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Advances in Light Water Reactor Technologies focuses on the design and analysis of advanced nuclear power reactors. This volume provides readers with thorough descriptions of the general characteristics of various advanced light water reactors currently being developed worldwide. Safety, design, development and maintenance of these reactors is the main focus, with key technologies like full MOX core design, next-generation digital I&C systems and seismic design and evaluation described at length. This book is ideal for researchers and engineers working in nuclear power that are interested in learning the fundamentals of advanced light water plants.



Chapter 1. Application of Probabilistic Safety Analysis in Design and Maintenance of the ABWR

A brief history of the development of nuclear reactor in Japan is summarized in Fig. 1.1s. In the 1960s, nuclear reactor technology was introduced mainly from the United States. But in this era, the capacity factor of Japanese boiling water reactors (BWRs) is low because of initial problems such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC). A program to improve the nuclear reactor performance was started. In the 1970s, phases-I and -II of this program was carried out for the purpose of improvement, standardization, and localization of conventional light water reactors (LWRs). The final stage of this program was carried out in the 1980s to develop advanced reactors (both ABWR and APWR), which had to meet the following objectives.
Masahiko Fujii, Shinichi Morooka, Hideaki Heki

Chapter 2. The Advanced Accumulator: A New Passive ECCS Component of the APWR

With the increased requirement for nuclear power generation as an effective countermeasure against global warming, Mitsubishi has developed the advanced pressurized water reactor (APWR) by adopting a new component of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS), a new instrumentation and control system, and other newfound improvements. The ECCS introduces a new passive component called the Advanced Accumulator which integrates both functions of the conventional accumulator and the low-pressure pump without any moving parts. The Advanced Accumulator uses a new fluidics device that automatically controls flow rates of injected water in case of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). This fluidics device is referred to as a flow damper. In this chapter, the Advanced Accumulator is introduced from the background of its development to its principle, with some experimental results. Furthermore, the features of the flow damper are explained in detail.
Tadashi Shiraishi

Chapter 3. Severe Accident Mitigation Features of APR1400

The APR1400 (advanced power reactor, 1,400 MWe) is a standard advanced evolutionary light water reactor (ALWR) in the Republic of Korea. It is now under construction as Shin-Kori units 3 and 4. The APR1400 is designed with an additional safety margin to improve the protection of the public health, mainly focusing on typical initiators such as transients and small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) as well as safety against severe accidents. This section outlines the major mitigating design features of severe accidents, summarizes the results of the full-scope PSA, and presents the main results of a deterministic evaluation of severe accident issues. The APR1400 design is robust and capable of mitigating the consequences of a wide spectrum of severe accident scenarios while maintaining containment integrity and minimizing radiation release to the general public.
Sang-Baik Kim, Seung-Jong Oh

Chapter 4. Development and Design of the EPR™ Core Catcher

The EPR™ is an evolutionary pressurized water reactor in the thermal range of 4,500 MWth, designed and marketed by AREVA NP. Currently, there are four EPR™ plants under design and construction: Olkiluoto-3 (OL3) in Finland, Flamanville-3 (FA3) in France, and Taishan 1&2 (TSN) in the People’s Republic of China.
Dietmar Bittermann, Manfred Fischer

Chapter 5. Nuclear Power Development and Severe Accident Research in China

From a technological viewpoint, the development of nuclear power technology worldwide has undergone four generations. Most of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating nowadays belong to the second generation. After the accidents of TMI and Chernobyl, intensive efforts were made to improve the safety features of the second-generation NPPs, and the third generation of nuclear power technology was developed. The main motivation driving the further development of light water reactor (LWR) technology consists of three aspects, i.e., safety, sustainability, and economics, as indicated in Fig. 5.1.
Xu Cheng

Chapter 6. Full MOX Core Design of the Ohma ABWR Nuclear Power Plant

The first advanced boiling water reactors (ABWRs) were constructed in the early 1990s as Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant Nos. 6 and 7 in Japan. Each ABWR generates an electric power of 1,350 MW and features the application of several advanced technologies and components, such as reactor internal pumps, fine motion control drives, and a slightly wider pitch of control rods between fuel assemblies (the N-lattice) [1]. These increase the safety margins in a loss of coolant accident or for fuel thermal stress impact and provide further flexibility in using high burn-up fuel or mixed oxide (MOX) fuel.
Akira Nishimura

Chapter 7. CFD Analysis Applications in BWR Reactor System Design

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been used to evaluate phenomena related to the flow since the late twentieth century. Here, through some examples of its applications, the roles of CFD analysis in the actual design process are shown. The first example is an application to the design improvement for flow stabilization at a cross branch pipe in the recirculation loop of the jet pump-type BWR. The second example is an application to evaluations of the ABWR lower plenum flow characteristics and FIV stresses. The third example is an application to the development of a thicker reactor internal pump nozzle for seismic performance improvement. All of these applications were confirmed by tests before being applied to the design of actual reactor structures.
Yuichiro Yoshimoto, Shiro Takahashi

Chapter 8. Next Generation Technologies in the Digital I&C Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

In this chapter, overviews of digital technologies for instrumentation and control (I&C) systems and the main control room (MCR) of boiling water reactor nuclear power plants (BWR NPPs) are explained. Then, cutting edge fundamental technologies and future possibilities for the next generation I&C systems are described.
Tatsuyuki Maekawa, Toshifumi Hayashi

Chapter 9. Advanced 3D-CAD and Its Application to State-of-the-Art Construction Technologies in ABWR Plant Projects

Since the first nuclear power plant (NPP) was constructed in the 1960s, more than 50 NPPs have been built in Japan. As an active player in the field of NPP construction, Hitachi, Ltd. (now, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. (HGNE)) has constructed 22 of these Japanese NPPs till 2009. Through this extensive experience, HGNE has developed and applied its own advanced technologies, including a unique 3D-CAD-based integrated plant engineering environment and streamlined design-to-manufacturing/construction management system. These technologies have been continuously improved with the evolution of HGNE’s construction management philosophies, often providing an enabling force to greater achievements in project performance. In addition to the latest ABWR Shika-2 completed in 2006, HGNE is currently leading two more ABWR construction projects, Shimane Unit 3 and Ohma Unit 1, both of which are on target for an “On-Budget and On-Schedule” completion. In this chapter, the state-of-the-art engineering and construction technologies established on the advanced 3D-CAD platform, currently being applied to these projects, are introduced.
Junichi Kawahata

Chapter 10. Progress in Seismic Design and Evaluation of Nuclear Power Plants

In Japan, seismic design of nuclear power reactor facilities is examined according to the “Regulatory Guide for Examining Seismic Design of Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities” [1]. Therefore, the seismic design of a nuclear power plant (NPP) is conducted based on this guide.
Shohei Motohashi


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