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Über dieses Buch

The book is devoted to problems of information technologies (description and processing signals, especially ones corrupted by noises and disturbances) and to problems of telecommunications and production of advanced equipment in radio-electronics developed at the Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia. It describes the contemporary state of the art and the development of methods for solving problems of signal processing and building equipment for practical solutions. The volume is mainly a collection of ideas, techniques and results in the field of video information technologies and various related applications of numerical methods. It comprises 18 chapters grouped under four main topics: image processing and computer vision, signal processing and navigation, simulation of some practical processes and computations for antennas, and applications of microwaves. The research described in this volume is addressed to a wide audience of scientists, engineers and mathematicians involved in the above mentioned four scientific topics.



Image Processing and Computer Vision


Chapter 1. Hypercomplex Algebras as Unified Language for Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Part 1. Cliffordean Models of Multichannel Images

In this work, we assume that a brain in the visual cortex (VC) operates with Clifford numbers when it calculates hypercomplex-valued invariants of an image as it recognizes it. Clifford algebras generalize the algebras of complex numbers, quaternions and octonions. Of course, the algebraic nature of hypercomplex numbers must correspond to the spaces with respect to geometrically perceivable properties. For recognition of 2-D (bichromatic), 3-D (color), and n-D (multi-channel) images, we turn the perceptual spaces into corresponding Clifford algebras (and call them the VC-perceptual algebras). This approach gives full representation of how algebraic structures can possess image features and how algebraic structures can be used in different visual systems. It is our aim to show that the use of Clifford algebras fits more naturally to the tasks of recognition of multicolor patterns than does the use of color vector spaces. One can argue that nature has, through evolution, also learned to utilize properties of Cliffordean numbers.
Valeriy G. Labunets, Juriy G. Smetanin, Victor P. Chasovskikh, Ekaterina Ostheimer

Chapter 2. Influence of Reflections from the Clouds and Artificial Structures on Fire Detection from Space

Research on the impact of cloud cover and artificial structures on the effectiveness of monitoring the forestry fire situation by MODIS spectroradiometer satellite images was carried out. It is shown that the regular fire detection algorithm MOD14 often assumes reflections at the dense clouds edges as thermal anomalies. The false detection of the hot pixels by the adaptive algorithm proposed by us occurs only when these are the edges of a very dense cloud cover. It is shown that the probability of false alarm from the adaptive algorithm is 15 times less than that from the MOD14 algorithm. Improving the efficiency of fire detection zeroing of cloud areas of the image is proposed. To this end, the MOD35 algorithm to build cloud masks is used. Thus, the use of the adaptive algorithm allows one to exclude the false hot pixels. As for the interference of artificial structures, it is proposed to exclude them by means of county masks based on Landsat images. It is shown that the use of the proposed masks significantly reduces the false thermal anomalies.
Sergey M. Zraenko

Chapter 3. Reconfigurable Systolic 2D-Arrays of Bit-Level Processor Elements for High Speed Data Processing in Embedded Computer Systems

High-speed data processing provided by special-purpose processors is one of the basic directions in the development of real-time computer systems. The paper is devoted to reconfigurable processors that may be represented as 2D-arrays containing bit-level processor elements. Special-purpose architectures of these processors may be preferable for real-time computations with strong restrictions of computation time or hardware costs. One of the significant features of 2D-arrays is maximal concurrency for data stream processing. But this requires adaptation of arbitrary algorithms to 2D-architecture. This is one of the most difficult problems in modern computer science; its successful solution determines the efficiency of 2D-architectures application in real-time systems. Some problems connected with the theory of computation by means of reconfigurable 2D-arrays of bit-level processor elements are discussed. Moreover, some results of research and development of the one specific processor array (MiniTera-2) for air- and space-born applications are presented.
Nick A. Lookin

Chapter 4. Image Fusion Based on Wavelet Transformation

The article is devoted to the analysis of one of the procedures of combined use of optical satellite data for fusing panchromatic high-resolution remote sensed images with multispectral low-resolution images in order to obtain high-resolution images based on wavelet transformation. As a result, the modified algorithm of image processing using different wavelets is provided. Also, the characteristics of quantitative estimation of the image processing, based on the presented method, are described in the article.
Vladimir A. Trenikhin, Victor G. Kobernichenko

Chapter 5. Many-Factor MIMO-Filters

In the paper, we investigate the effectiveness of modified many-factor (bilateral, tri-, and four-lateral) denoising MIMO-filters for gray, color, and hyperspectral image procession. Conventional bilateral filter performs merely weighted averaging of the local neighborhood pixels. The weight includes two components: spatial and radiometric ones. The first component measures the geometric distances between the center pixel and local neighborhood ones. The second component measures the radiometric distance between the values of the center pixel and local neighborhood ones. Noise affects all pixels even the center one which is used as a reference for the tonal filtering. Thus, the noise affecting the center pixel has a disproportionate effect onto the result. This suggests the first modification: the center pixel is replaced by the weighted average (with some estimate of the true value) of the neighborhood pixels contained in a window around it. The second modification uses the matrix-valued weights. They include four components: spatial, radiometric, interchannel weights, and radiometric interchannel ones. The fourth weight measures the radiometric distance (for gray-level images) between the interchannel values of the center scalar-valued channel pixel and local neighborhood channel ones.
Valeriy G. Labunets, Denis E. Komarov, Victor P. Chasovskikh, Ekaterina Ostheimer

Chapter 6. Examination of the Clarification Effect Under Colorimetric Object Illumination

The effect of clarification is to increase color saturation of reflective surfaces under a light source with a highly pronounced unevenness of spectral power distribution. The paper describes the effect and assesses the possibility of its controlled use in reproduction technologies. An experiment to obtain two prints from one original, which would be perceived visually identical being placed in different areas of the light source, is held. It is found that the standard method of profiling using widespread equipment gives satisfactory results. Satisfactory tone gradation and color match of prints placed in the respective areas of illumination are observed.
S. P. Arapova, S. Yu. Arapov, D. A. Tarasov, A. P. Sergeev

Signal Processing and Navigation


Chapter 7. Peculiarities of Application of Multifractal Analysis to Simultaneously Recorded Biomedical Signals

The aim of the article is to evaluate the applicability of multifractal methods to the analysis of biomedical signals. Among the known methods of multi- and monofractal formalism for the evaluation of short-term biomedical signals, the multifractal fluctuation (MFDFA) and cross-correlation (MFCCA) analysis approaches are of the greatest interest. In the article, we have evaluated the accuracy of the MFDFA and MFCCA approaches with the use of model time series of fractal Brown motion for certain Hurst exponent values. Next, model studies on stability assessment of the multifractal estimates in case of noise addition for investigation of the evaluation dependency on the different features of the modeled time series are considered. Peculiarities of application of multifractal analysis to simultaneously recorded biomedical signals are shown. Analysis of MFDFA and MFCCA approaches by the model signals have shown that such approaches can be applied to the assessment of short-term biomedical signals of the multichannel Radiophysical complex MRTHR.
Vladimir S. Kublanov, Vasilii I. Borisov, Anton Yu. Dolganov

Chapter 8. Methods of Autonomous Indoor 3D Navigation

The development and implementation of indoor orientation methods are strongly callable in the market of navigation services. Currently, there are different approaches to solve the problem of navigation. They are based on the use of various data networks, the Earth magnetic field, RFID tags and QR codes. However, these approaches have significant limitations in terms of implementation complexity, accuracy, reliability, and cost. In this paper, we consider autonomous indoor navigation systems that are independent from a special infrastructure in the building. As a rule, in such systems, the process of tracking the progress along the route is implemented in accordance with the readings of micromechanical inertial sensors (accelerometers and angular rate sensors). However, due to accumulated measurement errors, such sensors are not reliable in determining the user’s location. The paper presents various methods and approaches that improve the positioning accuracy in the process of autonomous navigation. The use of the floor plans and methods of machine vision in navigation can compensate accumulation of errors of the micromechanical inertial sensors. The 3D visualization greatly facilitates the user’s analysis of the information about their current location. This feature allows the user to control the whole navigation process and to adjust their position if necessary. Besides, use of the 3D visualization allows one to navigate under low (limited) visibility. By combining different approaches, it is possible to compensate for the limitations of individual methods and to obtain more reliable results.
M. Osipov, Yu. Vasin



Chapter 9. Investigation of Money Turnover in the Computer Agent-Based Model

There are three main simulation paradigms. They are as follows: discrete-event modeling, system dynamics and agent-based modeling. In this set, the agent-based paradigm is the one geared towards economic and social system modelling, and, thus, called ‘the right mathematics for the social sciences’. When it was decided to explore communications in an economic system, it has become evident that the most suitable technology for economic system model engineering is the agent-based technology, whose concepts and software toolkits have been developed greatly during several past decades. This paper discusses the process of toolkit choice for communication model engineering, reveals some problems that can be solved with this model and delivers some specific results which were obtained via simulations. Some interesting phenomena were revealed while experimenting with this model.
O. M. Zvereva

Chapter 10. Application of the Process Parameters Analysis Tree for the Melting Process Stability Control

The metallurgical enterprise information system is a web-oriented system designed for tracking, controlling, modeling, analysing and improving the quality of metallurgical products. A process parameters analysis tree is one of the system tools assuming the work in real time. The tree is an AND-OR graph with four types of nodes. Interaction between the tree and external information systems is provided by the data exchange module that functionally corresponds to the class of Enterprise Services Bus. The analysis tree is used to solve the problems of dispatching and reassignment of products between orders based on the diagnostics of the process parameter values deviations. The application of the tree for control of the melting process stability is considered in the paper. When performing the melting operation, it is necessary to maintain low silicon content in the melting to ensure specified mechanical properties of the steel. Technologists carry out the control of the silicon maintenance in the steel by means of a control chart. The control chart is constructed on the basis of the analysis of accumulated statistics of the studied process. An additional tool for controlling the silicon content in the melting process is proposed: the process parameters analysis tree. The analysis tree is carried out in real time. It receives as input the current silicon content in the melting and, based on the calculation of tree nodes, outputs the stability of the current melting process: statistically stable, statistically unstable, unacceptable. The latter two regimes require the technologist to carry out additional quality control of the resulting slabs and launch processes of search for the causes of the incident. The advantages of the process parameters analysis tree application has been revealed to be associated with increasing the speed of decisions taken.
Konstantin Aksyonov, Anna Antonova, Vasiliy Kruglov

Chapter 11. Artificial Neural Networks as an Interpolation Method for Estimation of Chemical Element Contents in the Soil

The work deals with the application of artificial neural networks (ANN) to the estimation of the surface distribution of chemical elements in the soil. For the study, a square area with a side of 1 m was chosen far from the sources of pollution. In this area, 100 cores of topsoil (0.05 m deep) were sampled. The specimens were analysed by the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer Innov X 5000. The best ANN structure for estimation of the surface distribution of chemical elements in the soil was selected after computer simulation. Comparison of concentration values of the chemical elements surface distribution in the soil made by the ANN with known values showed that a trained ANN gives prediction models comparable in accuracy with other methods as an interpolator and as the forecast method, as well.
A. Buevich, A. Sergeev, D. Tarasov, A. Medvedev

Chapter 12. Five-Module Concept of Modernization of Urban Passenger Transport Management

A five-module concept of developing a system for effective management of urban passenger transport (UPT) of a megacity has been developed. The data sources are the topology of the route network, the traffic schedule, the navigation system of traffic and payments transactions. The modules include preliminary processing of the initial data of the UPT, the implementation of algorithms for constructing optimal routes, the identification of the correspondence matrix of passenger flow, the modeling of the movement of passenger flow with a known correspondence matrix along the optimal routes, obtaining quantitative estimates of the current UPT network, and lastly developing a mobile information system for informing the passenger about possible variants of its route. The necessity of a correspondence matrix is shown when there is a reasonable variant of transportation of the population. The concept assumes that the passenger intuitively chooses the best route for their trip. The module of optimal routes is the key module of the whole concept.
S. Trofimov, N. Druzhinina, O. Trofimova

Antennas and Microwaves


Chapter 13. Green’s Functions for Multilayer Cylindrical Structures and Their Application to Radiation, Propagation and Scattering Problems

The method of Green’s functions for layered cylindrical magneto-dielectric structures is applied to solution of radiation, propagation and scattering problems. Excitation of an electromagnetic field is provided by arbitrary distribution of impressed electric and magnetic currents. The model of equivalent circuits is used for the description of a layered structure. Transmission matrices and various kinds of loads allow one to model both structure and boundaries. Equivalent voltages and currents in modelling circuits are associated with spectral field components. The suggested method allows one to construct universal algorithms for wave propagation, patch, and slot antennas radiation and scattering problems with any number of layers made of materials of arbitrary permittivity and permeability. Positive and negative refraction index of materials may be taken into account. The suggested technique has been successfully applied to the investigation of radiating structures made of meta-materials commonly used in electromagnetic designs.
S. Daylis, S. Shabunin

Chapter 14. Compact Topologies of Microstrip Ring Coupler

Today, due to the rash development and increasing complexity of radio engineering devices operating in the microwave range, they are subject to increasingly stringent requirements to reduce the dimensions of which limit their use in complex radio engineering systems. Moreover, miniaturized devices must have characteristics at least as those of full-sized devices. There are matching circuits including a microstrip ring coupler, among them. Therefore, the task of optimizing their design in terms of minimizing the geometric dimensions is important. The purpose of this work is to develop a miniaturized microstrip ring coupler by using a simple and effective way, not burdened with the necessity of additional mathematical calculations. In this connection, the research problem is to choose a suitable method and its applicability justification, and the comparison of developed designs with conventional topology. The paper proposes a technique based on bending the microstrip lines it is composed of. Comparative characteristics of electric lengths of straight microstrip lines and those of the bent microstrip line are provided. Designs of several developed topologies are given. The procedure of reasoning and the process of obtaining the final topologies are described in detail. A computer simulation is carried out. S-parameter dependencies obtained by computer simulation are presented. It was possible to reduce the initial construction area by 81.8% with reduction of operating frequency band by 7%.
D. A. Letavin

Chapter 15. Analysis of Spherical and Geodesic Antenna Radomes by Green’s Function Method

Radiation of antennas under electrically large hemispherical and geodetic antenna covers is considered. The Green’s functions for layered structures are used for reflection and transmission electric field calculation. The reflected and transmitted electromagnetic field is calculated as radiation of the equivalent electric and magnetic currents on the illuminated radome surface. Sandwich-type antenna radome structure is taken into account in characteristic part of Green’s functions so far field is calculated very quickly. Circular polarized wave transmission through layered structure is investigated. Radiation pattern distortion occurs by the antenna radome structure and antenna location under the radome is analysed. The decrease in antenna gain, sidelobes growing, boresight errors and depolarization of aperture antennas and antenna arrays caused by radomes are analysed. The method is suitable for quick computer modelling of antenna radomes and optimization of its properties.
A. Karpov, S. Shabunin

Chapter 16. Comparative Analysis of TE01 Mode Excitation Methods in Circular Waveguides

The axisymmetric magnetic modes of the circular waveguide are known for the anomaly of their low attenuation at higher frequencies. This is due to the low intensity of the electromagnetic field near the walls of the waveguide. Moreover, because of this fact, it is very difficult to excite these modes by common methods like using the electric and magnetic dipoles, slots, loops, etc. Insertion of such devices into the waveguide usually leads to distortion in the required mode field structure and, thus, inability of its excitation. The second problem is the fact that the axisymmetric magnetic modes are not the fundamental ones of the circular waveguide; and this demands the necessity of mode filtering and the complex analysis of the excitation devices. The main goal of this article is to describe and compare the effectiveness of various methods for excitation of the TE01 mode in a circular waveguide. The advantages of the mode with respect to other types of waves propagating in the circular waveguide are discussed briefly. Each of the devices under consideration was modelled and the simulation results are given. Advantages and disadvantages of the devices are considered. Then, a comparative analysis of results of the numerical simulation is given.
D. A. Letavin, V. Chechetkin, Yu. Mitelman

Chapter 17. Features of Antenna-Applicator for Functional Studies of the Human Brain

In the article, the characteristics of antenna-applicators (AA) for the contact microwave radiometers are analyzed. The bow-tie AA (in which the near-field and transition regions better match with the feeder in a wide frequency band) is preferred for monitoring the brain microwave radiation. Modelling these bow-tie AA with contact pins was conducted. The simulation results have confirmed that the increase in length of the pins up to 5 mm reduces the characteristic impedance similar to that of flat AA. Meanwhile, increased thickness of the vibrator does not degrade receiving properties of the AA. The modelling results are confirmed by laboratory studies that have examined the characteristics of the bow-tie AA with pins and flat AA without pins. It is shown that the introduction of designed AA with pins significantly reduced the impact of hair on the matching of the AA and body. In the study of changes in the characteristics of AA for 30 min, the change rate matching such antennas with the brain tissue changes by less than two times compared with that matching AA without pins.
Yuriy E. Sedelnikov, Vladimir S. Kublanov, Sergey A. Baranov, Vasilii I. Borisov

Chapter 18. Multifractal Nature of the Brain Microwave Radiation Signals

This article describes possibilities of multifractal analysis application to evaluate the short-term signals of brain microwave radiation recorded by the Radiophysical complex MRTHR for a group of psychologically healthy patients. Limitations of the multifractal fluctuation analysis method for evaluation of the fluctuation processes of brain regulation are considered. For this purpose, time series of two channels of microwave radiation of the parietal areas of human brain were processed. The results define the limits of applicability of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) method by the time window from 10 to 70 s and correspond to the two independent areas of periods of fluctuations of brain microwave radiation with different physiological nature that were justified by other methods. The obtained estimations prove the multifractal nature of the brain microwave radiation signals. These findings suggest that diagnostic possibilities of the modernized Radiophysical complex MRTHR can be increased with the usage of the multifractal analysis to functional studies of the microwave radiation signals of the brain.
Vasilii I. Borisov, Anton Yu. Dolganov, Vladimir S. Kublanov
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