with its own characteristics, will fuel a new around urban development of surrounding area. Under the guidance of core development Theory of TOD, systematic construction of railway stations surrounding area is needed to be done from four aspects: resource characteristics, overall positioning, function layout and development intensity; meanwhile, with the consideration of social and economic benefits government and construction enterprises need to optimize the management of railway stations surrounding area at the early stage of project and operate scientifically by using the market mechanism. This paper, taking the Heshengqiao railway between Wuhun city and Xianning city as an example, proposes suggestions for land use strategy of inter-city-railway station surrounding area, with a view to optimizing resource allocation, raising the status of the railway stations surrounding area, facilitating the optimization of city space and improving the competitiveness of the city.

Ashkan Bayat

eLearning and Teaching Strategies

Frontmatter

Language e-Learning and Music Appreciation

Globalisation and the rise in mobile technology led to the rise of language e-learning for leisure and work purposes. However, current language apps in the market often lack adaptation to relevant gamification and pedagogies for learners with integrative and instrumental motivation. Consequently, learners lose interest as the apps fail to engage them and fulfill their learning objectives. Moreover, the appreciation of the underlying cultures in music appreciation has not been fully understood. It was discovered that music and language have neurological links, and when introduced simultaneously, benefits both language and music education. Sadly, the lack of music appreciation and language abilities could be attributed to social stratification. Possession of such cultural capital can exacerbate social inequality by causing the Matthew effect, triggering the poverty trap. Therefore, we propose the ‘Polyglotism’ prototype to devise a more effective e-learning strategy and mitigate social inequality through free access to language and music education.

Leon Chong Wen Ngiam, Swee Lan See

Gaze-Based Real-Time Adaptivity and Adaptability in an eLearning Environment: A Pre-release Insight

As part of the ScienceCampus Tübingen, we conduct empirical research on learning strategies, in particular with regard to system adaptivity. For this purpose, we developed a web-based eLearning platform called ALM (Adaptive Learning Module) which adapts the learning content based on a real-time analysis of the user’s gaze data as observed by an eye-tracker. This paper describes work in progress and provides a technical insight on the state of our platform and how we plan to shape the application for the planned open-source release this fall. In addition to the technical overview, we provide application examples from actual research studies as well as a vision for the productive use of the learning environment for educational topics.

Holger Schmidt, Alexander Henka, Gottfried Zimmermann

Study on Practicing, Teaching and Sharing on Design for Sustainability in China

This paper aims to study the feasibility of DFS (design for sustainability) in China from “ideas” to “execution”. The feasible practice ways on DFS in China include taking advantages of Lens-China platform, application of systematic views and valuing the social innovation. The features of “teaching” and “learning” in different institutions are analyzed in China. This paper also gives some proposals about how to share these experiences of practicing and teaching of DFS, meanwhile analyzes the advantages and feasibility of such proposals. In short, design interventions must adapt to China’s national contexts. To verify theories and determine the practical guidelines of DFS in China, practitioners need to practice frequently, and simultaneously share these practicing experience through many channels, in order to find out a set of effective practice methods and teaching mode.

Mingyue Lyu

Building a Disaster Recovery Framework for e-Learning Environment Using Disaster Information and Inter-cloud Computing

In this research, we have built a framework of disaster recovery against earthquake, tsunami and massive flood for e-Learning environment. This framework is constructed by private cloud environment and inter-cloud infrastructure. And, this framework uses a disaster information such as disaster emergency alert for selecting the target of live migration destination. We build a prototype system that is constructed by several private cloud fabric on each site such as several universities. In addition, this framework can grasp the emergency alert information via smartphone and cellphone carrier. We show the configuration of prototype system. Then, we show the experimental results on the prototype system.

Satoshi Togawa, Kazuhide Kanenishi

Research and Implementation on Fitness Management System for Hubei Province Public Servants

Public servant is a special group which is under high tension because of their life style, rest and work system and with high pressure coming from jobs and society. Public servant is in sub-health status and is high dangerous group of some chronics. Public servant has a highly recognition about the value of sport for health and has desire to participate in it. But because some objective and subjective reasons, public servant cannot participate in exercise and is lack of targeted and scientific. From the needs of scientific guidance for Public servant’ physical exercise and base on the fitness index, medical index and daily behaviors, The Fitness Management System for Hubei Province Public Servants in China was designed. The system consists of 4 subsystems such as exercise prescription subsystem, nutrition prescription subsystem, psychological control subsystem and lifestyle subsystem. The system provides a scientific support platform for exercise health promotion of Hubei Province Public servants. Moreover, it can effectively guide them to exercise scientifically and thus improving their physical health.

Qi Luo

Introduction to Education 3.0 Through the Use of Technological Tools for the Teaching of Arts in Preschool

The glimpse of the future education warns the massive involvement of technology in the learning process, which must be aligned and re-think the dynamics of teaching art with technology. This study compares the use of digital tablets and the traditional way of teaching, examining the attitude and the learning outcomes of children, measured by the method of observational analysis and the Likert scale questionnaire revealing advantages and disadvantages, ways to proceed, possibilities and the significant differences for each method of education.

Luz Nery Janamejoy, Sanin Ortiz

Game-Based Learning: Analysis of Students’ Motivation, Performance, and Drop Out in a Production Engineering Course

The use of constructivist teaching dynamics gives students the opportunity to experience an environment similar to the reality the classroom. It promotes better assimilation of theoretical concepts to be applied in everyday life of future engineers. This research shows us the contribution of Game-Based Learning (GBL) for the study of the proposed topic and to reduce the evasion of the course. The GBL dynamic was applied to the discipline of Production Systems in the first phase of the course of Production Engineering at a private institution of Santa Catarina, Brazil. We used an analogical game that aimed to simulate production management, and its impacts, in pull and push production systems. A pilot experiment was performed with the game in two classes in one semester, followed by the application of the same game in another two classes the following semester.

Elissa Danielle Silva, Marcelo Macedo, Clarissa Teixeira, Edgar Lanzer, Álvaro Paz Graziani

Education for Sustainable Development

The topicality of a socio-philosophical study of education as an implementation factor of the sustainable development of the society is preconditioned by the fact that the reflected and substantiated understanding of both the axiology of contemporary education, its ability to exert influence on the spiritual and moral priorities of personality, and actualization of the sustainable societal development in the 21st century depend on the educational system. The article views the contemporary state of education for sustainable development (ESD). In author’s opinion the ESD is one of the most efficient methods of implementation of sustainable development principles by forming new thinking and behavior. A positive role of environmental ethics in the creation and development of ESD is shown.

Anastasia Nasibulina

Get Me to the Dojo: An Experiential Learning Experience

The Toyota Technical Center wanted to implement a companywide safety campaign to discourage the use of cell phones while walking. However, the traditional posters and directives from management did not seem to be working and a new approach was needed. The goal was to create an obstacle course that would be interesting enough to assess situational awareness and be fun for the participant. Thus the “Walking Dojo” was created to demonstrate that cell phones and walking don’t mix. A known measure of workload, the n-back task, was used to provide a consistent surrogate task for texting. The Dojo effectively demonstrates that walking while cognitively loaded significantly increases the time to negotiate the Dojo and increases response time to the n-back task. The lessons of the Dojo can contribute to safe walking whether it is crossing a street or on a factory floor.

Tina Sayer, James P. Foley

The Influence of Team Members’ Thinking Style on the Collaborative Design Process

Team member composition is an important factor in collaborative design. The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral differences in the collaborative design process with different team members’ thinking style composition. A design process of nine design teams with three different thinking style composition types was selected from a previous study. The material was transcribed and coded according to behavior, discussion, drawing, and writing. The numbers of concepts, sketches, and consensus were also calculated. The results illustrated different behaviors with different thinking style compositions.

Guan-Ting Liu, Wenzhi Chen

Organizational Behavior and Development

Frontmatter

Leadership Focus in Modern Expert Organization

Leadership is a concept proven troublesome to unambiguously define and its effectivity to assess in certain situations. There still is no clear consensus what leadership is. Nevertheless of academic discussions between different definitions, practical questions still arise and leadership is one of the most interesting research issues in organizations. What is the role of leadership in modern expert organizations and how do the leaders themselves experience it? How can it be measured and visualized? In this paper, we aim to find the leader’s conscious awareness towards the different leadership competencies, by building the ontology for leadership focus and using it as the theoretical frame. Paper also presents the assessment of the model, and a survey utilizing creative tension, as tool to study the leader’s competencies regarding leadership focus and enhancement needs of these competencies. Our findings show that while study itself gave positive results about the function of the survey and creative tension, it points out the needs for further development. The competence level self-evaluation part is revealing that even when there is possibility to create a realistic evaluation of the respondent’s mind set towards his/hers leadership style in current situation, the research tool should be developed further when comparable magnitudes of answers are needed. Future research needs are also to be discussed in this paper.

Tero Reunanen, Marko Junno

An Organizational Activity Framework for Effective Business Practices Implementation in Research-Oriented Organizations in Developing Economies

This paper explored the constraints to business practices implementation by Research-Oriented Organizations in Developing Economies. Guided by organizational activity, sociotechnical and macroergonomic theories, data was collected from four research-oriented organizations in four developing countries, and analyzed using actions of identified groups in each organization’s activity system as the unit of analysis. It was found that the emergence of multivoicedness in the organizations’ activity systems created misfits among the organizations components which created systemic problems, ruptures, and breakdowns which constrained the effectiveness of the organizations’ business practices implementations. It is concluded that in the process of business practices implementation, an activity in the organization must be understood not as one activity with its peculiarities, but rather as a real aggregate of several activities and relations arising from the interacting components of the organization. A framework for understanding effective business practices implementation in research-oriented organizations is thus formulated.

Mohammed-Aminu Sanda

Degree of Agility with an Ontology Based Application

Agility is a concept and practice with significant importance in managing projects and organizations, although it can also be very risky due to its degree of fuzziness if not properly defined. This research re-defines agility, emphasizes the need for ontologies for its management, and creates an application to measure the degree of agility inside an organization. In this research, various definitions of agility were gathered for the creation of ontology through a mind map revealing the characteristics of agility. As part of the Co-Evolute theory and methodology, the first agility ontology was developed as well as an application that evaluates the degree of agility in an organization. The application includes statements on which the respondents give opinions concerning the current and future desired states of agility and its importance in an evaluative way. The application has proven to operate well and extensive validation and verification of the tests runs will follow.

Markku Salo, Evangelos Markopoulos, Hannu Vanharanta, Jussi Ilari Kantola

Taking Tacit Knowledge Seriously in Strategy-as-Practice

This conceptual paper uses strategy-as-practice as a theoretical background and argues the significance of tacit knowledge during strategy work. The fundamental concept and past research approaches in the field of strategy-as-practice is presented to link how individual and collective tacit knowledge intersect in strategy-as-practice field. This paper emphasizes the need of studying tacit knowledge from strategy-as-practice perspective and ultimately provides avenue for future research, by so doing, this focus of study contribute to enlarge the theoretical as well as empirical contribution to the field of strategic management and organizational studies.

Dinesh Poudel

Effective Corporate Communication: A Solution to Foster New Product Idea Generation Dynamics

To make critical decisions, organizational leaders ensure to collect and analyze information through various sources by employing variety of analytical tools. Consequently, they manage to integrate the results of their analysis to offer diagnostic view by pinpointing the weak areas. Following the above sequence of analytical procedure, the current study presents a diagnostic review of highlighting weak operational areas in a European multinational company. The study findings suggest that the critical gaps are causing communicational breakdown and consequently affecting new product idea mechanism. Such operational areas include; the potential of target company’s internal communication system, data collection and record keeping capability, management’s approach to harness corporate potential of new idea generation and employee empowerment mechanisms. The referred areas are directly linked to the target company’s new product idea generation initiatives, the activities linked to the introduction of innovative products and service styles as well as the overall operational growth.

Syeda Asiya Zenab Kazmi, Marja Naaranoja, Juha Kytölä, Jussi Kantola

A Manager’s Means to Motivate Experts at Work

Motivated employers are vital for all companies. Motivation can be affected by using extrinsic and/or intrinsic motivators. However, intrinsic motivators offer more versatile options and are significantly more efficient. Intrinsic motivation is especially important to experts. Mangers can affect and develop the motivation of experts in several ways. The results of this survey are in line with motivation theories. The study highlighted work satisfaction and significance and importance of work. The opportunity to plan and complete work tasks are considered important. The personnel want to have the kinds of duties that give them satisfaction and feelings of progress, achievement and success. Constructive feedback also surfaces as an issue.

Johanna Koskialho

Digitalization and Big Data Supporting Responsible Business Co-evolution

Circular economy as a business driver is growing in bio economy, industry and service business. That means great opportunity for all kind of businesses but at the same time a huge business transition. The opportunities of sustainability and circular economy have not been understood in full context and as new service innovation. Responsibility business management is an integrator on the path. The paradigm shift in the effective circular economy is the alteration of purchase behavior from ownership and selling of machines to offering of services. Obvious development activity is to increase the efficiency in supply network. Digitalization is rapidly increasing and enterprises must find new ways to innovate for business advantage. Through digital transformation, the use of new technologies like cloud, mobile, big data, and social networks with increasing intelligence and automation enterprises can capitalize on new business and optimization opportunities. Responsibility business leadership needs democratic innovation culture and co-innovation and co-evolution processes. This article introduces a concept tool for responsible business leadership. It helps to analyze co-evolution over the life cycle of business transition on circular economy by using Evolute, the intelligent web-based system, for managing human opinions and experiences as well as public- private-relationships and responsible business leadership capabilities.

Vesa Salminen, Heikki Ruohomaa, Jussi Kantola

Essential Management Skills

Frontmatter

Decisions

Given the competitive nature of their jobs, it is not surprising that the majority of managers actively seek ways to strengthen its administrative capacity and ability to achieve effective performance. There are different reasons why there is so much interest in improving decision making at management levels, some relevant reasons are the quality and acceptability of decisions that could influence some aspects of career and personal satisfaction on managers. In this paper, we examine the influence of time pressure and time-dependent incentive schemes on the quality of decision-making in an experimental contest game.

Johanna Suarez, Juan David Parra, Susana Valencia

Eficom, Game Designed for the Analysis of Effective and Efficient Communication Skills

The process of transmitting ideas, information, emotions, feelings and attitudes in order to provoke a reaction on those who receive the message, is known as communication. Communication can lead to mistakes on how people of various occupations refer to other people in their inability to communicate in a right way, the lack of skills to listen presentations of their coworkers, or the unwillingness of subordinates to follow instructions. To solve this problem, this essay presents a design of a game called Eficom, which will strengthen and/or teach the foundations for an effective and efficient communication through a fun and recreational activity that involves the analysis of the fundamentals of communication.

Miguel Rojas, Maria Rojas, Katerine Villamizar

Levels of Trust in College Teachers

This chapter considers how trust becomes a key concept in higher education in a conceptual framework led by social capital. This research shows a way of measuring a qualitative variable as the confidence in quantitative terms, to find the current relationship between students of administration programs and related fields at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia that have 60 % or greater progress in their careers, and their teachers. Initially a survey was conducted to identify the trust in a relationship student-teacher to identify key aspects that are relevant for the education field. The information collected was analyzed through statistical methods, and based on the results of the research, students have an upper middle-generalized trust; however, looking for autonomous education, strategies should be implemented to improve these results, so that students are able to find a greater motivation and satisfaction to develop their knowledge.

Miguel David Rojas López, Ludym Jaimes Carrillo, Stefania Fernández García

Human Resource Management and Organizational Behavior

Cooperation to Make Networks Study Case, Net-Box Game

Social networks are constantly built in organizations who work in the studio or in coexistence with other individuals. Cooperation between different entities is generated through networks whose goal is to exchange information, improve performance and optimize resources. The game called Net-Box shows how networks are built from similarities and the cooperation emerges as a structure, allowing a common goal. The software UCINET, is constructed from data collected in playing sessions applied at the Nacional University of Colombia, Medellin. Finally, the results are presented and the conclusions on the structure of the networks are documented.

Miguel David Rojas López, Maria Elena Valencia Corrales, Samuel David Rojas Valencia

Communication Patterns

Several studies have been made about of communication patterns; Alex Bavelas is one of the first researchers in this field. He developed a study based on a game and an analytical method, finding interesting results related to the communication process. Given the importance of the topic, this paper seeks to analyze the communication process, basing it on Bavelas’ work but using tools such as experiment designs, aimed to extend the results to the engineering field.

Miguel Rojas, Alexander Correa, Mariana Henao

Performance Management and Organizational Learning

Frontmatter

Human Factor Related Challenges of Marketing Construction Business Enterprise

Marketing is acknowledged as a necessary business management function but its application in construction is intensely hindered by some human factors in the construction industry. The paper is aimed at identifying the specific human factors in the construction industry that hinder marketing adoption and implementation in construction and to initiate further debate on this important but Cinderella subject. It uses literature review as a method to identify, summarize, synthesize and show the gaps in the existing research knowledge on human factors affecting Marketing Performance (MP) of Construction Businesses (CB). Factors such as marketing skills, manpower, attitude towards and conception of marketing hinders greatly on MP of CB. Construction marketing researchers must focus attention on the human factors that affect construction marketing. Educational consultants, curriculum developers and training institutions will find the paper useful in revising existing curriculum to reflect current trends in the management of construction business enterprise.

Jonas Yankah, Clinton Aigbavboa, Wellington Thwala

Sustaining LNG Business Through Engineering Professional Development Program

Badak LNG has operated for more than 30 years with total production capability of 22.5 million metric ton LNG per year. The sustainability in LNG operation in these extensive years could not be achieved without supports of the whole employees, particularly engineers. System in maintaining engineering competency to provide contribution to the company is called the Engineering Professional Development Program (EPDP). In this paper, detail introduction of the system, including system element will be provided. Moreover several analyses, such as SWOT and Porter’s Five Forces of Competitiveness analysis are performed to determine the expected performance of engineers. The outcome of analyses reflects on the significant contribution of the engineers, even beyond the engineering function. The program has proven to clearly improve the engineers’ performance which consequently support and promote the company level of performance, as well as recognition from external parties.

Nugrahanto Widagdo

Safety Management Tasks at Different Management Levels

Top management’s strategic commitment to occupational health and safety (OHS) is crucial, but the middle and frontline managers play an important role in OHS management at the tactical and operational levels. The managers’ commitment can be supported by defining their OHS responsibilities and tasks. However, practical examples of their tasks are not widely discussed. This qualitative study aims to identify the OHS management tasks at different organizational levels based on empirical findings from Finnish industrial organizations. Top management’s OHS tasks focus on value judgements, goal setting, providing support, and visibly demonstrating their commitment to OHS. Middle managers develop uniform OHS procedures across the organization, and provide guidance to the frontline managers. Frontline managers monitor the daily work and identify the safety development needs for decision making. The emerged OHS tasks mostly involved technical issues, while human factor aspects were less emphasized, although they have been actively studied for some time.

Sari Tappura, Anna-Maria Teperi, Jouni Kivistö-Rahnasto

Making Relationships Matter: Director Interlocks and Fortune 500 Performance, 1996–2007

Board memberships are critical to Fortune 500 performance, providing access to sectoral knowledge or resources, management expertise, and capital. How can companies strategically target new directorships to maximize financial returns? We explore how director interlocks impact Fortune 500 ranking performance from 1996 to 2007, combining traditional financial indicators with board membership composition through social network analysis. We benchmark how key business drivers influence Fortune ranking, and then employ social network metrics of centrality and structure to show how interlocking directorships affect outcomes. We then subsequently perform dynamic panel regression techniques to estimate financial impact across sectors. Strategically selecting board memberships has a large potential return on investment, different sectors and ranking level, which can impact firms’ bottom lines by billions of dollars and tens of Fortune 500 ranking points.

Mark Abdollahian, John Thomas, Zining Yang, Rita Chiang

Leadership Style and Management System

Frontmatter

Contemporary Labour and Human Resources Management as Seen by the Production Sector And The Judiciary Employees

The paper present the contemporary model of work designing, reflecting the causes and directions of labour evolution. The Author also discusses the practices of human resources management. The empirical part of the paper presents the methodology which accounts for the actual state of affairs and the state expected by the employees. The results of the pilot studies conducted in Polish companies and courts have shown a high level and differentiation of employees adaptivity. They suggest the need to engage in sector-focused research in order to create adequate solutions and toolboxes for human resources management

Janusz Rymaniak

Leading Learning Schools

The paper introduces a newly developed model for schools as learning organization. The elaboration of the model was based on a longitudinal research and development project; the large scale research involved 82 schools, their leadership and teaching staff. The research report gives a clear description about the synchronous and diachronic model of learning organization and the validation of that. It also presents the leadership tasks and roles in it, and provides deep insight into the characteristics of the school leadership of schools aspire to become learning organization.

Tibor Baráth

The Atypical Approach to the Development Process of Tertiary Education

The environment of the 21st century adult and tertiary education has changed at several places. The obstacles of information flow have disappeared and the educational environment has been virtualized. At the same time, the learning habits of students have also changed radically. These changes should be followed by tertiary and adult education as well. By accepting these phenomena workers of tertiary and adult education have to face a lot of fresh challenges. It is very important for them to adjust to the trends mentioned above Even those people who are not certified teachers need information, pedagogical and psychological knowledge to be able to find their way in the pedagogy of adult and tertiary education.

Attila Mészáros Attila, Enikő Baróti

Parameters for Assessing a Building Project Within the Purview of Constructability

With the advent new technology in the construction industry a lot of multistorey building projects are coming in India. The housing demand is increasing at an exponential rate. To meet the demand of the user’s government of India is also coming with various schemes. A lot of affordable housing needs to be constructed to fulfill these demands. To finish the project on time, within the limited budget and as well as per the requirements a new term constructability is used. The constructability talks about the integration of architecture, engineering and management. This paper includes how a building project can be seen through a constructability point of view and what are the different parameters we should take in a building project.

Apurv Shrivastava, Devarshi Chaurasia, Shweta Saxena

Human Resource Development Intervention Towards Community Engagement: A Journey to Corporate Social Responsibility

This paper investigates employee perception of Human Resource Development intervention to promote awareness towards community engagement. A survey was conducted among 150 members from various units and department in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to get their reaction, insight and views towards public commitment. Increasing social complexity and growing responsibility to society makes training human resources essential in creating and sharing knowledge that can benefit and of value not only to the common members but also the general public. This study highlights some issues for future recommendation to foster community engagement level among the university members in order to promote positive social change.

Roziana Shaari, Zainab Khalifah, Azizah Rajab, Nor Amira Syairah Zulkarnain

Gender and Leadership

Frontmatter

Is the Sky the Limit?: Leadership and Socio-economic Development of Women in the Maritime Sector in the Eastern and Southern Africa

Women in leadership is high on the economic agenda of all international forums as it is deemed to be an effective tool in addressing a number of socio-economic issues, namely, poverty alleviation, social well-being and wealth creation. In the case of the maritime industry, positive contributions of women are increasingly being recognised. This paper draws a particular attention to socio-economic development of women’s leadership in the maritime sector. This study applies a case study method, investigating the socio-economic development in women’s leadership in the Eastern and Southern Africa. An adapted model from the economic theory of the Kuznets curve is used for designing a survey of women in leadership as well as analysing their individual experiences in climbing up to leadership positions and their views on leadership in the traditionally male-dominated maritime sector.

Meenaksi Bhirugnath-Bhookhun, Momoko Kitada

Globalization Strategies and Higher Education. A Dutch—Romanian Perspective

Higher education institutions throughout the world are undergoing considerable functional and structural changes as they adapt to meet the needs of a global and knowledge-based economy. There is an urgent call for them to be equipped with an well-defined and implanted globalization strategy to tap and provide useful and simple planning tools to utilize global resources effectively. In this sense, this paper seeks to investigate the problem of how and why HAN University of Applied Sciences (The Netherlands) and Bucharest University of Economic Studies (Romania) have responded to globalization within the context of their strategic planning and their local, regional, national and global roles and responsibilities. It seeks to document how these aspects of globalization are perceived by the both universities faculty and higher management. The paper traces the chosen universities recent development and seeks to account for this in terms of their institutional strategic planning.

Florentin Popescu

New Skills for Entrepreneurial Researchers

Knowledge exchange between universities and business in collaborative/contractual research and public-private partnerships has become far more significant. These developments instigate new mind-sets and skills for academic researchers, that should be able to translate their new technological concepts into new (business) developments. Using the two entrepreneurial functions—identification and exploitation— Park (Technovation 25: 739–752, 2005); Wright et al. (J. Technol. Transfer 29: 235–246, 2004) as well as the Vitae Researcher Development Framework (www.vitae.ac.uk) and Entrepreneurial competency framework (Int. J. Entrepreneur. Behav. Res. 6(2): 92–111, 2010), this chapter looks at the new, entrepreneurial skills that any academic researcher needs to make commercial exploitation of research a success. The purpose of this article is to investigate which (i.e. entrepreneurial) skills academic researchers need to facilitate to be more effective in exploiting their research. We especially focus on the academic researcher with a beta-scientific background.

Mirjam Leloux, Florentin Popescu, Andries Koops

Female Captains and Their Leadership: Human Factors in the Shipping Industry

Seafaring has been traditionally seen as a male-dominated occupation where women’s participation is extremely low in many parts of the world. In particular, Captains on merchant ships are often found to be men who tend to project a certain authoritative figure in the context of a ship hierarchy. Nevertheless, the representation of women in seafaring jobs has been recently more accepted though still a few. This paper discusses how the notion of leadership on board a ship can be challenged by female Captains and how they have learned leadership and applied in ship operations. Gender issues are an important part of human factors, impacting on crew’s relationship and teamwork under the leadership of a Captain. In this research, seven female and three male Captains were individually interviewed. An inquiry to female Captains and leadership will provide a new source of data for re-thinking human factors in the shipping industry.

Momoko Kitada

The Learning Organization in a Small Government Unit: Case Study of the Center for Academic Services, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand

The research is R&D and aims to investigate and assess a learning organization in a government organization. A Learning Organization (LO) is one of the key developments in Thai government organizations. However, not many government organizations can successfully build and implement it in their organizational culture. This research studied and evaluated problems and methods of developing a LO in a small government organization named Center for Academic Services (CAS) at Srinakharinwirot University (SWU), which is a public university. CAS is a supporting unit of the university and is a semi-autonomous organization. Its main mission is to earn income for the university through providing academic services projects to both public and private organizations. Building up a learning organization could help CAS achieve its mission more effectively and efficiently. The CAS has sixteen staff working, which includes executives, who are lecturers and have been appointed by the university to work at the CAS apart from their teaching. The data collection methods were focus group discussions with questionnaires during the training on LO throughout the year. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, which are frequency, percentage, mean, and standard of deviation. The findings reflected six main characteristics of a LO, which are learning dynamics, personal mastery, mental model, shared vision, team learning and system thinking, and the findings showed that the CAS tended to be able to develop a LO in the organization.

Unchana Klentien, Weeranan Kamnungwut
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