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Über dieses Buch

This book covers a variety of topics related to the Industry 4.0 concept, with a special emphasis on the efficiency of production processes and innovative solutions for smart factories. It describes tools supporting this concept in both the mechanical engineering and biomedical engineering field. The content is based on papers presented at the 6th International Scientific-Technical Conference MANUFACTURING 2019, held on 19-22 May 2019, in Poznan, Poland. Virtual reality, simulation of manufacturing systems, additive manufacturing, big data analysis, automation and application of artificial intelligence, as well as economic and social issues related to the integration of those technologies are just some of the topics discussed here. All in all, the book offers a timely and practice-oriented reference guide for researchers and practitioners, and is expected to foster better communication and closer cooperation between universities and their business and industrial partners.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Industry 4.0 Concept

Frontmatter

Digitization and Intangible Assets in Manufacturing Industries

Paper analyzes prospects for digitization in select manufacturing industries, those specifically studied in a recent consulting report. Beyond the conclusions of that report, this study looks more deeply into how digitization will be employed to enhance efficiency, the worker-data system interface and other expected outcomes. Through established metrics for assessing enterprise holdings of intangible assets such as data, knowledge, and intelligence, this paper more precisely identifies where and how digitization might be employed as well as the expected level of success. Overall, these industries are likely to see more incremental improvements in processes, mainly from successfully employing big data systems. Employee knowledge will likely be enhanced by digitization only slightly and mainly at the operational level. Major new insights from intelligence, especially at higher levels of these manufacturers, will likely be rare.

G. Scott Erickson, Helen N. Rothberg

Human-Organization Relation in the Perspective of Industry 4.0

The main aim of this paper is to present the prospective changes in human-organization relation in enterprises caused by the technological progress, the progressive global digital transformation of tools and processes in particular, and to define the competences which should be currently developed in order to maximize future competence matching. The paper indicates groundbreaking innovations in the concept of Industry 4.0. It shows the most significant changes in organizations caused by the fourth industrial revolution. The main focus was the human-organization relation. Prospective changes in the functions of employees and in the scope of competence needs of enterprises were determined in the HR area. It was based on the literature analysis and the results of empirical, primary and secondary research.

Waldemar Jędrzejczyk

Edge Computing Technologies as a Crucial Factor of Successful Industry 4.0 Growth. The Case of Live Video Data Streaming

This article presents edge computing as a new approach which can significantly benefit development of Industry 4.0 in different areas. The edge computing was explained in comparison with cloud computing. Its main advantages can be obtained implementing both edge and cloud computing as a hybrid solution. The advantages of the new data management method were assigned to the topics comprised within each of the three differentiated main research areas built in the Industry 4.0 paradigm: Individualization of production, Horizontal integration in collaborative networks, End-to-End digital integration. The tables designed show impact of the advances resulting from edge computing on the development possibilities in manufacturing and production while realizing the most probable exploitation and growth scenarios. To make the predictions based on the literature more realistic there was presented a case study of the project where edge device for stereoscopic 180° live video streaming was planned to be implemented bringing significant improvements into the data capturing and management process. The algorithmic possibilities presented may be analogically exploited in the topics mentioned in all the three main Industry 4.0 theme groups.

Joanna Gąbka

Model Proposal to Evaluate the Quality of a Production Planning and Control Software in an Industrial Context

The domain of Production Planning and Control, or in a broader sence Production Management has been deserving a special and increasing attention by the companies, which intend to continuously achieve better results through continuous improvement, which also fits in the context of Industry 4.0. Companies tend to implement management systems with the purpose of achieving greater competitiveness and, consequently, greater sustainability in their sector. The selection of the appropriate production management system is a serious problem for the companies. The main objective of this study is to support companies in the correct choice of a Decision Support System. The method used to achieve the proposed objective consists on formulating a model for comparing functionalities and specifications, where selection of criteria were also defined and analyzed. Based on a large Company scenario, the model is applied to three production execution systems: SAP PP (Systems Applications and Products - Production Planning), Prodsmart and GenSYS.

Ricardo M. P. Gonçalves, Maria L. R. Varela, Ana M. Madureira, Goran D. Putnik, Jose Machado

Increasing the Production Productivity with Artificial Bee Colony Optimisation Method

In this paper, the tool path length minimisation or reduction of tool path total time was considered. The main goal is optimisation of tool path length on the selected technological task, where is need to drill a large number of holes and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) optimisation method was used. The results, (achieved by criteria of minimum tool path) leads to saving of the technological time and reducing the total costs of production. Proposed algorithm gives the sustainable results, and it is reliable for the use. The solution achieved by the ABC algorithm was implemented in the MATLAB program and for validation of its performance it was compared with Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) algorithm, CAMConcept software and with the result achieved by manual programming. The drilling simulation was performed using the EMCO WinNC educational program for the Sinumerik 840D Mill control unit.

Danijela Pezer

Comparison of the NC Data Preparation Methods for Drawingless Production

The aim of this paper was to compare the CNC machining data and CNC programming by using a CAD/CAM system and a workshop programming system. CAD/CAM System CATIA demonstrates the importance and relationship of new technologies, materials, machines, progressive methods and information technologies that enable more efficient use of materials source and achieve lower production costs. This is achieved by shortening the final machining time and eliminating the inaccuracies caused by the multiple clamping of a workpiece.

Peter Kostal, Andrea Mudriková, Daynier R. D. Sobrino, David Michal, Simon Lecky

Characteristics of Resources as a Determinant of Implementation of the Physical Internet Concept in Supply Chains

Contemporary companies strive for increasing efficiency of logistics processes. Efficient logistics processes allow for implementation of corporate goals with reduced use of resources. Considering the evolution of the concept of resources, authors in the article focused on the concept of Physical Internet (PI). For the study purposes, authors of the paper have limited the Physical Internet idea to sharing resources in supply chain. In the article, results of two survey studies are presented. The first was conducted among academic teachers specializing in management and logistics area. The second study was conducted among managers of production and logistic companies in Poland’s territory. The first survey study aim was to identify importance of sharing resources as a way to increase efficiency of supply chains and to identify key determinants of developing PI concept at resources level. The main aim of the second study was to get the managers’ opinion on whether it is possible to share resources in supply chains. Potential difficulties in sharing resources with respect to their division into material and non-material ones and possible supply chain functioning areas were identified.

Michał Adamczak, Łukasz Hadaś, Agnieszka Stachowiak, Roman Domański, Piotr Cyplik

Model of a Knowledge Management for System Integrator(s) of Cyber-Physical Production Systems (CPPS)

This paper explores the problem of the possibility of integrating the Knowledge Management System (KMS) and System Integrator(s) in Cyber-physical Production Systems (CPPS). In the first stage of our approach, CPPS development network, including relations and the applied Systems Engineering approach was presented. Our next approach was to integrate the CPPS development network with the tacit knowledge management system (TKMS); this was developed and strictly described. Our proposed approach to TKMS, integrated into the system integrator of CPSS (KMStoCPPS) includes: (1) identification of processes within the enterprise network that should be supported by the knowledge management system and also by the system integrator of CPSS, (2) identification of experts within a network as the source of knowledge, (3) acquiring tacit knowledge from experts within a network, (4) the classification of tacit knowledge within the network, (5) the knowledge base for the network. Finally, based on the example, the KMStoCPPS model was explained. The proposed approach can be a useful for manufacturing enterprises working within a network and can be also treated as an element in the adaptation of an enterprise to the concept of Industry 4.0.

Justyna Patalas-Maliszewska, Nadine Schlueter

Knowledge Management in Open Industrial Virtual Reality Applications

This paper presents practical results of a new, open approach to knowledge formalization and management in Virtual Reality applications for use in industry, especially in design and training purposes. Idea of applications with open access to knowledge is presented. Three cases of VR systems are shown – two for the design and one for training, all implemented in industrial companies in Poland. The focus is put on concepts of storing and easy editing knowledge in the applications, in a way to ensure self-sufficiency of applications in a given company after deployment. Dedicated tools for knowledge edition are presented, along with selected results of their implementation in scope of effectiveness of expanding the knowledge base.

Filip Górski, Paweł Buń, Przemysław Zawadzki, Radosław Wichniarek

The Automated Acquisition of Expert Knowledge Using a Service Department as an Example

In this article, an example of the use of ontology for the automated acquisition of expert knowledge in a service department is presented. The first part of the article presents an overview of the literature on knowledge acquisition methods and an evaluation of knowledge tools. The model for the Automated Acquisition of Expert Knowledge (AA-EK) is then presented and a formal representation of it, using ontology, is provided. The last part illustrates how the AA-EK model is used, using a real-time case study.

Justyna Patalas-Maliszewska, Adam Dudek, Sławomir Kłos

Virtual Simulation of Machine Tools

The article presents the use of VR tools for creating virtual simulations in which construction and functionality of production machines can be observed. As examples, the CNC machine feed drive and the Delta robot were presented. A virtual CNC machine was used to visualize its operation in the EON Studio environment. This visualization enabled a general analysis of the machine’s operation and construction, visualization with various tools mounted in the spindle, as well as execution of the tool movement according to the loaded simple G-code. In turn, virtual model of Delta robot, in addition to the visualization of the action, was used to simulate the shape of virtual objects.

Damian Grajewski, Filip Górski, Zoran Pandilov

Cyber Sickness in Industrial Virtual Reality Training

The paper presents results of experimental studies of how cyber sickness (also known as the simulator sickness) can influence basic tasks performed by users of industrial VR (virtual reality) training simulations. Two application cases are presented – a simple walk around a virtual environment using two different movement possibilities and a more complex training process with object interaction involved. They were tested with representatives of real target groups – engineers and employees of production companies. The used equipment involved mobile and stationary headsets. The obtained results confirm initial expectations about stationary headsets being generally more safe for use regarding the cyber sickness issue. It was also found that continuous artificially induced movement in a VR application is generally less comfortable for the users and therefore unadvised to employ in training scenarios.

Magdalena Żukowska, Paweł Buń, Filip Górski, Beata Starzyńska

Does Metal Additive Manufacturing in Industry 4.0 Reinforce the Role of Substractive Machining?

The article describes in a review and debatable way a trend that can be seen in modern industry, also known as the fourth industrial revolution or Industry 4.0. After years of dynamic development of additive techniques from polymeric, composite, ceramic and metal materials, it can be noticed that these techniques have penetrated into the modern production reality. In particular, it is used by such industries as space, air, automotive, precision, power, electronics and the medical industry. The article focuses on the answer to the question contained in the title. In almost all applications of metal additive manufacturing, further processing is necessary in order to obtain the correct shape and/or geometry accuracy. So there is a phenomenon of repeated interest in an accurate, often multi-axis, substractive machining. The more problematic machining, the more it is used in machining of elements with the so-called free forms resulting even from optimizing the topology of additively manufactured metal elements. The methods of metal additive manufacturing allow to obtain a geometry that until now was impossible to achieve using conventional methods, and generates additional technological problems in substractive machining. The answer to the somewhat rhetorical question contained in the title of the article is self-evident, and it is confirmed by observations from industry events and literature reports related to classical and hybrid additive-substractive machining methods.

Marcin A. Królikowski, Marta B. Krawczyk

Ensuring Vibration Reliability of Turbopump Units Using Artificial Neural Networks

This paper is devoted to developing the scientific approach of using artificial neural networks for solving a significant problem of vibration reliability of rotary machines that is urgently needed to improve the quality of their diagnosis and manufacturing. The proposed methodology integrates analytical dependencies, recent techniques of numerical simulations and artificial neural networks. The design schemes for realizing the related approach are presented on the example of the turbopump unit for liquid rocket engine. The main advantage of this approach in comparison with the traditional regression analysis and other existing techniques is absence of necessity for setting trial imbalances and carrying out additional initial starts of the turbopump unit. The mathematical model for identification nonlinear parameters of the dependence between bearing stiffness, deflection of the rotary axis, and rotor speed is presented. The proposed methodology is proved by the research of rotor dynamics on the example of turbopump units for liquid rocket engines and allows refining parameters of the nonlinear mathematical models describing forced oscillations of the rotor as a complicated mechanical system with nonlinearities. The results of the research can be used for carrying out the virtual balancing procedure for identification the system of imbalances by the reliable model of forced oscillation of the system “rotor – bearing supports”.

Ivan Pavlenko, Vitalii Ivanov, Ivan Kuric, Oleksandr Gusak, Oleksandr Liaposhchenko

Interaction in Project Management Approach Within Industry 4.0

With the fourth industrial revolution emerging as a requirement of the global production network, companies and countries are connected more tightly through supply chain networks around the world. The fourth industrial revolution “Industry 4.0” means that all innovations in digital technology mature, especially in the manufacturing sector, during the transformation process. These technologies are especially advanced internet, artificial intelligence and robotics, advanced sensor technology, cloud technology that accelerates data transfer and utilization, digital fabrication (3D printing), new services and marketing models, smart phones, and algorithms for navigation tools, delivery and ride services and autonomous vehicles. All these elements are included in the global value chain so that they can be shared by many companies from many countries. So, in the fourth industrial revolution, there are different technologies that are brought together for different but the same purpose. It is therefore becoming more complex to organize global organizations that are global, interconnected, and international. Industry 4.0 brings new dimensions both qualitative and quantitative within the companies that have used the new automation technologies for years and have experience and knowledge. Industry 4.0 has a complex nature beyond the modern production management system (MES) and world class production (WCM). The aim of this study is to show that the concept of project management in the Industry 4.0 approach, where large-scale physical and virtual worlds are tried to be brought together, is particularly affected by this change in the manufacturing sector. With this study, it is stated that changing the project management approach is a necessity. Moreover, this interaction is also discussed for industrial facilities.

Mehmet Cakmakci

Applying Scrum in New Product Development Process

For all organisations New Product Development (NPD) [1, 2], is a sophisticated process, necessary for introducing successfully the product on the market. Successfully means: customer satisfaction, benefits for organisation, new organisational and personal skills and experiences. The NPD process fulfils all conditions of project’s definition; that’s why many authors present the possibilities of applying to NPD process management instruments, specific for project management. Such attempts are limited to classical project managements methodologies and tools. Recently we observe growing interest in Scrum methodology, [3, 4]. Introduced for IT project management, nowadays is transferring completely or partially to manage the projects in other than IT fields of activities - healthcare, finance, consulting, education, and others, giving good results. This paper is a conceptual one, presenting an attempt made to show the possibility, utility and manner of transferring principal elements of Scrum toward NPD process. The objective of the paper is turn spotlight of New Product Development specialists on such possibility and encourage them to apply Scrum in this process management. The objective is achieved mainly in Sect. 5, where for all steps and activities in NPD process, their classification has been done, dividing them on unique or cyclical. The last ones (they are in the majority) can be managed according to Scrum methodology. It has been shown, for respective Scrum elements: roles, events and artefacts, how they can work in NPD process management. This study needs further research and empirical verification.

Jan Betta, Tomasz Chlebus, Dorota Kuchta, Agnieszka Skomra

Smart Industry Solutions

Frontmatter

Drivers Impacting Cobots Adoption in Manufacturing Context: A Qualitative Study

Today’s manufacturing environment is increasingly pressured to higher flexibility induced by uncertain production volumes as well as uncertain product lifetime. A way to improve productivity in a flexible production system is by using a safe and flexible cooperation between robot and operator. Therefore, manufacturing companies are experiencing an increase in human-robot interactions and in the use of collaborative robots (cobots). To make full use of cobots, it is essential to understand the drivers for their adoption as well as how these drivers are aligned with the companies’ strategic objectives. By means of in-depth interviews in six companies in Portugal and France, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of the drivers that influence the intent to adopt, or the effective adoption, of cobots and the alignment of these drivers with the strategic objectives of the company. Empirical results reveal “operational efficiency” and “ergonomics and human factors” concerns as important drivers in the adoption intent. In terms of strategic objectives, it was found that drivers are aligned with productivity and flexibility improvement as well as quality improvement strategic objectives. Understanding these drivers can help in motivating manufacturing companies to adopt cobots, in facilitating their adoption, and in reaping the benefits of this technology.

Ana C. Simões, António Lucas Soares, Ana C. Barros

Control of the 6-Axis Robot Using a Brain-Computer Interface Based on Steady State Visually Evoked Potential (SSVEP)

This paper presents the research on the possibility of control of the 6-axis robot using a brain-computer interface (BCI) based on Steady State Evoked Potential (SSVEP) signals. In the first paragraph, general information about brain-computer communication are presented. In the next paragraph the used in investigations equipment is described. The recorded SSVEP signals and graphs obtained in initial tests are shown. In the last part, the experimental procedures and results of research are described.

Arkadiusz Kubacki, Andrzej Milecki

An Innovative Approach of Industrial Robot Programming Using Virtual Reality for the Design of Production Systems Layout

Current trends in the design of manufacturing systems are aimed at shortening the pre-production phase. Designing CAD (Computer Aided Design) data and creating simulation scenarios are currently strategic solutions for designing different variants of manufacturing systems. The research intention is to point out the possibilities of hardware connectivity and software tools of the present. The primary intent of this article is the capabilities of industrial robot programming by utilizing the interaction of several robot online method, OLP (Offline Robot Programming) and VR OLP computing methods with regard to the applicability of the proposed outputs to the real environment. As a supporting simulation tool ABB RobotStudio was used. As imaging hardware tools were used glasses designed to be displayed by the immersive VR environment HTC Vive. The article presents methods and experiments on a case study where the interaction between the immersive environment of VR and the area of classical OLP programming was studied. The immediate interaction of the classic OLP method of industrial robot programming in the PC desktop software environment and the immersive VR environment helps to shorten the time needed to create industrial robot programming. It is precisely such an interactive link between OLP programming and real-time imaging of an industrial robot in a VR environment is one of the Industry 4.0 strategy implementation area.

Radovan Holubek, Roman Ružarovský, Daynier R. D. Sobrino

Localization of Passive RFID Tags by Small Cartesian Robot

In this paper simple localization method is proposed which uses radio-frequency identification (RFID) system working with low frequencies. The position of RFID tag is obtained by the recognition system installed on a small cartesian robot. In the robot head a RFID reader is installed. It was assumed that the used components for localization should be inexpensive. In the localization the inversion of the typical method based on proximity is applied. The difference is that the position of moving reader is not examined by tags, but position of tags is recognized by moving reader. The method was able to obtain precision in a range of a few millimeters. Two variants of collecting detection points and two variants of calculating position were examined. It was examined how the distance between the reader and the tag influences on position error, and what is the influence of head velocity on the detection accuracy.

Tomasz Kapłon, Andrzej Milecki

Analysis of Cooperative Industrial Task Execution by Mobile and Manipulator Robots

The emergence of mobile robots as a flexible upgrade of industrial AGVs and the simultaneous diffusion of collaborative manipulators pose new problems for the organization of work in industrial plants. The new robots address work environments characterized by limited automation and unstructured layouts. Present study is aimed at demonstrating that, using commercially available technologies, it is possible to assure a fruitful collaborative interaction among three main actors of the factory of tomorrow: the human operator, the mobile robot and the manipulator.

Khurshid Aliev, Dario Antonelli

Simulation Modeling of Assembly Processes for Digital Manufacturing

Computer simulation plays an important role in the modelling and analysis of behavior-discrete manufacturing systems. The concept of Industry 4.0 includes computer simulation as a method for building Cyber Physical Systems (CPS). The important problem that appears when building simulation models is how, exactly, should the simulation model reflect real manufacturing systems. In this paper, a case study of the computer simulation of assembly processes is presented. The simulation model, presented in the paper, is prepared using Tecnomatix Plant Simulation software, based on the design concept of a real manufacturing system. The procedure for building and analysing a simulation model, in order to obtain an efficient rate for a manufacturing system, is proposed.

Sławomir Kłos, Justyna Patalas-Maliszewska

An Indicators Framework for Sustainability Assessment of RFID Systems in Manufacturing

Nowadays, manufacturing companies need to operate a business and apply technology that are competitive as well as sustainable from a social, environmental as well as economical perspective. One of the technologies gaining substantial interests over manufacturing companies is radio frequency identification, which supports logistics and information flow within organizations. Much of the literature and theory surrounding assessment of RFID systems explores environmental (mainly positive) and economic (cost and benefits) impacts only. Some researchers have argued that current assessment methods often fail to involve sufficient evaluation in terms of social considerations. Therefore, an indicator-based sustainability assessment framework of RFID technology should be expected. This paper aims to close this research gap in the literature and present an indicators framework for sustainability assessment of RFID systems in manufacturing. Results depict a list of designed RFID indicators which, depending on the complexity of RFID technology to be implemented may convenient for assessing sustainability of the technology. It concludes based on the analyzed literature that the identification of RFID systems’ industrial indicators lies in accessibility and reliability data used for their validation. Finally, the indicator-based framework for sustainability assessment is verified for its usefulness on the case of dynamic spaghetti diagrams supported by Real Time Locating System. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on opportunities and limits of RFID-dedicated sustainability indicators.

Bartłomiej Gładysz, Aldona Kluczek

Automated Training of Convolutional Networks by Virtual 3D Models for Parts Recognition in Assembly Process

One of the most monotonous activities in using convolutional neural networks for image recognition is preparation of the learning data. It involves creating samples (2D images of object) at different angles of view, different backgrounds/materials and partial overlay of the object. Input data must include a relatively large number of frames, typically about 100 and more images per object to make the learning precision useful. In the paper there is proposed a new approach to creating these data fully automated based on a virtual 3D model of the standardized parts. Automation principle is generating 2D images from the imported 3D construction model, including the following variable parameters: the angle of rotation, background and the material of the component. We used for verification pretrained DNN model Faster RCNN Inception v2 with single shot detection (SSD). The learned convolutional network was next tested by real samples to verify a new approach of learning by virtual models and recognition of real objects (parts).

Kamil Židek, Peter Lazorík, Ján Piteľ, Ivan Pavlenko, Alexander Hošovský

3D Printed Hand Exoskeleton - Own Concept

Numerous hand exoskeletons have been proposed in the literature with the aim of assisting or rehabilitating results of neurodegenerative changes due to ageing, stroke, traumatic brain disorder, spinal cord injury, or other causes of hand disorders. Key issue becomes: how to investigate, improve, and observe the effect of rehabilitation therapy. Thus many studies have been conducted on evaluating the motor function quantitatively by developing various types of robotic systems. Even though the robotic systems have been developed, this task still constitutes challenge, thus functional evaluation of the hand has been rarely investigated, because it is difficult to install a number of actuators or sensors to the hand due to limited space around the fingers. Our article aims at presentation of the own concept of 3D printed hand exoskeleton, associated occupations and limitations.

Jakub Kopowski, Izabela Rojek, Dariusz Mikołajewski, Marek Macko

Mechanical Analysis of Leaf Springs Realized by Additive Technologies

The paper deals with a new study for leaf springs. The authors considered two materials: ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) and PLA (Polylactic Acid), and two fill factors: 10% and 20%. The springs have been realized using FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) technology and have four different thicknesses (2.5, 3, 3.5, 4 mm). Three samples of each type were manufactured with a total of 48 springs. In about 45 min, the leaf spring with good aspect was realized. The main mechanical characteristics of the elastic elements made by additive technologies were determined experimentally, comparing them with those calculated theoretically, obtaining satisfactory results. The spring model behavior was analyzed using Inventor 2016 environment. Two parameters were considered: displacement and stress. Interesting conclusions about the stiffness of the springs have been deduced.

Ciprian I. Rizescu, Daniel Besnea, Dana Rizescu, Edgar Moraru, Victor Constantin

An Introductive Training for Welding Workshop: A Biometric Evaluation Using Virtual Reality Scenes to Improve Practice

Welding is one of the most used process in manufacturing industry. Training in this process demands a long period of time and involves several resources such as specific facilities, metal pieces, energy, electrodes, gases, etc.Evaluations requires those training conditions, which every day are needed in welding industry. At the same time, this includes the safety understandings that welding training implies. Considering these situations, this work proposes a Virtual and Augmented Reality cabin, for evaluation and training in welding process. The method used includes understandings of safety, knowledge of workshop elements, welding tools identification and practical exercises to test several welding skills. Testing was applied to an experimental group who trained using the virtual welding tool, allowing the study of cognitive effects caused by virtual training before any previous real practice; there was also was a control group which trained only with real practices. By using the biometrical device EPOC of Emotiv, concentration and stress in both groups while doing the first welding real practice was tested. Experimental group showed less stress and more concentration than control group.

Francisco Torres-Guerrero, Leticia Neira-Tovar, Luis Torres-Treviño

Simulation of Flexible Manufacturing Systems as an Element of Education Towards Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0, known as the fourth digital revolution, is the integration of modern systems and machines based on digital solutions that influences the productivity of an enterprise. This concept forces the use of more and more sophisticated and complex solutions by enterprises, i.e. technological or organizational, associated with data collection and analysis, the development of technology, the ability of a rapid response to both internal and external changes, and the improvement of present processes. Highly automated production processes will require qualified management staff as well as production workers experienced in the work with new materials, machines and, in particular, information. This work presents the course of a didactic process which aims at the acquisition of skills within the simulation and analysis of flexible manufacturing systems with the use of mass service systems theory. The main part of the work shows the course of classes which aim to study the work efficiency of a flexible manufacturing cell. As a criterion of the system work efficiency, basic indicators of the mass service system work were adopted, that is an average number of products waiting in a queue, average time of a product waiting in a queue and a manufacturing system as well as the expected downtime of a cell. The results were compared with the results of typical models describing the work of mass service systems (M/M/1, M/D/1, M/El/1, M/G/1).

Rafał Kluz, Katarzyna Antosz

VR and AR in Lean Manufacturing Classes

The paper presents preliminary results of research on integrating Virtual and Augmented Reality in Production Management and Lean Manufacturing classes. The aim of the classes is to familiarize students Production Management and Lean Manufacturing tools which are commonly used in many manufacturing enterprises. Two applications (VR training application and AR assembly instructions) were tested by a number of students of Production Engineering. The results suggest that both applications can improve the process of assembly operations as well as LM classes.

Paweł Buń, Justyna Trojanowska, Paulina Rewers

A Case Study of a Virtual Training Environment

Virtual Reality is the most promising technology for providing new learning and education solutions and more efficient opportunities for a revolutionary training environment. Here we introduce a Learning Management System (LMS) for providing users not only with all education material but also supporting experiential learning as well through VR simulations. The presented VR model trains users for managing several threat factors, ensuring data protection and security for the operation of LPWAN in Industry 4.0 environment. The training platform uses virtual reality environment so that to increase user’s comprehension of the provided security level of an LPWAN network. In addition to this, users of Virtual Reality training platform can easily discover the security vulnerabilities of the LPWAN deployment. The proposed VR model provides a web based portal that is incorporated with Moodle and OpenSim for providing a user interface for managing Learning activities and for consistent linking of learning activities in e-Learning and OpenSim environments.

Vasiliki Liagkou, Chrysostomos Stylios

Virtual and Augmented Reality for Configuring, Promoting and Servicing Household Appliances

In this paper, we present several virtual and augmented reality systems for interactive visualization of household appliances. The presented systems can support the wholesale of series of products configured and then ordered in a manufacturers’ showroom as well as individual sales by enabling customers to visualize different versions of the products in their home setting before making a purchase decision. The system provides also training and support for servicing of household appliances. The visualization software, created with the use of the Unity3D engine, takes advantage of a wide range of visualization hardware, such as a smartphone, an HMD, and a Powerwall, to enable its use in different settings. With the use of the developed solutions, users can configure and manipulate components of virtual home appliances directly in a 3D space. The visualization software, which has been developed in cooperation with Amica S.A. – a major household appliance manufacturer in Poland, can be an important marketing element and an innovation that has the potential to attract new customers.

Krzysztof Walczak, Jakub Flotyński, Dominik Strugała, Dariusz Rumiński, Mikołaj Maik, Anna Englert, Tomasz Jenek

The Effectiveness of Multimodal Sensory Feedback on VR Users’ Behavior in an L-Collision Problem

Virtual Reality (VR) is highly dependent on visual information, although it offers multimodal channels for sensory feedback. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of different sensory modalities in the context of collision avoidance in the industrial manufacturing process. Participants performed a pick-and-place task with L-shaped objects on a virtual workstation. In a between-subject design each person performed one of four conditions: Baseline, Auditory, Haptic, and Visual condition. We measured the timing and accuracy of the performed actions. Statistical testing by an ANOVA showed a significant main effect, i.e. a difference between the conditions. We observed the lowest number of collisions in the auditory condition followed by the haptic, baseline and visual conditions. Post hoc tests revealed a significant difference between the auditory condition, the most accurate, and the visual condition, the least accurate. This implies that giving additional feedback by the visual modality is not optimal and utilizing a fully multimodal interface has increased effectivity.

Sumin Kim, Krzysztof Izdebski, Peter König

Intelligent Systems in the Railway Freight Management

The article is devoted to the problems of improving the management system of railway freight transportation based on the concept of Industry 4.0. During the study, was identified the main competitor of rail traffic - automotive freight transportation. Investigation of the rail freight market has shown that there are a number of problems that prevent them from taking a leading position. The main part of research was directed on the European market, especially on the Slovak Republic. Was considered modern monitoring systems of transport logistics and was determined that the most advanced and responsive to the demands of the modern consumer is tracking technology based on GPS - navigation control technology. Proposals were developed to improve the efficiency of freight wagons monitoring system by using electronic control unit based on geolocation technology integrated into carriage, they will signalize about condition of the freight in active and passive form. Such sensor will be able to integrate to the IoT system through a specialized Internet platform that also supports mobile version program. Were justified the economic feasibility of introducing this system to European rail freight and development prospects of the railway transportation in the context of the Industry 4.0.

Michal Balog, Hanna Sokhatska, Angelina Iakovets

LiDAR Based System for Tracking Loader Crane Operator

Nowadays, particularly in the IoT, industry 4.0, smart devices, intelligent robots and autonomous vehicles, the segmentation and analysis of the environment using 3D data (point clouds) is a current and relevant research topic. The reducing prices of depth sensors based on light detection and ranging (LIDAR), time of flight (ToF), radio detection and ranging (RADAR) technologies and high computing power, facilitate the development of intelligent systems. In this work real-time LiDAR based system for tracking loader crane operator has been presented. Developed system uses a Velodyne VLP-16 LiDAR to detect and track loader crane operator and is fully integrated with open-source ROS (Robot Operating System). This solution will help to determine whether the operator is in the crane working zone, which will increase his safety. The work presents the main assumptions of the system, subsequent stages of point clouds processing and used algorithms. Detection and tracking algorithms performance was evaluated based on real data acquired under different conditions, and the results were compared to similar solutions found in the literature. The results of conducted test were presented. Furthermore, in this article, we discussed other methods used to detect and track humans in real time, described Velodyne VLP-16 scanner, robot operating system and data processing methods.

Karol Miądlicki, Mateusz Saków

Artificial Neural Network-Supported Selection of Materials in Ecodesign

At the current rate of development in the industry, protecting the global environment is a priority. One of the ways to prevent environmental degradation is the manufacturing of recyclable products which can be disassembled and their materials and components processed for reuse. Recyclability of products can be taken into account as early as at the design stage. Appropriate selection of materials, connections and disassembly methods can facilitate and simplify recycling. This paper looks at an original method of material selection at the design stage, which takes into consideration recyclability of materials. An expert system based on artificial neural networks is presented. Analyses of input data for material selection have been conducted, the training file and neural network models have been developed, and the models have been assessed. Research has proven that artificial neural networks are suitable for supporting the selection of materials in ecodesign.

Izabela Rojek, Ewa Dostatni

The Application of Artificial Neural Network in Diagnosis of Sleep Apnea Syndrome

In this paper authors propose a method of sleep analysis based on the algorithm of artificial neural networks. Unlike polysomnography methods, that are used commonly in clinical practice, the described method does not require specialist equipment or a qualified technician to analyze biomedical signals. The results presented in this work show that the properly implemented neural network algorithm can determine incidents during sleep and recognize its phases. Main idea was tested on the base of data collected from sleep laboratory of eight patients. From many signals collected during clinical assessment only two were taken under further consideration: heart rate and blood saturation. As it was shown, these two parameters measured during sleep allows to determine incidents occurring during sleeping and even to recognize actual stage of sleep. It means, that it is possible to use simple device that measures only heart rate and blood saturation to identify sleep apnea syndrome. The method is very effective and can replace the existing ways to recognizing sleep problems especially, when sleep examination of patient is conducted in home conditions.

Renata Ferduła, Tomasz Walczak, Szczepan Cofta

Artificial Hand Controlled by a Glove with a Force Feedback

This article describes a construction and control of the hand prosthesis with a force feedback. Introduction part contains a review of literature within the scope of characteristics of hand prosthesis’ designs. There has been presented different approaches used during creation of artificial hands including diversity of force feedbacks and mechanisms. To control the artificial hand there has been used a glove with flex sensors and vibration motors. Such construction allows to bend the digits with instant tactile sensing. Vibration motors receive signals provided by force sensing resistors (FSR) placed on phalanges of prosthesis’ fingers. The movement of artificial hand’s digits is dispensed by four-bar linkage mechanism. Based on literature overview and performed research, last part presents the conclusions about the solution of present problems related to the process of hand prosthesis’ design with special attention to the aspect of tactile sensing providing and fingers’ kinematic.

Marcin Białek, Dominik Rybarczyk, Andrzej Milecki, Patryk Nowak

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