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Über dieses Buch

This book comprises select proceedings of the International Conference on Future Learning Aspects of Mechanical Engineering (FLAME 2018). The book discusses different topics of industrial and production engineering such as sustainable manufacturing systems, computer-aided engineering, rapid prototyping, manufacturing management and automation, metrology, manufacturing process optimization, casting, welding, machining, and machine tools. The contents of this book will be useful for researchers as well as professionals.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Enhanced Fluorescence-Based Detection of Vibrio Cells Over Nanoporous Silica Substrate

The food and waterborne pathogens threaten the human health through porous borders that require immediate detection in real time. The present work reports the development of a nanoporous silica-based platform for the rapid detection of Vibrio cells. The nanoporous thin film has been developed over silicon substrate utilizing PMSSQ (polymethylsilsesquioxane, (CH3SiO1.5)n) and PPG (polypropylene glycol, CH((CH3)CH2O)n) combination in PGMEA (propylene glycol methyl ether acetate) solvent as provided earlier by Gangopadhyay et al. (Nanotechnology 20, 2009 [1]). The PPG acts as a porogen and evaporates on heat treatment giving a porous structure and assembles the PMSSQ nanoparticles. The films were characterized through FTIR, EDAX, and SEM microscopy, and it was found out that the functional groups like OH, CH3, Si–CH3, Si–O, and Si–O–Si were present abundantly in the porous structure, which can be further modified for its application in biology. An aliquot of 2.5 µl Vibrio cell solution was immobilized (over nanoporous silica film) to study its fluorescence intensity under an epifluorescence microscope. Vibrio (Vibrio harveyi (ATCC® 700106™)) cells possess self-fluorescing effects with bleaching characteristics. The fluorescence images (with the progression of time) are acquired and processed through Image J (courtesy NIH), and relative fluorescence of the cells are calculated as a function of time. A 1.7 times increase in the overall fluorescence intensity level is recorded in the presence of the porous silica layer as compared to uncoated silicon substrate showing immobilization capabilities of these films.

Geeta Bhatt, Rishi Kant, Shantanu Bhattacharya

Wear Analysis of Al-5083 Alloy Reinforced with Chromium Oxide Filler on Air Jet Erosion Test Rig

Due to the operational requirement in a dusty environment, there is a strong need of research and development for the selection of metal matrix composites to reduce and control wear. In this regard, effects of various parameters on the wear rate have been studied to find the best formulation of material and the best design of machine elements. Hence, in this work, a series of preliminary experiments have been conducted as per Taguchi Orthogonal Array Methodology to investigate erosive wear behavior of Al-5083 metal matrix composites reinforced with chromium oxide filler. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been performed on the measured data. The findings of the result indicated that for this metal matrix, impingement angle and filler content indicated the most significant factors followed by impact velocity for minimization of erosion rate of all the particulate-filled composites.

Amit Kumar, Shiv Ranjan Kumar, Anand Prakash

Statistical Analysis of Surface Roughness Using RSM in Hard Turning of AISI 4340 Steel with Ceramic Tool

The present study concerns the modeling and optimization of surface roughness in dry hard turning of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) grade AISI 4340 steel (49 HRC) with coated ceramic tool. For parametric study, the turning operations have been established according to Taguchi L27 orthogonal array consisting of an experimental design matrix 3 levels and 3 principal turning parameters (factors) such as, cutting speed, axial feed, and depth of cut. Analysis of sixteen set experimental data with ANOVA showed that axial feed and speed are the most significant controlled cutting parameters for hard turning operation, if the improvement of the machined surface finish is considered. Thereafter, statistical regression model based on response surface methodology has been proposed for correlation of cutting parameters with machined workpiece surface roughness. Finally, optimal cutting conditions with the aim to minimize the surface roughness via desirability function approach of RSM are proposed.

Asutosh Panda, Sudhansu Ranjan Das, Debabrata Dhupal

A Current Review of Supply Chain Performance Measurement Systems

A supply chain is the network of entities (individual or organisation) who work together to fulfil customer demands efficiently with maximum profits without compromising quality of product or service. Traditionally, supply chains were assessed based on financial measures but increasing competition and changing scenarios. Supply chains today are assessed based on various non-financial parameters such as customer satisfaction, sustainability and resilience. Performance measurement quantifies the extent up to which a supply chain is achieving its perceived objectives based on performance indicators. With diverse sectors of industry and varying goals of different supply chains, the performance indicators vary as well. The paper intends to provide a critical review on supply chain performance measurement literature by compiling key performance indicators for various sectors to understand the diversity and complication of performance measurement systems.

Shubham Tripathi, Manish Gupta

Development of Hybrid Forms of Abrasive Flow Machining Process: A Review

In the present era, the demand of products with better surface finish and quality has improved drastically which promoted the industries to make their products with better functional performance and sustainability in the market. Due to low productivity of abrasive flow machining (AFM), there is a need to develop an efficient process which will inculcate a better surface finish and good quality. Hence, it is required to identify various hybrids of abrasive flow machining which involve the development of new process having high material removal, optimum surface finish and better type of fixturing during the finishing operation. This paper describes various hybrid forms of abrasive flow machining developed so far for productivity enhancement and involved parameters with their working principle.

Anant Bhardwaj, Parvesh Ali, R. S. Walia, Qasim Murtaza, S. M. Pandey

Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Enablers in FMCG Sector Using Integrated ISM and MICMAC Approach

The objective of this paper is to identify and model the relationship amongst various green supply chain management (GSCM) enablers encountered while implementing GSCM practices in fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) industry. 11 key enablers were identified and Interpretive Structure Modelling (ISM) is used to construct a model describing mutual relationship amongst various enablers. Matriced’ Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée á un Classement (MICMAC) analysis is conducted to give results regarding driving and dependence power of enablers. The results of this study can be considered by the top management while formulating strategies for implementation of GSCM practices in their respective organization.

Prabhakar Vivek, Jha Sanjay Kumar

Deformation Behavior of Semi-solid Forged A356–5TiB2 Nano-In Situ Composites

The research work investigates the application of semi-solid metal processing (SSMP) to predict the deformation behavior of semi-solid A356–5TiB2 nano-in situ composites. The semi-solid forging of A356–5TiB2 in situ composites was carried out in three steps. In the first step, cooling slope (CS) casting setup was developed to generate the non-dendritic feedstock of the composites for subsequent thixoforging. In the second step, differential thermal analysis was used to estimate the semi-solid temperature range in order to achieve partial remelting temperatures and solid fraction profiles of the composites. In the final step, the non-dendritic feedstock of the composites was thixoforged with different % reductions ranging from 30 to 50%. It is noted that the semi-solid A356–5TiB2 nano-in situ composites with 40% deformation attained the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 318 MPa, in peak aged condition which is about 110.6% compared to gravity-cast alloy. This is attributed due to the presence of nano-TiB2 particles in the semi-solid forged A356–5TiB2 in situ composite, which clearly indicates the influence of semi-solid forging on the deformation behavior and tensile properties of composites.

Sahini Deepak Kumar, Ananya Chatttee, Sanjay Kumar Jha, Niranjan Kumar Singh, Animesh Mandal

Study of MRR and TWR in Electric Discharge Machining of AISI D2 Tool Steel

Owing to its mechanical and metallurgical properties, AISI D2 is extensively used as tool steel in die-making industry. Typical shapes and intricate die cavities along with its high hardness make conventional operations of machining unsuitable and uneconomical for machining of AISI D2 steel. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is an appropriate process for machining of such high-strength tool steels. Therefore, this study was carried out to characterize and optimize the process parameters of die-sinking EDM for material removal rate (MRR) and tool wear rate (TWR) in machining of AISI D2 tool steel. Discharge current, gap voltage, pulse-on-time, and tool material were taken as process parameters. Taguchi’s orthogonal array approach coupled with analysis of variance is applied to design the experiments and analyze the relationship between process parameters and process outcomes. Methodology developed in this study assists in adjusting machining parameters for desired outcomes. Moreover, the process parameters can be utilized to economically manufacture the quality die tools.

Himanshu Payal, Satish Kumar Sharma, Aakash, Ashish kumar, Avinash kumar, Himanshu

Optimization of Quality and Productivity of Wire EDM by Using L9 Orthogonal Array

Quality and productivity are two essential facets developed in present competitive global market. In the present study, wire EDM process of AISI P20 tool steel optimized the quality as well as productivity simultaneously. MRR in the terms of productivity, this can be maximized and overcut in terms of quality that can be minimized. This study highlights AISI P20 tool steel of best combination of machining parameter setting with Taguchi design of experimental technique, of WIRE EDM. The selected input parameters are pulse-on time (Ton), wire feed (f) and pulse-off time (Toff). The objective of this paper is to achieve the maximum MRR and the minimum overcut. They used copper wire of 0.25 mm diameter as a tool, and dielectric fluid was used in distilled water,; L9 orthogonal array based on Taguchi design has been used. These two responses (MRR and overcut) have been converted into signal quality characteristics for optimal process environment (optimum input parameters setting). Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with grey relational analysis (GRA) with Taguchi design of experiment techniques has been used to solve the problem.

Shailesh Kumar Dewangan, Prakash Kumar, Sanjay Kumar Jha

Numerical Simulation of Hot Isostatic Pressing Process Utilized During Sintering of Tool Inserts

Sintering is a popular technique, where powder compacts are heated in a furnace to impart strength and integrity. Usually, sintering process is a one of the essential stage followed during powder metallurgy along with powder production and powder compaction. Sintering process is multistage and carried out in a partial vacuum with the controlled atmosphere to achieve required metallurgical properties. To make a product completely pore-free and dense, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), a secondary powder metallurgy operation is necessary. In hot isostatic pressing, argon gas is used as the pressure medium and isostatically applied to the sintered part with the pressure around 100 bar with a temperature range of 500–2000 °C. Although the hot isostatic pressing is a well-established technology, the understanding of local details like the internal gas flow and heat flux inside the furnace will help to improve the process itself as well as to reduce the rejection rate of the sintered inserts. In this paper, numerical simulation of hot isostatic pressing is presented. As the process involves unsteady flow through porous felt as well as graphite cylinders, transient analysis of argon flow inside the horizontal vacuum sintering furnace is simulated. The argon gas is passed into the furnace through an inlet at the mass flow rate of 300 L/h. The simulation is carried out for 1200 s with a time step of 0.01. Numerical results show the local temperature; pressure and flow conditions attained and eventually used for further process improvement particularly in the central zone of the furnace.

Akshay Chandras, Chandrakant Sonawane

Development of Hydrophobic Coating with Polymer–Metal Oxide Nano-composites

The hydrophobicity of the nano-coating developed with TiO2 and SiO2–TiO2 nanoparticles in organic binder is investigated, where polyurethane was taken as model binder. Core SiO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized using Stober method with average particle size of 92 nm. TiO2 and nano-core@shell have been prepared using peptization process. Particle sizes were measured as 75 nm for TiO2 and 144 nm for core-shell nanoparticles which were prepared using peptization process. In this process, hydrophobic titania was produced at 70 °C. Here, SiO2–TiO2 core–shell nanoparticle was synthesized because core silica improves the mechanical strength and shell TiO2 on core silica provides the hydrophobicity of the coating surface. Characterization of these nanoparticles was performed by UV-vis spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and XRD. The coating formulations were developed with the aforementioned nanoparticles separately and concentration of nanoparticles was varied from 1 to 6 wt%. The best performance in terms of hydrophobicity was obtained with 4 wt% of the concentration of nanoparticles in polyurethane-coating system. In this work, prepared coatings were applied on glass substrate (20 × 20 × 10 mm) using a brush, dried in oven at 80 °C for 15 min, on drying, 100-μm-thick film was obtained. Static contact angle of water droplet on these dried films was measured and obtained as 129° for PU film-containing TiO2 nanoparticle and 133.3° for PU film with SiO2–TiO2 core@shell nanoparticle.

Jaya Verma, Vishakha Baghel, Basant Singh Sikarwar, Arpita Bhattacharya, D. K. Avasthi

Recent Developments in Fabrication of Super-Hydrophobic Surfaces: A Review

Nature has many biological structures with water repellency phenomena depicting super-hydrophobicity which are observed in various plants, insects, and animals. The advancements in the broad area of biomimetics provide scope toward development and fabrication of nanotextured surfaces. With biological design, replicating adaptation and derivation from various natural environments which is referred to as “biomimetics.” Related to exceptional properties of super-hydrophobicity, researchers have recently developed and fabricated biomimetic nanotextured super-hydrophobic materials. Surface modification to prepare chemical and physical textured super-hydrophobic metallic surfaces with standard protocols so that repeatable and well-characterized surfaces can be obtained with a high contact angle, low contact angle hysteresis, bounce, and proper roll-off rate. A review-based approach is provided in this paper with developments in surface modification and fabrication of super-hydrophobic materials by various nanotextured processes.

Deepak Kumar Sharma, Vishakha Baghel, Ranjit Kumar, D. K. Avasthi, Basant Singh Sikarwar

Conceptual Analysis of Reliability Aspect for Various Process Industries: A Critical Review

The reliability field has gone through fruition development and burst through during previous four decades. The current paper reflects a historical outlook of momentous expansion and methodically spells out the contributions in reliability field since its commencement. The paper additionally looks into the significance and advancement of a range of numerical methods for the analysis of reliability, diagrammatical models, logical, and other reliability tools that had fashioned the appearance of reliability concept. Higher productivity and maximum profitability have nowadays become very essential for the processing industries to ensure their survival. To meet this challenge, all the systems and subsystems of these industries should have high reliability and availability. If the manufacturing systems are of improved quality and are having higher availability levels, this will definitely lead to enhancement of productivity and hence profitability. It has been realized that reliability and availability have great importance in all the processing industries and complex plants. Reliability concept is of great importance at design stage, development stage, procurement stage, operation stage, and maintenance stage. The study has been undertaken by many researchers for recognizing the performance behavior of systems in various process industries. A critical review has been conducted to present the brief overview of performance behavior and optimization of different systems related to various process industries. Lastly, the paper emphasizes the restrictions with on-hand methods for analysis of reliability and make out a small number of latent openings for more research.

Gaurav Sharma, Puran Chandra Tewari

Estimation of Hardness During Heat Treatment of EN8 and C25 Steels

The hardness of EN8 and C25 steels during Jominy-type end-quench test was numerically estimated. The cooling curve near the quenched end of the specimen was used to estimate the heat flux during quenching. Heat transfer in the specimen during quenching was modeled as a 2D axisymmetric heat conduction coupled with austenite decomposition. The relevant equations were solved inversely for the heat flux with cooling data as input. The microstructure distribution within the specimen was computed, and a hardness model was developed based on microstructure distribution. The measured hardness values were compared with the estimated hardness values. The predicted and experimentally determined hardness along the length of the specimen has been shown to be in good agreement within ±3 HRC/HRB.

Sachin V. Bagali, Maruti, N. R. Abhaya Simha, M. P. Sushanth, T. S. Prasanna Kumar, V. Krishna

Service Quality in Indian SMEs: Developing a Dual Directional Scale at Supplier–Manufacturer Dyad

This paper investigates the role played by service quality at supplier–manufacturer dyad in small–medium manufacturing units and presents a model to establish that contribution of both the supplier and manufacturer towards service quality leads to satisfaction followed by loyalty. The research process for this study comprises a literature survey in conjunction with exploratory interviews with practitioners, and a structured interview schedule conducted with 120 respondents working in different small–medium manufacturing units in North India. SME has been employed for analysing the data thus collected. The paper has developed dual directional scales to evaluate service quality at supplier–manufacturer dyad and has also tested a set of four propositions. A model showing linkages of manufacturer (manufacturing unit’s) service quality with supplier unit’s service quality leading to satisfaction and loyalty is finally developed. The model is empirically tested and is found to be fit. This study would be of interest to SME managers particularly engaged in ‘purchase’ function and researchers working on inter-firm supply chains in such units. This study recommends forming strong collaborative relationships with suppliers to achieve a win-win situation.

Surjit Kumar Gandhi, Anish Sachdeva, Ajay Gupta

Parametric Investigation into Alumina Nanopowder Mixed EDM of Inconel 825 Alloy Using RSM

Nanopowder mixed electrical discharge machining (NPMEDM) is a recent development in the non-traditional machining process. In this process, addition of powder into dielectric increases the spark gap between the electrodes resulting in more number of low intense sparks. Therefore, both the material removal rate (MRR) and surface finish improve. The present work investigates the effect of Al2O3 nanopowder mixed EDM oil on various responses like MRR and surface roughness (SR). The Al2O3 nanopowder is mixed with EDM oil at a concentration of 0.5 g/L. Pulse duration (Ton), peak current (IP) and gap voltage (GV) are taken as the process parameters. The experiment is designed using response surface methodology (RSM), where two sets of experiments have been conducted using two different dielectric conditions (i.e. EDM oil and powder mixed in EDM oil). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that all the three selected parameters are significant for MRR and SR. The study shows that there is considerable increase in MRR and reduction in SR after mixing Al2O3 nanopowder in EDM oil. Using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), a detailed study on the surface integrity of the machined surface has been carried out. It has been found that NPMEDM reduced microcracks, microholes, uneven deposit and recast layer thickness of the machined surface to a great extent.

Deepti Ranjan Sahu, Amit Kumar, Biplab Kumar Roy, Amitava Mandal

Eco-design Approaches for Developing Eco-friendly Products: A Review

Producing eco-friendly products has become the need of the present due to the alarming conditions of global warming issues and depletion of natural resources. These issues have forced the industries to adopt the eco-design strategies in their production processes. Eco-design approaches are used by the designers to deal with these issues not only in the development of eco-friendly products but also in the development of sustainable buildings, eco-industrial parks and services. Efficient integration of the eco-design approaches in product development is still under question due to the uncertainties involved in the eco-design methods. This study provides an insight into the various eco-design methods and tools available for developing eco-friendly products. Different challenges and barriers to the implementation of eco-design have also been reported in this study. Further, the uncertainties associated with the implementation of the eco-design methods are discussed.

Prashant Kumar Singh, Prabir Sarkar

Plumbene: A New 2D-Material Resembling Graphene

Over two decades, two-dimensional materials attracted the attention of researches due to their superior mechanical and thermal properties. Plumbene, the new two-dimensional material, is a single layer of lead atoms hexagonally arranged like honeycomb structure. It already has the application as a topological insulator. In this paper, we will compare between structure and properties of graphene, silicene, and plumbene for the application of plumbene in batteries, machine manufacturing, shipbuilding, etc.

D. K. Das, S. K. Singh

Study the Wear Behaviour of Al5083-7% B4C Composite Fabricated by Stir Casting Technique

Aluminium composite significantly possesses better properties as compared to unreinforced aluminium alloy such as high specific strength and higher damping capacity. Metal matrix composite (MMC) is widely used in various industries because they are ductile in nature and light in weight. This paper presents an investigation of the dry sliding wear behaviour of the Al5083 composite produced by stir casting technique with 7%B4C weight percentage and Al5083. Evaluation of wear rate was conducted by an advanced pin-on-disc tribotester at different loads (30, 40, and 50 N) and different sliding speed (134, 200, and 267 RPM). Then, the investigation from the result of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of worn surfaces shows that the wear resistance of the Al5083 composite is higher than Al5083. It is found that the damages of the surfaces at low load are less than at high loads and also the damages of surfaces at low sliding distance are less than at high sliding distance. The volume loss increases as the load increases, and similarly at the same applied load, volume loss increases as the sliding distance increases.

Ram Singh, Malik Shadab, Ram Naresh Rai, Chiranjit Bhowmik, Shankar Swarup Das

Study of Machining Performance in EDM Through Response Surface Methodology

Electric discharge machining (EDM) is thermal erosion advanced machining process which is capable of machining very hard conductive materials that cannot be machined by any other conventional machining processes. However, process parameters used in EDM have a wide range and for achieving efficient machining optimum selection of these parameters plays an important role. In the present study, discharge current (I), pulse on and pulse off time were taken as process variables in machining AISI 202 stainless steel using a copper alloy tool. This study aims to optimize electrode wear rate, material removal rate, as well as surface roughness of workpiece using response surface methodology (RSM) approach. The results obtained after experimental procedure were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. Regression equation for the EWR, MRR, and Ra was also generated. This study also focuses on surface changes and crystalline changes that occur after EDM process by using different characterization techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques have been used for studying the changes on materials after machining process. Based on the experiment, it was found that discharge current and pulse on time significantly affect the machining performance. The optimized electrode wear rate and material removal rate obtained were having values 0.000155 mg/min and 0.048175 mg/min, respectively. This study can be helpful for selecting optimum process parameters in machining of 202 stainless steel to achieve efficient machining.

Raghav Rajneesh, Singh Subhash, R. S. Mulik, Pal Kaushik

Friction Stir Welding of Thermoplastic Composites

Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are replacing traditional metals and unfilled polymers due to their superior properties such as excellent strength/stiffness-to-weight ratio with enhanced toughness and low cost. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a new addition for joining of plastics and it has many advantages when compared with traditional joining process. The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of glass-filled Nylon 6 composites by FSW. Glass-filled Nylon 6 composites were fabricated by an injection molding machine and joined by FSW process with H13 tool steel with cylindrical pin profile. In order to study the mechanical and morphological properties of FSWed sections of glass filled Nylon 6 composites, a full factorial design of experiment was employed using the factors like tool rotational speed (400, 500 and 600 rpm), tool traverse speed (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mm/s) and tool tilt angle (0°, 1° and 2°) having constant standoff distance 0.2 mm. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to find out the significance of process parameters (tool rotational speed, tool traverse speed, and tool tilt angle) with the tensile strength, and percentage elongation. The optimized result was achieved at a tool rotational speed of 600 rpm, welding speed of 0.2 mm/s, and tilt angle of 2° with defect-free welds. It is observed that joining of glass-filled Nylon 6 composites is feasible one with proper selection of process parameters and tool rotational speed has a significant effect on weld strength followed by tool traverse speed and tool tilt angle.

Sudhir Kumar, Tanmoy Medhi, Barnik Saha Roy

Numerical Simulation of Temperature Distribution in Laser Welding of AISI 316

A numerical simulation of temperature distribution of laser welding of 316L austenitic stainless steel has been investigated in the present research. A three-dimensional Gaussian conical moving heat source has been implemented in the present numerical simulation. ANSYS with certain modifications has been used to account for thermomechanical analysis during laser welding. Temperature-dependent thermal physical properties of 316L austenitic stainless steel have been considered, which influence the temperature profile in the weldment. The temperature distribution was measured at different process parameters. The effect of laser welding process parameters such as average beam power, welding speed, and laser spot diameter on weld bead geometry has been studied. The temperature distribution obtained from the numerical results is in good agreement with the experimental results. The shape of the weld pool profile obtained through numerical simulation is in good agreement with the experimental results.

Pramod Kumar, Amar Nath Sinha

A Framework for Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem Using Simulation-Based Cuckoo Search Optimization

Cuckoo search optimization (CSO) is an evolutionary, nature-inspired, swarm intelligence meta-heuristic algorithm, which is compatible to optimize non-polynomial combinatorial problems. It works based on the living style of cuckoos. They have obligatory brood parasitism conduct. Basically, the CSO adopted the process of egg emplacing and breeding of cuckoos. CSO algorithm begins with initial population as if genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and other evolutionary algorithms. Basically, the CSO works based on the cuckoos endeavor to survive amid nests and societies. Due to this struggle, several cuckoos or eggs or chicks demise and the lived cuckoos colonize toward healthier environment. So, the process of “egg laying and breeding” starts again. The survival exertion of cuckoos unites them to form a society which has similar fitness quality of each cuckoo. Hence, this algorithm has been well known to solve complicated optimization problems. Therefore, in the present work a novel approach, based on CSO algorithm, has been framed to handle the flexible job shop scheduling problem. This problem belongs to the typical class of production scheduling having various manufacturing flexibilities as if the real-world manufacturing environment. Simulation is preferred as to compare the mathematical formulation, because it imitates the performance near to a realistic system. Quality function of CSO algorithm has been planned to determine through ProModel© simulation software. The proposed algorithm handles multiple objectives such as makespan, mean flow time and mean tardiness.

Rakesh Kumar Phanden, Zuzana Palková, Rahul Sindhwani

An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Warpage and Cracking Issues in Fused Deposition Modeling

Research in 3D printing technology is growing immensely because of the advantage of manufacturing complex shapes in less time as compared to conventional manufacturing processes. However, warpage and cracking are the critical issues in fused deposition modeling technique which results in a reduction in the strength of the component. This paper aims to address the root causes for reducing the warpage and cracking in a 3D printed component. Fused-deposition-modeling-based 3D printer is used in this study to manufacture the samples. The behavior of warpage and cracking in the specimens are studied by altering bed temperature and extrusion width of the filament. The experimental results revealed that printing a component at 100 °C and 0.75 mm extrusion width led to minimum warpage and no crack condition.

A. Suhas, Rohit Rajpal, K. V. Gangadharan, U. Pruthviraj

Optimization of Electrical Discharge Coating of WS2 and Cu Powder Mixture Deposited Through Green Compact Electrode

Electrical discharge coating (EDC) is performed to deposit the mixture of tungsten disulfide (WS2) and copper (Cu) powder onto the mild steel surface for solid lubrication. The material deposition process takes place through green compact tool by using EDC setup inside the die-sink electrical discharge machine (EDM). The powder compact tool has been prepared in the hot mounting press for different values of powder mixing ratio, i.e., WS2: Cu/40:60, WS2: Cu/50:50, and WS2: Cu/60:40. The coating material deposits due to series of chemical reactions between the tool and workpiece in the presence of hydrocarbon oil when reverse polarity has been used in die-sinking electrical discharge machine (EDM). Response surface methodology has been utilized for optimization by varying the molding press and machining input parameters such as mixing ratio, duty factor, and peak current. Reduction in micro-hardness value as a result of solid lubricant deposition has been revealed with the help of Vickers hardness testing machine. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis has been performed to examine the presence of pores, voids, and gaps on the mild steel surface. X-ray diffraction study along with the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) results also confirms the presence of WS2, W, S, Cu, and Cu2S compounds in the coating. The effect of duty factor and peak current on different output parameters (mass transfer rate, tool wear rate, and micro-hardness) has been evaluated.

Rashi Tyagi, Kshitij Pandey, Shalini Mohanty, Shakti Kumar, Alok Kumar Das, Amitava Mandal

Optimization by AHP-ARAS of EDM Process Parameters on Machining AA7050-10%B4C Composite

The present paper aims to develop AA7050/B4C composite by stir casting method. The flux K2TiF6 has been used for proper incorporation of the B4C particle in the molten matrix. The microstructures of the casted composite were analysed with FE-SEM. The microstructure shows the proper distribution of B4C particle with the formation of encapsulating layers of Ti compounds around B4C particles. Machining of AA7050/B4C composite was done by the non-traditional machining process known as electro-discharge machine (EDM). Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) model of AHP-ARAS has been used to evaluate the optimal EDM process parameters for machining AA7050-B4C composite. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was used to design the experiments. The process parameters selected for the experiments were pulse current (Ip), pulse on time (Ton), and pulse off time (Toff) for the responses like material removal rate (MRR), the surface roughness (Ra), and depth of cut (DC). The sensitivity analysis has been used to understand the consistency of the responses by interchanging the weights of the criterion. It has been observed that the process parameters of ninth experiment were the most effective among all selected alternatives. The sensitivity analysis confirmed that the proposed AHP-ARAS model was consistent and can be used to evaluate the performance of EDM process parameters.

Arvind Kumar, Sayed Abou Iltaf Hussain, Ram Naresh Rai

Supply Chain Issues and Challenges for Cement Industries of India: A Case Study

Supply chain management (SCM) has become very important element for modern industry success. SCM integrates the all inbound and outbound activities of a company. Cement industries are the core manufacturing sectors affecting the growth of modern India. The cement industries in India are facing different challenges in modern time of competition. After GST implementation in India, cement industries face many issues and challenges. Supply chain of cement industries has transformed a lot. In this paper, authors have discussed the supply chain issues and challenges of cement industries in India and the impact of GST (Goods and Service Tax) have also been discussed. Old supply chain, modified supply chain, and critical factors like warehousing eliminations and effect on sale of cement are discussed. Authors have studied the supply chain issues and challenges in Indian cement industries in this research paper. SAP–LAP methodology has been applied for case study. Different factors which play a role in current scenario for Indian cement industries have been studied. Different issues and challenges having influence on performance of case organization have been discussed. Reduction in logistics and transportation cost, reduction in time of delivery and reduction in production cost are few main benefits for Indian cement industries in post GST scenario.

Ankur Taak, Ravinder Kumar

Powder Metallurgy Processing and Mechanical Characterization of Iron-Based Composite Reinforced with Alumina and Zirconium Diboride

In the present manufacturing scenario, iron-based metal matrix composites are the key requirement for heavy vehicle and structural applications. But, due to the problem of rapid oxidation during the development of iron-based composites, this field is only limited up to few research level. In the present research work, an easy formation of iron-based metal matrix composite materials are proposed through powder metallurgy process with different mass fractions of zirconium diboride and alumina reinforcement such as 5% Al2O3–10% ZrB2, 5% Al2O3–5% ZrB2, and 10% Al2O3–10% ZrB2, all in the form of atomized particles. Further, microstructural readings on cross section as well as surface of the bar and hardness measurements were attained and investigated. Improved hardness and tensile strength are noted from newly developed performs.

Bhupendra Prakash Sharma, G. S. Rao, Umesh Kumar Vates

Challenges for Effective and Efficient Supply Chain Management for Fast Moving Electrical Goods (FMEG): A Case Study

Fast Moving Electrical Goods (FMEG) industries are among the most dynamic industry these days. Short product life cycle, intricate supply chain, unpredictable demand, tight profit margins are major challenges for FMEG industries. Scarcity of raw material, unpredictable delay in transportation from foreign suppliers, non-availability of affordable skilled labor, changing customer demand have completely transformed the electric goods industries. Increasing demand for good-quality low-cost products is giving abundant opportunities of growth to FMEG industries if they manage issues and challenges of supply chain management (SCM). In this research paper, authors have studied the issues and challenges of FMEG supply chain using situation actor process–learning action performance (SAP–LAP) methodology. Authors have observed that Indian FMEG are facing challenges like supply chain collaboration (outsourcing of non-core operations, vertically integrating core competencies), retail integration, supply risk management (natural, terrorism, demand and supply), supply chain planning (demand-driven supply chains), reverse logistic, sustainability, and green supply chain and digital supply chain.

Ravinder Kumar, Ankur Taak

Investigation of Titanium as Thin Film Deposited Material Thereon Effect on Mechanical Properties

In this article state of art of research on thin film deposition and their interaction with bulk material, along with morphological changes and their behaviour under different loading conditions are analysed, and hence, performances are reviewed. Researchers have put significant efforts to predict changes in structural property and their influences on performances of these coatings. These coatings can exhibit adaptive and chameleon kind attributes. The physical and structural properties of the element used for coating had relationship between amorphisation, chemical structure, chemical properties and thus altering performance of coated sample. Here, we selected mechanical properties as an indicator of performance measure. Material’s microstructure, elastic modulus, hardness, roughness, lattice parameters, etc. as a function of the deposition might be examined by SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS, AFM, etc. and analysed by tribological applications, nanomechanical measurements, nanoindentation, wear behaviour and microabrasion. For tribological applications of materials; hardness and elastic modulus plays an significant role and mechanical properties of coated thin films is measured by nanoindentation, nanomechanical measurements. Here, a critical examination and review of theoretical and experimental frameworks are presented for better understanding of mechanical properties and metallurgical characteristics.

Gaurav Gupta, R. K. Tyagi

Modeling the Metrics of Human Resource, Time, and Asset Level Barriers in the Implementation of Lean Manufacturing Using an Analytical Network Process Approach

A philosophy, that describes an integration of advanced tools and techniques into the production layout of any industry for optimizing human resources, time, assets, and hence overall productivity, termed as ‘lean’ in the manufacturing or business environment. In present scenario, it is a verdict that effective manufacturing environment is not fulfilled the gap between entrepreneurship and organizational demand which remains competition for further improvements in product quality under barriers. The responses appear evident that concerns are always trying to reduce wastes in operations in order to become more profitable. Therefore, an attempt has been made for implementing lean practices in organization which need commitment toward tremendous learning experience against identification and recognition of critical barriers such as human resource level barriers (HLBs), time level barriers (TLBs), and asset level barriers (ALBs) which affect implementation process due to individual/employee/group level, waste time in production, infrastructures, facilities, and equipment, respectively. Main aim of research is to measure the effectiveness of HLBs, TLBs, and ALBs using an analytical network process (ANP) framework. It is suggested that ALBs are the most critical category which impacts 43.26%, trailed by HLBs, i.e., 35.17% and lastly TLBs, i.e., 21.55% directly on implementation. Key findings of this research may strengthen the top managements and decision makers in identification and recognition of category of hindrances during implementation of lean manufacturing on their shop floor. Also it helps them to derive suitable strategies to overcome identified barriers before implementation of lean practices.

Bhupendra Prakash Sharma, A. Chauhan, H. Singh, Umesh Kumar Vates, G. S. Rao

Feature Extraction and Recognition Information System for Manufacturing Prismatic Part

Feature extraction and recognition information systems are now widely located as a foundation for formulating an automated process planning system. Many methods have been reported in the kinds of literature, but a few of them acquired a status of generic methodology. In this research work explains the concept of automatic feature recognition system using CAD model neutral file in the format of ISO 10303 Standard for Exchange of Product model data (STEP) AP-214 to identify the hole feature of the CAD model. The geometrical information of the part design is analyzed by a feature recognition procedure that is created specifically to extract the features from the 3D CAD model based on geometric reasoning approach. Finally, a sample application description for a workpiece is presented for demonstration purposes.

Vinod V. Rampur, Sachhidanand Reur

Fabrication and Characterization of Al2O3–TiC-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites

With a wide range of applications, aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) play an important role in many of the engineering applications and industries, i.e., automobile and aerospace. AMCs are the composites having aluminum as matrix and ceramics or some other metals as reinforcement. The aim of the present study is to develop the Al2O3–TiC-reinforced AMCs and study the effect of reinforcements on the mechanical properties. In the present case, the Al2O3–TiC content is varying in composition of (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt%) in aluminum matrix, fabricated by stir casting technique. It is found that reinforced AMCs show the better mechanical properties as compared to unreinforced AMCs. Various properties which were improved include tensile strength, hardness, and wear resistance. It is expected that the present composite will be useful for developing lightweight aerospace components.

Anbesh Jamwal, Umesh Kumar Vates, Pallav Gupta, Ankur Aggarwal, Bhupendra Prakash Sharma

Optimization of Critical Parameters of EDD Steel in Die Cavity Manufacturing

Incremental sheet forming (ISF) process is identified as a potential and economically viable process for sheet metal forming for the low volume production. The process is to prove a very flexible and can be carried out on a computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine, robots, or on machines which are specially designed for ISF applications. In present work, the effort has been made to investigate the behavior of Extra Deep Drawing (EDD) steel in ISF process. The state of stresses and strains in incremental forming of VWACF and VWAPF parts have been studied through finite element simulations. The thickness distribution of these parts has been measured experimentally and compared with the results of finite element simulations (FES) using Ansys software. The changes in microstructure and microhardness are being detected due to incremental deformations which have also been studied through optical microscopic analysis and micro-Vickers hardness tester. It has been again verified by performing the experiments.

Naveen Anand Daniel, Nirmal Kumar Singh, Umesh Kumar Vates, Bhupendra Prakash Sharma, Sivaraos Subramanian

A Theoretical Analysis for Prioritization of Lean Strategies: A Survey of Indian Manufacturing Industries

The purpose of this paper is to discover the lean strategies prioritization in Indian manufacturing industries. It also aims to select the best strategy for industries. It also helps to improve the performance of implemented lean strategies. This research provides a ranking of implemented lean strategies with grey relational analysis (GRA). Evaluating data were collected from seven different industrial experts in terms of four lean performance criteria such as cost, time, quality and flexibility. Here, fuzzy five Likert scale weighted methods are used which are integrated into the GRA with respect to weight the lean performance criteria. This study provides the priority of lean strategies based on selected criteria using the GRA method which is very effective, and the result will help decision-makers to recognize the best strategy in Indian manufacturing industries. To make results more effective, data were collected from 11 different manufacturing industries which will help in future and criteria can be more for a better result. Moreover, as an interesting proposal, the fuzzy linguistic environment may be further incorporated into the practical as per GRA results. In distinction to preceding research, it sets apart for priority based on the scores of GRA with performance criteria. Furthermore, there is very less work available in the literature with GRA for prioritization.

Virender Chahal, M. S. Narwal

A Systematic Review: Effect of TIG and A-TIG Welding on Austenitic Stainless Steel

Austenitic stainless steel (ASS) plays an important role in fabrication and manufacturing of products due to its good mechanical properties and easy weldability mostly for all types of welding. In fabrication, there are numerous welding techniques available for ASS such as gas metal arc welding, tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, electroslag welding, submerge arc welding, electron beam, thermite welding. TIG welding is the most common operation use for joining of two similar or dissimilar metals with heating or applying the pressure by using the filler material. TIG welding technique is used in several industries like automobile, aerospace, marine, etc. due to its quick and precise process. This paper systematically reviewed the TIG and A-TIG welding processes of ASS which included several recent experimental activities. In TIG welding, the inputs such as voltage, current, filler materials and shielding gasses, the type of flux and passes ultimately affect its output weld quality. In addition, a comparison has been provided for parameters of TIG and A-TIG welding process and their weld outcomes such as microstructure, mechanical, penetration depth, and weld bead quality. A-TIG has better hardness and mechanical properties than TIG welding.

Himanshu Garg, Karan Sehgal, Rahul Lamba, Gianender Kajal

Evaluation of Key Challenges to Industry 4.0 in Indian Context: A DEMATEL Approach

The rapid development of information technology, analytics, computing capacity and hardware has led to increasing affinity towards the concept of Industry 4.0. Industry 4.0 uses cyber-physical systems (CPS), Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and cloud data sharing to develop intelligent manufacturing systems. The Indian industries under the patronage of national and local government initiatives like Make in India and Digital India are looking forwards to adopting best in class manufacturing infrastructure to support the changing industrial environment and utilize the immense opportunities ahead. For this purpose, Industry 4.0 will play a vital role in achieving manufacturing competitiveness. This paper is an attempt to evaluate the key challenges of Industry 4.0 in the Indian context. A decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) approach is used to establish relations between the key challenges.

Ankur Aggarwal, Sumit Gupta, Manish Kumar Ojha

AHP Based Model for Evaluation of Sustainable Manufacturing Enablers in Indian Manufacturing Companies

In the present scenario, the success of an industry depends on its sustainable manufacturing performance where competitiveness is followed by superior performance. To remain competitive in the market, the manufacturing companies need to evaluate their performance through the manufacturing sustainability. This paper presents an AHP-based model for enablers of sustainable manufacturing evaluation in Indian manufacturing companies. A hierarchy structure is established based on the proposed key enablers of sustainable. The company’s score is calculated to assess sustainability in manufacturing against the enablers and the companies rank is determined based on their scores.

Abhishek Singh, Zareef Askary, Sumit Gupta, Ashwini Kumar Sharma, Priyank Shrivastava

Informal Investigation of Fourth-Party and Third-Party Logistics Service Providers in Terms of Indian Context: An AHP Approach

This research is based on the investigation of logistics service providers (LSPs) in terms of their activities and role in providing boons to the primary industries and to the customer terminus. This study also reports about the futuristic ambit of “collaboration of outsourced partners, their substructure, manoeuvering to gain manpower, integration of LSPs”. The goal of this paper is to understand the leeway of betterment of Indian industries with the maximum utilization of LSPs, present in the current market. Alliances of LSPs will contribute to maintaining the competence strength of Indian industries in the global market. To achieve the best results and the benefit of above-mentioned points, this research work has found out three major criteria and their sub-criteria with the help of the literature study and with the support of survey amongst the experts and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) technique, and output has been achieved. AHP tool helps in decision-making and validation of priorities between different factors.

Nishant Gautam, Manish Kumar Ojha, Pritam Swain, Ankur Aggarwal, Anbesh Jamwal

An Image-Based Approach of Generating Automatic Toolpath for Profile Milling

This paper presents a novel approach for generating machining toolpath for milling operation directly from the given drawing image of the desired 2D profile. An image processing algorithm is implemented using python environment in which coordinates of the 2D profile are extracted to generate toolpath. The graphical user interface is also developed to ease the controlling and changing of machining-related parameters. The developed algorithm has been validated by simulating the generated toolpath using ‘CNC Simulator Pro software.’ The obtained results show that the developed algorithm is capable of generating a toolpath for any given 2D profiles.

Vishal Agrawal, Avinash Kumar, Narendra Kumar, Prashant K. Jain

Experimental Investigation of Forming Forces in Single Point Incremental Forming

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) has been confirmed as a quiet economical process for rapid prototyping and batch-type production. It exempts complex and expensive tooling as required in the conventional sheet metal-forming processes. Investigation of forming forces becomes important for selecting the appropriate hardware and optimal process parameters in order to assure the perfection and precision of any process. Moreover, SPIF applicability can be ensured on the industrial scale when appropriate guidelines are highlighted regarding a relation between the input parameters and forming forces induced in the process. This paper investigates the influence of tool diameter, tool shape, and wall angle on the maximum axial forming forces on aluminum alloy (AA2024-O) sheets. Forming forces were recorded using a dynamometer and data logger system equipped with Microscada software. Tool shape has been proved a significant factor which affects the forming forces greatly. Combination of higher wall angle and flat-end tool with the lower side radius resulted in the fracture of components at a lower depth.

Ajay Kumar, Vishal Gulati, Parveen Kumar

Solid Waste Management Through Plasma Arc Gasification in Delhi: A Step Towards Swachh Bharat

Developing countries like India are facing a predicament scenario because of the solid waste and hence its management is becoming a critical issue. As urbanization is increasing, enhanced municipal solid waste and its unscientific handling are degrading the urban environment and causing health hazard. Various methods like landfilling (major source of methane (CH4) emissions), incineration, composting have been used, but due to too slow operation, these processes have not fully satisfied the growing needs of the waste management. In this paper, we have shown that how CO2 emissions can be prevented from a coal-fired thermal power plant in Delhi, if a better method, i.e., plasma arc gasification (PAG) process is used for waste management and power generation using the municipal solid waste generated in the city, which is the need of the hour. The plasma gasification process ensures close loop cycle, thereby reducing the pollutants from the air. We have done a complete analysis of waste generation and emission production, and it is concluded that by this approach we can reduce major pollutants causing global warming due to municipal solid waste. In the present work, we have calculated that technology based on CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) like plasma arc gasification is implemented large amount of carbon dioxide emission can be prevented in addition to power generation that could suffice the energy need of the city.

Monika Singh, Rishabh Arora, Anubhav Ojha, Durgesh Sharma, Sumit Gupta

Analysis and Optimization of Surface Integrity Characteristics of EDMed Work Surface Inconel 718 Super-Alloy Using Grey-Based Taguchi Method

The aim of this research work is to find the optimum combination of input process parameters such as peak current (IP), open voltage (Vg), pulse-on-time (Ton) and duty factor (τ) for machining of Inconel 718 on EDM. The output response parameters studied were metal removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR) and surface roughness (Ra). L16 orthogonal array of input parameters was created as the design of experiments (DOEs) with the help of Minitab software. Grey relational analysis (GRA) method is used to get a single domain of multiple output response parameters. After that Taguchi optimization method was applied to find out the optimal parameter setting for higher MRR, lower TWR and lower Ra.

Md. Ghaus Ali, Rahul, Dipraj Banik, Akshansh Yadav, B. C. Rautara, Ashok Kumar Sahoo

Framework the Food Supply Chain Network in the Present Indian Scenario

In India, agriculture sector always takes priority over the other leading areas as the maximum population is dependent on it for their bread and butter. It contributes the major proportion to the Indian economy and most significantly provides nutritional security to the country. Despite of all these facts, the issues like food security, post-harvest losses, and socioeconomic status of the farmers are the major challenges which create barriers to the development of the country. Recently, numerous studies have been found in the concern of food waste and losses along the supply chain. Even so, the 40% of the food is wasted in India according to a report of United Nations Development Programme. In this study, causes of food waste and losses along the supply chain network are identified and weighted based on the survey of previous literature. The aim of this study is to categorize the major causes as a superset and the minor causes as its subset and is represented through fishbone diagram for its clear vision. Secondly, the initiatives regarding the reduction in food waste are identified and prioritized using the weighted prioritization matrix approach. This study helps to give an idea about the most significant initiative that government should adopt at large scale in the context of reducing food waste and losses. It is concluded from the results that the linkages between farmers and industries require prior attention over the other initiatives to improve the efficiency and profitability of food supply chain.

Bhavya Nidhi Vats, Anuj Gupta, Ganesh Sharma

A Comprehensive Review on Jute Fiber Reinforced Composites

Natural fiber composite is the novel materials in recent decades having a high strength to weight ratio and light in weight are widely used for structural and unstructured applications. Jute fiber is one of the most common biodegradable natural fibers which successfully replaced the synthetic fibers composite and also replaced glass fiber where the high strength is not obliged. Jute fiber composite has several attractive advantages over synthetic and glass fiber like as low processing cost, low density, stiffness easily available, excellent mechanical properties and low production energy required (2% of glass fiber). This advantage makes the jute a very attractive reinforced fiber for composites. This paper presented an overview on different fabrication techniques and the effects of the various factors on the mechanical properties of the jute fiber reinforced composite.

Ekta Gogna, Ramanuj Kumar, Anurag, Ashok Kumar Sahoo, Amlana Panda

Analysis of Lean Manufacturing Implementation in SMEs: A “5S” Technique

The aim of this paper is to analyze the implementation of 5S technique on Indian SMEs to maximize efficiency in the workplace and to have the possibility of product diversification, higher quality, lower cost, reliable deliveries, etc. 5S is a basic tool of lean manufacturing system. It is a tool of classification, order, cleaning, standardization, and discipline. Findings of this research can be stated that the introduction of 5S technique for the improvement of SMEs in its process flow line, cost reduction, machine efficiency improvement, well-organized tools placement, shop floor cleanliness, and high-quality workplace are the identified key parameters to be optimized.

Shyam Sunder Sharma, D. D. Shukla, Bhupendra Prakash Sharma

Performance and Combustion Characteristics of Thumba and Argemone as Dual Fuel Blends in a DICI Engine: An Experimental Approach

Dependence on import and concerns of continuous growth in the cost of imported fuels, because of insufficiency of petroleum resources, have created an essential need for investigators to start exploring and analyse the alternate resources of energy as a fuel for IC engines which can be generated from various easily available resources like vegetable oil, animal fats, waste cooking oil, etc. This is an experimental approach made to determine the performance and combustion characteristics of Thumba oil (Citrullus colocynthis) and Argemone Mexicana as dual biodiesel blends. The tests were conducted on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, compression ignition engine. In this investigation, the analysis of various parameters like average cylinder pressure, net heat release rate (HRR), brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and mechanical efficiency was carried out by changing required operating conditions. The results obtained from the experimental investigation settle on a conclusion that average cylinder pressure for a heavier dual blend of biodiesel D60T20A20 (i.e. diesel 60%, Thumba 20%, Argemone 20% by vol) is greater than that of diesel fuel by 1.7%. The HRR for lighter dual blend D90T5A5 (i.e. diesel 90%, Thumba 5%, Argemone 5% by vol) is found to be 11.67% greater than that of diesel. Also, for almost every blend of Thumba and Argemone, there is a decline in BTE and mechanical efficiency than diesel.

Shahid Qayoom, Sumit Kanchan

Biogeographical and Variable Neighborhood Search Algorithm for Optimization of Flexible Job Shop Scheduling

In the past two decades, numerous techniques have been proposed by researchers across the world to deal with combinatorial optimization problems. The majority of techniques are working on nature-inspired phenomena such as genetic seriatim of human beings, the way of ant colonizing, and the manners of fish and bees, etc. The biogeography is a nature-inspired population-based algorithm, which works on the concept of migration policy of animals. The working concept and definitions of biogeography are like the genetic algorithm, except the absence of reproduction phase in it. The migration operators have been designed to suit the current problem domain, and these have been used to solve the optimization problems. In the present work, biogeography algorithm has been used with variable neighborhood search method to enhance the local search during optimization of the flexible job shop scheduling problem. This hybrid approach is proposed to measure the makespan performance.

Rakesh Kumar Phanden, João Carlos E. Ferreira

A Study on the Effect of Varying Revolution Pitch for Different Tool Design: Friction Stir Welding of AA 6061-T6

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a very promising joining process for joining of lightweight material. In this study, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of different tool design for varying revolution pitch. Two different tool pin design namely square and cylindrical threaded is used for the purpose and revolution pitch has been varied in two levels. Spindle torque, downward vertical force (Z-force) and welding force (X-force) are considered in this study to analyze the effectiveness of tool pin design with revolution pitch. With varying revolution pitch, all these entities (spindle torque, Z-force and X-force) varied significantly whereas square tool exhibits higher amount torque and force. Comparatively improved tensile properties are achieved for square tool at lower revolution pitch. Microstructural analysis of the samples reveals finer grain structure is obtained at higher revolution pitch. With square tool, finer grains and dispersions are obtained.

Abhijit Banik, John Deb Barma, Ram Singh, S. C. Saha

Analysing Attributes of Food Supply Chain Management: A Comparative Study

With increasing human population and food variety, there is a challenge to provide quality and requisite food to people at the right time at the right place. Food supply chain management (FSCM) needs to analyse due to its complex nature. The objective of this paper is to review the food supply chain management (FSCM) and identify the significant attributes and further analyses them to differentiate from each other. The identified critical attributes of SCM are relationship and governance, coordination and integration, collaboration, agility, logistics, traceability, packaging, and waste management. We have distinguished the food supply chain (FSC) from other supply chains, because of the unique characteristics of the food products which pose a serious challenge. Based on the identified attributes, we have undertaken a comparative analysis of FSCM with non-food supply chain’s management (Non-FSCM). The findings suggest towards the importance of traceability and packaging systems in FSC as compared to a Non-FSC.

Mohd Sufiyan, Abid Haleem, Shahbaz Khan, Mohd Imran Khan

Optimization of Electric Discharge Machining Process Parameters for H13 Steel by Using Taguchi Method

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the most versatile non-traditional machining process which is used for manufacturing geometrically complex and hard material that is extremely difficult to machine by conventional machining processes. As it is non-contact machining process, no or negligible amount of forces are acted on the workpiece so that it can machine any material irrespective of its hardness except non-conducting materials. In this investigation, the process parameters such as peak current, pulse on time, and gap voltage of EDM were experimentally optimized to obtain the optimum machining characteristics enumerated as material removal rate (MRR) and electrode wear rate (EWR) by using Taguchi technique for machining H13 steel. The obtained results were analyzed by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) to identify the significance of each process parameter on the machining characteristics of EDM. The analysis of Taguchi method reveals that pulse on time and peak current have significantly affected the material removal rate and electrode wear rate.

Mahendra M. Ghayatadak, Amar S. Bhandare

Machining Performance Optimization During Electro Discharge Machining on Titanium (Grade 4): Application of Satisfaction Function and Distance-Based Approach

Titanium grade-4 (3.7065, R50700) is one of the most robust materials and finds its application in aerospace industry specially for making spacecraft, aircraft, missiles, naval ships, armor plating, etc. The main advantage of titanium is that it has a high strength, low-density results in less weight. It can withstand very high temperatures also. Machining of titanium was not an easy task, as it is a very hard material and it has poor thermal conductivity, higher pressure load, non-uniform chip thickness, etc. So we have chosen electro discharge machine (EDM) for the machining of titanium workpiece. Our aim was by taking peak current (Ip), pulse on time (Ton), and voltage gap (Vg) as input control parameters based on L9 orthogonal array, to find optimum values of response parameters such as material removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR), and surface roughness (SR). In this research, work satisfaction function has been used to obtain the individual satisfaction values of the responses, and then these multi-responses have been converted into an equivalent single index. A distance measure has been computed next which basically determines the separation of each experimental setting (alternative) with respect to the ideal expectation (satisfaction). Finally, this distance function has been optimized (minimized) by Taguchi method.

Dipraj Banik, Rahul, Gitimaya Kar, Biswajit Debnath, B. C. Routara, Ashok Kumar Sahoo, Dhiraj Kochar

Self-Healing Al 6061 Alloy Reinforced with Low Melting Point Alloys

Self-healing materials can recover/repair damage automatically and autonomously with or without the external intervention. In recent times, many researchers have developed competitive technologies to achieve self-healing properties of materials. This paper presents a methodology to develop self-healing concept in metal matrix composite. Aluminium 6061 has been utilized as the base metal, and a low melting point metal filled into it to develop samples using the injection moulding method. Sand casting has also been used to cast the required sample of Al 6061. To demonstrate self-healing behaviour in the developed composite, an artificial crack developed in the sample using a lathe and drill machines. It has been observed that the low melting point alloy gets filled in the crack with heat. This shows the partially self-healing behaviour of composite. SEM and microstructural test has been performed to find out the topological and morphological characteristics of the matrix.

Nitin Kumar Gupta, G. D. Thakre, Manoj Kumar

A Novel Approach in Developing Aluminum Hybrid Green Metal Matrix Composite Material Using Waste Eggshells, Cow Dung Ash, Snail Shell Ash and Boron Carbide as Reinforcements

Global development of aluminum metal matrix composite (AMC) in research, industries and defense with reduced weight, enhanced strength and low cost leads to the establishment of a new hybrid green metal matrix composite using aluminum (Al) alloy as base material with silicon carbide (SiC) and reinforcing it with waste carbonized eggshells (WCE), cow dung ash (CDA), snail shell ash (SSA) and boron carbide (B4C) by altering the different reinforcement weights using stir casting mechanism. Experimental results showed increased hardness, tensile strength and fatigue strength, while decrease in fracture toughness, ductility and corrosion rate which improved by heat treatment. The optimum values obtained were 7.5 wt% of WCE and SiC + SSA; preheat temperature of WCE and SiC was 300 °C and 500 °C, respectively. The stability and non-reactivity factors of the reinforcements were stringently considered at optimum temperature. Mono-ethylene glycol (MEG) in aqueous solution was used for experimenting different samples of AMC with varying proportion of SSA. The hardness of the Al alloy incremented to maximum when 7.5 wt% SiC + 7.5 wt% SSA was added and decremented when 10 wt% SiC + 10 wt% SSA was used as reinforcements. The results inferred that using WCE as reinforcement with the Al matrix gave better tribomechanical properties at a much cheaper rate than uncarbonized eggshells (ES) and SiC + SSA. The overall objective was to introduce a novel hybrid AMC by recycling and reutilizing wastes.

Soutrik Bose, Anand Pandey, Ashmik Mondal, Pritam Mondal

Detection of Punch Wear in Stamping Process Using Acoustic Emission

Stamping process is widely used for the production of sheet metal components because of its high productivity and accuracy. The performance of stamping depends on the condition of punch and die. Variation in punch and die dimension has a significant influence on the product quality. The purpose of the present study is to identify the state of punch wear. In this paper, acoustic emission (AE) signals from the process utilized to identify the three different punch wear conditions. The recorded acoustic signals after filtering were processed using Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT). Then, the instantaneous frequencies and amplitudes were obtained for the signal components. The Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) of the AE for the three punch condition were analyzed. With the increase in punch wear, the instantaneous amplitude of the signal increases while instantaneous frequency remains unaffected.

Tushar Y. Badgujar, Rahul N. Chandore, Vijay P. Wani

Sustainable Machining Using Hybrid Nanofluids Under Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL)

Over the last couple of decades, nanofluids have found tremendous scope as a potential heat transfer fluid. One prospective application is in sustainable machining method with minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). The use of a nanocutting fluid in machining under MQL conditions substantially reduces the amount of cutting fluid being used as compared to conventional methods. The overall performance of machining process also gets enhanced resulting in increased surface finish and reduced cutting temperature, tool wear, and cutting forces. Moreover, by replacing a nanocutting fluid with a hybrid nanocutting fluid, the performance of MQL is found to be further enhanced. A hybrid nanocutting fluid is composed by dispersing two or more nanoparticles of different materials in the conventional cutting fluid. This paper reviews the recent progress on the application of hybrid nanofluid in the machining process. Preparation methods and various thermophysical properties of hybrid nanofluids affecting the machining performance are also discussed.

Anjali Gupta, Rajesh Kumar, Harmesh Kumar, Harry Garg

A Review on Different Dielectric Fluids and Machining of Si3N4 and Al2O3 Composites via EDM

The limited efficiency and lack of feasibility of traditional manufacturing processes (TMPs) in ceramic industry restrict their applications in the machining of the ceramic materials having high hardness and brittleness. The use of unconventional methods of manufacturing overcomes the constraints of the conventional processes and therefore finds an enormous application in the industrial sector. The present study primly focuses on the electrical discharge machining (EDM) of ceramic composites and reviews the different dielectric fluids that are being used in the modern machining, along with their effects on different EDM parameters like material removal rate (MRR), tool wear rate (TWR), surface roughness (SR), and surface hardness (SH) as well as the ability of EDM for machining the ceramic composites. It focuses on the main input parameters of EDM which influence the metal cutting procedure and discusses the machining of the ceramic materials like Al2O3- and Si3N4-based using EDM. The current study reveals that EDM is one of the best methods in machining the ceramic composites because of its high efficiency, high precision, and accuracy.

Kanav Bhatia, Ankit Singla, Anirudh Sharma, Shailesh Singh Sengar, Ashish Selokar

Mechanical Behavior of Powder Metallurgy Processed Al + ZrB2 + Al2O3 Metal Matrix Composites

Present investigation aimed to fabricate the aluminum-based metal matrix composites. Such composites play an important key role for heavy vehicle and structural applications. It can be used for lightweight and more stiff components of heavy vehicles. In the present research work, an easy formation of aluminum-based metal matrix composite materials are proposed through powder metallurgy process with different mass fractions of zirconium diboride and alumina reinforcement such as 3% Al2O3–7% ZrB2, 3% Al2O3–5% ZrB2, and 3% Al2O3–3% ZrB2 all in the form of atomized particles. Further, microstructural readings on cross section as well as surface of the bar and hardness measurements were attained and investigated. Improved hardness as well as tensile strength is noted from newly developed performs.

Bhupendra Prakash Sharma, D. Akhil, M. Junaid, Umesh Kumar Vates, G. S. Rao

Reliability Analysis of Sheet Manufacturing Unit of a Steel Industry

This paper deals with reliability–availability–maintainability (RAM) of the sheet manufacturing system of a steel industry. The system comprises of various subsystems viz. conveyors, extractor, furnace, de-scaling unit, roughing mill, Steckel mill, down coiler, and strapping machine. State transition diagram has been developed which depicts various states (fully operational/reduced capacity/failed) of the system. Chapman–Kolmogorov differential equations have been developed from this diagram using mnemonic rule. Mathematical analysis has been carried out using supplementary variable technique. Repair rate has been varied whereas failure rate has been kept constant. Meantime between failure and transient state availability of the system has been calculated using Simpson’s 3/8 rule and Runge–Kutta fourth order method (using MATLAB), respectively. The conclusions drawn may be helpful to the plant management in enhancing system performance by taking accurate and timely maintenance decisions.

Munish Mehta, Jujhar Singh, Manpreet Singh

Modeling the Metrics of MRB, TRB, and ORB in the Implementation of Green Agile Manufacturing Strategies: An ANP Approach

In this research work, an attempt has been made toward easy and fast adjustment to sudden change and improvements in the quality of products and customer services is known as “agility” in the manufacturing environment. Implementation of agile practices in any organization refers a tremendous commitment toward identifying and recognizing the critical barriers. Presently, certain barriers have been identified and further been categorized into management-related barriers (MRB), technology-related barriers (TRB), and operator-related barriers (ORB). The barriers affecting the implementation of agility due to the operators and their weak skills fall under ORB, the hindrances created due to the various technologies that are in use which restrict some of the work comes under TRB, and the problems occurring at the management level, due to the employees, are considered under MRB. The main purpose of this research is to suggest the measured effectiveness of MRB, TRB, and ORB, using an analytical network process (ANP) framework. This quantified value shall help the decision makers to derive suitable strategies to overcome identified category of barriers before the implementation of agile practices. The ANP framework development was carried out through identified categories of barriers with respect to certain determinants and dimensions for evaluating the impact of each category of identified barriers. Findings portray that the TRBs have maximum impact on implementation process followed by MRBs and ORBs.

Bhupendra Prakash Sharma, K. Ranade, Ankit Singh, Umesh Kumar Vates, G. S. Rao

Agile System in Health Care: Literature Review

The goal of this exploratory paper is to focus on the present status of implementation of the agile system in health care. In this article, analysis emphasizes the definition of agile in health care, enablers cum characteristic, implementation procedure, and barriers. An inclusive research of the literature pertaining to the implementation of this system in health care was used to produce a technique to implement it. A system that is flexible in nature and enables to respond quickly to customer demand and market fluctuations while still optimizing costs and quality by adopting upgraded tools, processes, and trainings is termed as an agile system. The agile system in health care basically offers an efficient framework to organize and govern process improvement. It can be only accomplished if a systems approach is enforced together with a proper orientation. The common implementation steps suggest conduct agile training, start pilot projects, and executing improvements using interdisciplinary teams. Lack of instructors and advisors is one of the barriers and they can furnish support by sharing their knowledge and experience and illustrating with help of an example from real-life applications of agile in health care.

Rahul Sindhwani, Punj Lata Singh, Devendra Kumar Prajapati, Aamir Iqbal, Rakesh Kumar Phanden, Vasdev Malhotra

Evaluation of Common Barriers to the Combined Lean-Green-Agile Manufacturing System by Two-Way Assessment Method

The rapid development in the industry and ever-increasing manufacturing competitiveness around the globe has diverted industries towards the adoption of new manufacturing systems. The industries have moved from a singular manufacturing system to a combination of two of them in order to cope with the expansion of market structure and customer requirements. In today’s scenario, a need for a more sustainable manufacturing system has emerged, therefore a combination of lean, green and agile manufacturing systems can provide the required results. The adoption of a Lean-Green-Agile Manufacturing System (LGAMS) in the present market scenario would be influenced by a few barriers viz. lack of top management support and commitment, fear and resistance to organizational change, financial constraints/risk of business, etc. The barriers can be attributed to different perspectives depending on their field of influence like economic, technical and organizational perspective. An attempt has been made to prioritize the influencing nature of each barrier. Application of analytical hierarchy process (AHP) would yield the required prioritization of the LGAMS barriers. This multi-criteria decision method is prone to instability due to crisp inputs. A further extension of AHP, i.e. fuzzy AHP—AHP with fuzzy inputs has been utilized. Further, a cross-check has been performed for the above results by using two-way assessment method.

Punj Lata Singh, Rahul Sindhwani, Naresh Kumar Dua, Anbesh Jamwal, Ankur Aggarwal, Aamir Iqbal, Nishant Gautam

Simulation for Effective Shop-Floor Decision Making: A Case Study

Shop-floor simulation has been recognized as a useful tool to analyze the effectiveness of any decision taken by shop-floor manager. The importance of simulation in shop-floor control decision making has further increased with globalization and complexity of operations. The work presents a case study of an SME unit supplying parts to a reputed automobile manufacturer in the National Capital Region. The study had been undertaken to analyze possibilities of increasing production capacity with minimum increase in infrastructure. The study was conducted under various production scenarios. Simulation software WITNESS was used for this purpose. The study identified relationships between specific investments under consideration and expected throughput.

Durgesh Sharma

Modeling and Analysis of Factors Influencing Agility in Healthcare Organizations: An ISM Approach

Healthcare sector effectuates agile application to upgrade services level and competitive advantage. It states utilizing expertise ideas relating numerous managing methods in obtaining a correlation between variable. The paper begins with the idea of agility in the healthcare organization; secondly, it facilitates us in finding out the factors affecting the agility in the healthcare organization; thirdly, it explicates the interrelationship among them using Interpretive Structure Modelling (ISM) technique and MICMAC analysis. Agility being imperative for healthcare organization as it helps healthcare companies reconcile more rapidly to fluctuating customer needs, competitor feedback. This study helps in the ranking of factors influencing agility in healthcare, which finally help hospitals and healthcare organization in implementing agile system efficiently and effectively.

Rahul Sindhwani, Punj Lata Singh, Aamir Iqbal, Devender Kumar Prajapati, Varinder Kumar Mittal

An Empirical Study of Performance Improvement in Product Delivery System Through Six Sigma DMAIC Approach

The paper presents key features, obstacles and shortcoming of Six Sigma method which allows an organization simply a means of measurement of quality that strives for near perfection. In industry, on the globe due to the competitive market and customer pressure struggles to sustain. Focusing on DMAIC processes with great impact on business performance, the methodology involves the static analysis of quality and quantity common variance which can be reduced by the Six Sigma team. Six Sigma application in product resulted in performance improvement of 48.66%, quality improvement of 67.47%, delivery time is improved 36.63%, cost reduction is 72.02% and the marginal reduction in procurement and inventory carrying cost. Overall improvement in customer satisfaction is registered by a margin of 8%. This case study on Six Sigma principle and practices will succeed by refining the organizational culture continuously.

Rajak Anup Kumar, Kumar Nilesh, Nayak Yogesh Kumar, Peesapati V. V. Rajagopal

A Critical Review on Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process having capability of joining materials which differ in chemical composition, properties, etc., and where fusion can lead to harmful reactions. Nowadays, the arena of aerospace, railway, ship building industries, etc., are moving towards the use of this technique as compared to fusion welding process for the fabrication of structural parts. It is energy-efficient, eco-friendly and versatile process of joining. In the current study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of process parameters, i.e. rotational speed, welding speed, tool tilt angle, dwell time, etc., on the weld characteristics of dissimilar aluminium alloys. Moreover, difficulties and other issues related to FSW of dissimilar metals are addressed to provide guidelines to research community to carry out extensive research in this field.

Munna Singh Dahiya, Vikas Kumar, Shubham Verma

Microstructure, Economic, and Emission Evaluation of Castings Produced from Biodiesel-fired Self-designed Rotary Furnace

In this research work, various types of furnace systems, i.e., coke-less cupola, coke-fired cupola, and biodiesel-fired self-designed rotary furnace have been utilized for the economic analysis of the produced castings. In the comparison of other furnaces, the results of regressive experimentation on the self-designed and fabricated rotary furnace found the saving of around 5.8% in the cost of the casting. The microstructure and mechanical properties analysis was also performed to check the quality of the produced castings with the self-designed rotary furnace. In addition, the emission levels were found to be within the specified limits given by CPCB norms.

Purshottam Kumar, Rohit Sharma

Study of Sliding Wear Behavior of Alumina Oxide Filled Fiber Composite Using Design of Experiment

The carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites are extensively used in different manufacturing applications due to their superior strength to weight, high thermal stability, and excellent corrosion resistance. The main objective of present research work is to optimize the sliding wear conditions (applied load, sliding velocity, and %wt Al2O3 particulates) for minimum wear volume of Al2O3 filled carbon reinforcement fiber composites against EN-32 steel. Taguchi-based L9 orthogonal array and ANOVA are used to find the optimum parameters for minimum wear. The sliding velocity has been found the most significant parameter that affects the sliding wear followed by filler loading and normal load. On the other hand, it has been found that sliding wear rate continuously decreases with increase in filler loading and increases with increase in applied normal load and sliding velocity.

Bhanu Pratap, R. K. Gupta, Bhuvnesh Bhardwaj

Role of Acoustic Softening Effects in Ultrasonic Spot Welded Dissimilar Materials

Ultrasonic spot welding (USW) is a rapid solid-state welding process in which thin sheets are joined under the influence of high-frequency ultrasonic vibration and pressure. USW has several advantages over conventional fusion welding processes such as less energy consumption, no use of flux or filler material and generation of temperature below the melting point of parent materials. Experimental results have confirmed that USW is a combination of both thermal and acoustic softening effects. These two facts are essential for plastic deformation and bond formation during the welding process. In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop a novel thermomechanical model to characterize thermal and acoustic softening in AA1100 sheets. Experimental temperatures and increment in a width of the sheet are considered to quantify the amount of acoustic softening for different surface conditions. Acoustic softening confers a maximum reduction of 93.98% in yield strength of AA1100 sheets. This model provides a new approach to understand this complex bonding process in a very effective way.

Mantra Prasad Satpathy, Susanta Kumar Sahoo, Diptikanta Das

Agility Evaluation in the Rolling Industry: A Case Study

In the contemporary marketplace, the rate of competition is high both at local and global levels. Rolling industries are used for manufacturing materials which are used further for developing various finished products. The products developed are in accordance with a volatile market keeping in mind the cost and productivity. Thus, the manufacturing system, i.e., integrated lean-agile manufacturing system (LAMS) can be adopted. However, the implementation of the integrated form of manufacturing can be difficult to accomplish. Some attributes and sub-attributes are there which besides having an impact on the implementation process. This paper’s main objective is the identification and analysis of the attributes. These attributes have been determined with the help of literature review, and then the rating is implemented using the questionnaire survey and fuzzy agility evaluation (FAE) approach has been utilized for the analysis of the agility level of the rolling industry.

Rahul Sindhwani, Punj Lata Singh, Raj Chopra, Karan Sharma, Apratim Basu, Devendra Kumar Prajapati, Vasdev Malhotra

Weld Strength Analysis of Ultrasonic Polymer Welding Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System

Polymers are widely used in automotive and aerospace industries for its better strength and easy to design the expected shape and size of parts. To join the two plastic parts, ultrasonic welding is an effective way because of fast and clean process. The present study intends to investigate the weld strength of Ultrasonic Welding (USW) for PC/ABS blend using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The ANFIS models are utilized for the formulation of mathematical model of USW. All the input parameters are expected to have a significant impact on the weld strength but the most influencing input parameters are pressure, weld time and amplitude are prepared for this study. By comparing the real-time experimental results with the ANFIS predicted results, it is observed that the predicted and experimental models are in accordance with each other. This novel ANFIS model could be further employed for identifying the tensile strength of USW joints in various joining applications. Finally, the SEM images are analyzed to predict the nature of the weld condition.

T. Chinnadurai, S. Saravanan, M. Karthigai Pandian, N. Prabaharan, J. Dhanaselvam

Mechanical Properties of Flax Fiber Reinforced Composites Manufactured Using Hand Layup and Compression Molding—A Comparison

The focus of the researchers has been shifted toward natural fiber reinforced composites due to their biodegradability and environmental compatibility. These composites can be made by traditional hand layup process or can be manufactured with the help of machines, out of which compression molding is a versatile and efficient method. In this paper, hand layup method and compression molding method are compared to find out the optimal process for fabrication. For optimizing the fabrication parameters, tensile strength under various fabrication conditions was found. The compression pressure was varied from 2 to 10 MPa, and the optimum result was found for 4 MPa. On the other hand, 100 °C resulted in ideal properties, when the specimen was fabricated under different temperatures. Three different volume fractions of fiber were also evaluated and 0.27% volume fraction exhibited the optimal performance. Further, the effect of post-curing on tensile and thermal properties was studied. The influence of various parameters in compression molding was also investigated.

Vishnu Prasad, C. V. Muhammed Hunize, R. I. Abhiraj, M. A. Jospeh, K. Sekar, Mubarak Ali

Design and Development of an Online Process Measurement System for Zero Defect Production

The objective of this paper is to fabricate a system for press line that allows for real-time sorting of parts with defects caused by process variation. Despite high investment and advanced technology, defects like thinning, cracks and wrinkles are still common in products in the sheet metal forming industries. Variation of the process parameter is an unavoidable reality resulting in heavy investment in process control technologies like adaptive control and closed-loop systems. The limitations of a control system mandate an inspection line post-production. With this scheme, the dependence of product quality on the effectiveness of the inspection line can be reduced. The project that was undertaken herein mainly focuses on design and fabrication of online inspection measurement system which is used to monitor the process parameters-alignment, uneven force distribution and non-uniform pneumatic pressure. Comparison of real-time values is done with ideal value of process parameters to check variation of values in the press line. The readings on GUI of MATLAB show the exact parameters of the system at particular instants through which estimation of the reason for defect and an exact number of defective pieces can be found. The experiments affirmed the importance of process parameters in the consistency of quality through the feedback from sensors. The scheme can successfully reduce both producer and consumer risk. Savings in space, time, manpower and capital in inspection system can also be achieved.

Joseph John Valiaveetil, Saurabh Singh, Akshat Jain, AkshayUpadhyaya, Sumit Gupta

Performance Study of Gas-Assisted Electric Discharge Machining on Carbon–Chromium Die Steel

The present study focuses on studying the effect of liquid cum gas as dielectric during Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) of carbon chromium die steel. In this work, a hybrid process of EDM employing both liquid (commercial kerosene oil) and gas (compressed helium gas) as dielectrics in die-sinking EDM has been explored. Experimentation has been done to the study effect of process factors like discharge current, pulse on time, duty cycle, tool rotation and discharge gas pressure on material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR) and surface roughness (SR). Further, a comparative study of conventional EDM with liquid dielectric and hybrid EDM with liquid cum gaseous dielectric has been performed. It has been found that high MRR, low EWR and low SR are obtained when liquid cum gaseous dielectric was used as compared to conventional EDM with liquid dielectric. Analysis of surface morphology reveals that the formation of recast layer and surface cracks is less on specimen machined with liquid cum gaseous dielectric with respect to specimen machined with conventional liquid dielectric. The results show that the use of compressed helium gas has a positive impact on the machining performance. Superior surface finish and higher MRR reveal the possible implementation of the process in modern machining.

Nishant K. Singh, Rakesh Prasad, Dilip Johari, Yashvir Singh

Effects of Welding Parameters in Friction Stir Welding of Stainless Steel and Aluminum

Joining of dissimilar materials (DMs) is the growing demand of various industries to attain distinct features of individual material. In this regard, friction stir welding (FSW) has emerged as a unique joining method to weld DMs among various joining techniques. FSW is a solid-state welding process used to join similar and dissimilar materials (DMs). In this study, DMs AA7475-T761 aluminum alloy (AA) and AISI 304 stainless steel (SS) are joined using FSW. These DMs are widely lap welded in industries such as space shuttles and aerospace. Friction stir welded (FSWed) half-lap joints are obtained and analyzed under three different tool rotation speeds: 450, 560, and 710 rpm. The joint quality is analyzed by tensile strength and microstructure. The improper heat generation at different tool rotation speeds affected joint quality considerably. The defects such as tunneling and void were observed which resulted in poor efficiency of joints. The joint efficiency was obtained maximum 62.83% of the base material (BM) AA 7475 at rotational speed 560 rpm with 6.89% elongation.

Pankul Goel, A. W. Mohd, Nidhi Sharma, A. N. Siddiquee, Zahid A. Khan

Case Study of Critical Success Factors Affecting Knowledge Management in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Developing State: Steel Sector

The small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) need to compete with many other established organizations. Knowledge management (KM) may be the appropriate strategic tool for businesses to compete with the other established organizations. So there is a need of the adopting the knowledge management in SMEs to compete the competitors and satisfying the customer. But in this stage, adoption of KM is a very tedious task for an organization. The objective of this study to present a better way by implementing the KM in an organization and do something better for the organization for the improvement of customer satisfaction and increase competitive level as well. In this study, the present scenario of SMEs in Chhattisgarh state is taken under consideration. In this study, the factors affecting the knowledge management for SMEs, mainly in steel sector organizations have been focused and decided a critical success factor affecting the industries from previous literatures. After the identification of the critical success factors from the previous literature, some factors which affect the steel sector most are considered. To test the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach’s alpha has been used by SPSS software.

Agrawal Animesh, Suraj Kumar Mukti

Optimization of FSW Process Parameters During Joining of Al to Cu Using Taguchi-Based GA

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a new and effective solid-state joining process and getting evolved to join the dissimilar materials such as aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu). FSW tool design, geometry, and FSW process parameters possess a considerable impact on the material movement and stirring during joining and govern the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints. In the present study, the effect of the combination of different process parameters, i.e., shoulder diameter (A), welding speed (B), and rotational speed (C) on the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) during joining of Al-6101, and pure copper has been studied. The joining is performed using the cylindrical tool pin, and the Taguchi’s L9 standard orthogonal array for three process parameters each at three levels are chosen to perform the experimentation. The optimal combination of the FSW parameters yielding maximum UTS is determined using the ANOM (Analysis of Mean), and the significance of each parameter on the UTS is ascertained through ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). It is observed that the UTS of the FSWed joints varied significantly within the selected process parameter range. Further, the observed results were verified by applying genetic algorithm (GA) using the MATLAB software.

Nidhi Sharma, Pankul Goel, M. A. Wahid, Zahid. A. Khan, Arshad Noor Siddiquee

Analyzing Success Factors of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): A Study in Indian Context

The importance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) is recognized in the academic and policy literature. Entrepreneurship and SMEs are integral to economic and social development and regeneration. It is recognized that, SMEs are the engine of economic growth through employment generation, contribution to GDP, technological innovations, and other aspects of economic and social development. With this in consideration, the objective of this research is to identify the success factors (SFs) for small and medium enterprises in Chhattisgarh, India. Based on the literature review, 28 factors have been identified and subsequently categorized into three groups, namely entrepreneurial and enterprise factors, motivational factors, and managerial and environmental factors. Analyzing identified success factors in the present study shows that need for achievement under motivational factor, education level and financial resources under entrepreneur and enterprise factor, managerial capability, and government support under managerial and environmental factors are the important success factors (SFs) for the development of entrepreneurship through SMEs in Chhattisgarh region of India.

Sachin Meshram, A. M. Rawani

A Brief Review on Different Lubricants Used in MQL Process During Hard Turning

Heat generation during hard turning exhibits delamination of cutting tool edge rapidly, as a result the quality of finished job got deteriorate. However, nowadays, various alternative cooling techniques/different cutting fluids are utilized to minimize the cutting heat during machining action. Some severe diverse effects of use of coolants in machining create the challenges for researchers to choose environment-friendly coolant. Quality as well as economic concerns is also very important for the selection of cooling technique as well as cutting fluid. In recent years, minimum quality lubrication (MQL) technique provides very impressive cooling during hard machining. The MQL approach leads toward manufacturing sustainability and green manufacturing for enhancing cooling as well as the lubrication system. In MQL, a mixture of cutting fluid and compressed air is sprayed into the cutting zone which minimizes the heat during machining. MQL attribute lower fluid consumption with flow rate may vary from 5 ml/h to 100 ml/h. However, MQL machining is under the category of near-to-dry machining. In literatures, various categories of coolant like vegetable oil, castor oil, and oil with suspension of nanoparticles were found. However, with proper selection of cutting parameters along with lubricant through MQL can attribute enhanced machinability.

Hemant Tiwari, Ramanuj Kumar, Amlana Panda, Ashok Kumar Sahoo, Soumikh Roy

Applicability of Lean Six Sigma in Hospitals

Most of previous researches on Lean Six Sigma focused on various perspective of Six Sigma, lean philosophy then role of Lean Six Sigma in sustainability but never paid much attention in field of health service sector, e.g., hospital. This article concentrates on checking feasibility of Six Sigma in hospitals. Defects and loopholes in hospital and healthcare industries can sentence a difference between a life and death. Since to mitigate mishaps and increase patient experiences during the visit of hospitals, this research is an extreme effort to reduce variation in service quality using quality management tool Lean Six Sigma (LSS) in registration counter at hospitals. Data-driven methodology approach and applicability of LSS in service sector encompass not only the people but information and resource utilization. This is a mainstream pillar to be used as a methodology for research. DMAIC tool was found useful to enhance service quality during the study. Improvisation of outcomes is comparatively discussed in a chronological sense for ease of understanding. This research work will contribute to academia as well as service sectors like hospitals, restaurants, banks etc.

Vimal Kumar Deshmukh, Suraj Kumar Mukti, Animesh Agrawal
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