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Über dieses Buch

This book covers a variety of topics in manufacturing, with a special emphasis on product design, production planning, and implementation of both resources and production processes. The content is based on papers presented at the 6th International Scientific Technical Conference MANUFACTURING 2019, held in Poznan, Poland on May 19-22, 2019. The main focus is on showing best practices to use tools currently available in the enterprises to effectively improving industrial processes. Knowledge and production flow management, decision-making systems, production leveling, enterprise efficiency, as well as maintenance, modeling and simulation of production processes are just some of the topics discussed in this book, which offers a timely and practice-oriented reference guide for applied researchers, product engineers and product managers.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

A Framework for SME Performance Evaluation

Performance evaluation is a key aspect for every manager of an enterprise. An analysis of the production system is necessary to guarantee a solid and robust growth, to cope with periods of crisis that may arise and to support decisions taken on future strategies. Not always the manager, who often coincides with the owner, of a micro or small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) has the knowledge and the appropriate tools to analyze, autonomously, the production system. Small enterprises are not always able to assign this assessment to qualified personnel or to an external company. Hence the need for an easy-to-use tool that can be understood and easily used by the manager. The proposed tool originates from a model of enterprise, which was developed in collaboration with business economists. Its interaction with the economic environment is simplified by focusing the analysis to those performance indicators that can be easily measured in a small production system and whose values can be easily read by the manager or owner.

Agostino Villa, Teresa Taurino

Environmental Management and Green Attitudes of the European SME Sector

The underlying goal of the paper is to indicate differentiated attitudes towards the natural environment, the nature of environmental management and evaluating the “green activity” of the SME sector enterprises. In a chronological grasp the changes in perceiving the relations between economic activity of SME sector enterprises and the natural environment in which they function. In this grasp the Author summarize differentiated behaviours of enterprises towards the natural environment, among others: relations of uncontrollable impact, selective impact, clean production, sustainable development of enterprises, as a result arriving at environmental management with LCA consideration (LCA – Life Cycle Analysis). The Author have conducted a comparative evaluation concerning selected areas of pro-environmental activities of European SMEs, in the context of large-scale European enterprises (based on the data by the European Commission) as well as selected Polish enterprises (own research). Additionally, selected barriers and stimulants of “green activity” have been summarized in the paper.

Robert Kucęba

A Comparative Analysis of Various Production Organisation Forms on the Basis of Customised Manufacturing

This paper presents a comparative analysis of various forms of organisation of production on the basis of customised manufacturing. The analysis of the literature looks as types of workstations and organisation of production. The study was conducted at the assembly division in a company manufacturing seats for means of collective transport. In the first step, information was collected on the products manufactured and their technological similarity. Next, timing of consecutive assembly operations was measured for the same seat designs for nested and linear production models. Durations of assembly cycles were determined and performance was calculated for the nest and the line, broken by seat designs. The results were compared against benchmarks. The paper closes with a comparison of the results obtained for the nest and the line.

Paulina Rewers, Anna Karwasz, Krzysztof Żywicki

Tooling CAD Models Preparation Process for Automated Technology Design System

The main aim of the paper is present how to prepare the CAD model in the context of further CAM process preparation, with the assumption of automation of technical preparation of a production process. Above this, the paper presents also the concept of building a KBE system for the automated technology design process, which ensures integration into automatically way two separate tasks: CAD tooling model preparation and CAM milling program. Presented in the paper example concerns the design process of die tooling, using for holding corrugated pipes in connectors install process. The concept of preparation of the KBE system assumed processing of engineering knowledge at three stages: acquisition, formalization, and applying. Development of such solutions can be a method for implementation of mass customization strategy in the technical office.

Maciej Kowalski, Przemysław Zawadzki

Selection of Assembly Sequence for Manual Assembly Based on DFA Rating Factors

The work concerns the problem of modelling technological process of product assembly. It presents the method of selecting the assembly sequence for specific production conditions of manual assembly based on DFA rating factors. The main goal of this methodology is to find the sequence of joining parts that ensures the highest efficiency of the assembly process in given circumstances. An important element of the work is a developed algorithm of determination of assembly sequences, which was implemented to a computer software.

Marcin Suszyński, Olaf Ciszak

Technology Management as a Process – A View from In-Depth Studies in Metal Processing Companies

The aim of the study is to investigate, from the perspective of process approach, the Technology Management sphere in several industrial organizations operating in metal processing industry. The study takes a qualitative approach, six cases of Technology Management processes in six different companies are studied. The process sequences are identified in a framework manner including approximation of the duration of main process activities. This allows to observe fundamental characteristics of Technology Management process, including its differences and similarities to the Technology Management models widely known in the literature. The study proves the thesis that Technology Management in the companies, when considering processes management approach, is practically reduced to technology development process, however other activities typical of Technology Management may constitute an incremental content of other business processes in an organization. According to the study several new types of activities occur within Technology Management process, namely: determination of expectations, technology testing, execution and launching.

Wiesław Urban, Elżbieta Krawczyk-Dembicka

Formal Recording of Product Manufacturing Structure Oriented on Customer-Based Production

The key element of the fourth industrial revolution is mass customization. The term refers to companies using technology and production methods that provide a variety of customized goods manufactured as a result of a flexible and quick response to the reported demand. Therefore, it is a way to design and manufacture products to satisfy individual needs and expectations of customers. The fundamental characteristics of this revolutionary production paradigm is the rapid development of products in a cyber-physical manufacturing system and the cooperation network of supply chain using CE (Concurrent Engineering) as well as CEE (Cross Enterprise Engineering) development strategies. The paper presents a formal description of the product manufacturing structure and the process of integrated product design in terms of its construction and manufacturing structure development including generation of production plan based on the customer specification. As an example, this process aided by the use of a digital environment for modelling products and production processes was applied in the manufacturing plant of automotive industry that produces five types of construction and technology related products. The main objective of the work is to shorten the time of preparation of construction and technological process for new products oriented on the customer’s specification and based on an unified record of typical products manufactured in the plant. The expected effect of this work is to develop a manufacturing system able to provide customer-oriented products on the market.

Jan Duda, Dorota Warżołek

Multi-objective Aggregate Production Planning Model Considering Overtime and Outsourcing Options Under Fuzzy Seasonal Demand

This paper investigates a novel fuzzy multi-objective multi-period Aggregate Production Planning (APP) problem under seasonal demand. As two of the main real-world assumptions, the options of workforce overtime and outsourcing are studied in the proposed Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. The main goals are to minimize the total cost including in-house production, outsourcing, workforce, holding, shortage and employment/unemployment costs, and maximize the customers’ satisfaction level. To deal with demand uncertainty, triangular fuzzy numbers are considered for demand parameters. Then the proposed model is validated by solving an illustrative example using a Weighted Goal Programming (WGP) method and CPLEX solver. Finally, it is demonstrated that uncertain conditions and considering real-world assumptions can yield different results in developing a practical aggregate production plan. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis is then performed to provide qualitative managerial insights and decision aids.

Erfan Babaee Tirkolaee, Alireza Goli, Gerhard-Wilhelm Weber

Welding Workstation Planning with Use of CAD Software and Simulation

Increasing productivity cannot be achieved without modernization, reconstruction and automation wherever is monotonous work or work in a harmful environment. Automation of technological processes must be understood in a comprehensive way. Its use cannot be restricted to just one machine. It should be noted that this includes automated transportation, material handling, inspection and measurement, tool change etc. It is necessary to deal with the optimization of the solution both technically and economically to deal with a specific case. When designing a robotized workstation, it is important to correctly select the functional units that will be used in the workplace. The paper focuses on choosing the right components for designing a robotic welding workstation, increasing productivity, and eliminating downtime by applying a 6-axis industrial robot. Using an industrial robot allows us to eliminate the risk of human error, ease work and eliminate the monotony of the human working environment. The advantage of using an industrial robot is to protect people from endangering their lives in health-hazardous locations where there are unfavorable conditions for people’s work. The case study compares individual workplace designs and points to the problem to be solved when designing a robotic welding site.

David Michal, Simon Lecky, Peter Kostal, Stefan Vaclav

A New Algorithm for Generating the Material Order in ERP Systems

The paper presents a new algorithm for generating the material order to be used in the enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. The order models of ERP programs have been tested in the actual production conditions of metal industry enterprises. We pointed out the problem of incorrect generation of orders by various tested computer systems. The problem of generating the order was described using an exemplary mast produced in medium lot production conditions. In order to check the function of the suggested algorithm, simulation tests allowing for determination of the number of individual items needed to achieve the assumed production volume were carried out. The use of the suggested algorithm allowed us to order the correct number of commercial items and obtain the smallest post-production waste.

Andrzej Jardzioch, Mariusz Wojtalik

A Comparison of Production Time Calculation Methods for Customized Products Manufacturing

One of the most important challenge for manufacturers of customized products is calculation of the production time. Choosing the right method of that calculation is the key of correct determining production plans and delivery dates for customers. The reason is, among other issues, the lack of real data on standard times required to complete individual manufacturing operations or processes. This article presents comparison of most common production time estimating methods, known from the literature: knowledge-based estimation, predictive analytics and statistical learning methods. These methods were adopted for the simulated production process and compared in terms of the accuracy of the calculated times, compared to the real times achieved by the research groups in the simulation.

Krzysztof Żywicki, Filip Osiński

Systematic Literature Review of Theory of Constraints

The objective of the present study is to identify relevant research areas related to the subject of the Theory of Constraints by Goldratt. The methodology of systematic literature review was used in the article. Bibliometric research was conducted on the basis of four full-text databases of EBSCO, Emerald, ScienceDirect and SpringerLink from the years 2013–2017. Four main research directions related to the Theory of Limitations have been identified: (1) practical use of the TOC, (2) research TOC in the combining with the tools of Lean Manufacturing, (3) transformation (improvement) of TOC tools and (4) proposals for new instruments that are used to apply the Theory of Constraints.

Wiesław Urban, Patrycja Rogowska

The Role of the Recycling Cooperatives in Reverse Logistics

The aim of this research is to verify the social and economic characteristics of the cooperatives through the Social Business Model Canvas and what are the benefits to the reverse logistics of the agreement between cooperatives and companies and associations of manufacturers. The qualitative approach will be used in this research, and the method to be employed is the multiple case study, where more than one object of study will be considered, with an exploratory and descriptive character. The objectives were achieved, the reverse logistics productive chain of a recycling cooperative can be mapped. The main social characteristics are to perform the correct waste disposal for large generators; cleaning, correct disposal, collection and sorting of garbage for the municipalities and income, work, education, rescue of citizenship and self-esteem for the members. The economic characteristics are that the cooperatives have agreements or partnerships with the prefectures that provide sheds, trucks for collections, water and light; the main source of revenue is the sale of recyclable material; providing services to large generators is another source of revenue and partnerships are important for cooperatives.

Marcelo T. Okano, Graziela Bizin Panza, Jaqueline Gomes, Eliane Antonio Simões

Reference Model of a Milk-Run Delivery Problem

Most of the research on milk-run traffic systems implicitly assumes that there exist solutions that guarantee congestion-free flow of concurrent transport processes in the given transport route structure. Similarly, in solving problems of system structure synthesis, researchers assume that it is possible to shape the structure of a vehicle fleet and/or the topology of transport routes in a way that will guarantee collision-free and timely service to and from the given goods-handling points. However, it is not always possible to meet these guarantees. This fact as well as the NP-hard nature of the above problems necessitate the development of a reference model of distribution systems – a model that will allow to analyze the relationships between the structure of a transport system and its potential behavior, and thus to formulate and solve analysis and synthesis problems corresponding, respectively, to the following questions: Does the given milk-run traffic system guarantee that deliveries are made in compliance with the given customer requirements? Does there exist a milk-run traffic system that guarantees deliveries which meet user expectations?

Grzegorz Bocewicz, Izabela Nielsen, Zbigniew Banaszak

Comparing Two Methodologies for Modeling and Simulation of Discrete-Event Based Automated Warehouses Systems

The goal of this paper is to compare the two simulation environments of FlexSim and GPenSIM, for manufacturing simulations. A discrete-event system in material handling is taken as a case study, and this system is modeled and simulated with FlexSim and GPenSIM. The motivation of this paper is to share the experiences from this simulation study. Firstly, this paper introduces the simulation tools the FlexSim and the GPenSIM. Secondly, a case study is presented that involves an elevator as a part of a shuttle-based storage and retrieval system in a modern manufacturing facility. Since the goal and scope of this paper is limited to comparing the two simulation environments, this paper uses simple elevator algorithms (the Standard Elevator Algorithm). The experience received from the experiment are analyzed under three categories such as easiness of using, the possibility for integration with other tools and techniques, and the suitability for manufacturing simulation. The experience received from the experiment show that FlexSim being a commercial software is far easier to use and offer a dedicated environment for manufacturing simulation. Whereas, GPenSIM provides a general platform for modeling any discrete-event systems, and provide easy integration with the other tools that are available on the MATLAB platform.

Damian Krenczyk, Reggie Davidrajuh, Bozena Skolud

The Impact of Manufacturing Accuracy of Selected Components on Contact Stress in the Eccentric Rolling Transmission

The aim of this paper was to investigate the impact of manufacturing accuracy of selected components of the eccentric rolling transmission on contact stress. The transmission consists of an input shaft, on which rolling bearings are eccentrically mounted, cooperating with the active surfaces of the cam wheels mounted on the output shaft. The correct cooperation of the pairs: rolling bearing – cam wheel is determined by a number of constructional and technological factors, especially the manufacturing accuracy of components such as eccentric bushes, and in particular the retain of the nominal value of the eccentric. FEM analysis of stresses on active surfaces of cam wheels were executed depending on deviations of the eccentric. Two sets of eccentric bushes were made according to two different technologies, using conventional and CNC machine tools. The input shaft units in which the bearings were mounted on previously made eccentric bushes were then scanned. The obtained results of the analysis allowed to determine the impact of technological errors on the value of contact stresses in the transmission.

Stanislaw Pabiszczak, Wojciech Ptaszynski, Roman Staniek

Performance Measurement of SMED Improved Plastic Injection Molding Production by Using Process Capability Analysis for Attribute Data

Almost all of the literature on scientific studies regarding the process capability analysis increasing product quality shows that the use of variable data. However, due to problems related to measurement in some production processes such as in manufacturing with plastic injection it is necessary to use the qualitative characteristics of quality. This study demonstrates scientifically the process capability analysis technique using measurement the performance of the process improvements made by SMED approach is not only for quality characteristics with variable features but also for the qualitative quality characteristics in the electronics industry. U-control charts will be used with process capability analysis method in this study in order to check whether the process is stable. Process capability analysis technique is implemented by using MINITAB14 software to investigate the performance measurement of SMED improved plastic injection molding production.

Mehmet Cakmakci, Neslihan Demirel-Ortabas

Micro-machining and Process Optimization of Electrochemical Discharge Machining (ECDM) Process by TOPSIS Method

Carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite is highly acceptable in aerospace, automotive and structural applications. However, the machining of CFRP composite by traditional processes is challenging task owing to its semi-conductive and fibrous nature. In the recent years, the electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) process has been recognized as novel method for micro-machining of conductive and non-conductive materials. In this study, an attempt has been made to micro-drilling of holes on carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite using ECDM process. The experiment were performed using L9 Taguchi’s orthogonal array with applied voltage, electrolyte concentration gap and inter-electrode gap as input process parameters, though material removal rate (MRR) and overcut as response characteristics. Additionally, multi-response process optimization is conducted by Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method.

Manpreet Singh, Sarbjit Singh

Designing an Experimental Research Using the Finite Element Analysis Method

In order to study the impact of cutting parameters on the cutting process, several research methods can be used. The first method generally used to understand the cutting process is the experiment from which clear and precise results are obtained. However, experiments can be very costly and time-consuming. The work piece material can be damaged, the processing centre can be busy and people have to spend a lot of time observing the process and recording the data. The objective of this paper is to design an experimental research using the finite element method. In this respect, an orthogonal cutting pattern will be established using this method. This involves determining the type, the method and technique of FEA application used, the material and the constitutive model of the material to be processed, and of course the selection of the cutting process parameters. Once these data are established and the theoretical models of the experiment are completed, the finite element simulation can be performed. The results obtained by the simulation will be analysed, and, in order to obtain the optimal solutions while at the same time increasing the accuracy of the obtained results, it will be necessary to perform the results validation with the experiment upon completion of the simulations.

Mihail Aurel Țîțu, Alina Bianca Pop

Simulation of Air Flow on the Bodywork Automobile with Direct and Side Load

This article is aimed at simulating aerodynamic properties on a specific example. More specifically, the comparison of the additional module at the first initial and the second test speeds. Subsequently direct and a rear stream of the air on the model of an automobile. The first part of the article describes the construction of an overall car model and features to improve aerodynamic properties. The second part describes a simulation of the air streaming on the finale model. This model points to the need to solve aerodynamic features. Not only on the direct stream of the air but also on the rear stream of the air. Usually, the right stream of the air is one of the factors influencing driving skills.

Dusan Sutak, Michal Hatala, Jozef Zajac, Svetlana Radchenko, Vitalii Ivanov, Zuzana Mitalova

Assessment of Machining Accuracy of a WaterJet Cutter by Test Workpiece Machining

This paper presents an attempt at an indirect assessment of accuracy and correction of machining errors of a WaterJet CNC machine tool, being a water jet cutter, by trial machining of a test workpiece. The trial machining was performed with different feed rates. It was attempted to reduce the values of the errors generated by the WaterJet cutter by adjusting the position gain factors of axis X and Y drives in iterative trial machining runs. The accuracy of the WaterJet cutter was assessed indirectly by measuring the rectilinearity of the test workpiece surfaces. The measurements were completed with a coordinate measuring machine (CMM).

Paweł Pieśko, Magdalena Zawada-Michałowska

Analysis and Control of High-Pressure Die-Casting Process Parameters with Use of Data Mining Tools

This paper presents methods of improving the quality of high-pressure die-casting (HPDC) of passenger car parts in one of the Polish foundries. The process of high-pressure die-casting has been characterized in the aspect of two control methods: engineering and statistical. Focus is put on practical application of statistical process control (SPC) results, including but not limited to control charts and their interpretation as a source of data for the Data Mining models. The end result is a set of mathematical models developed in the MATLAB environment, preceded by popular statistical analyses, such as the analysis of correlation between process parameters, normality tests, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA), which examines the impact of process parameter values on the final product quality. Computational intelligence models have been developed to predict the fraction of faulty products on the basis of out-of control conditions detected by the use of the SPC and control charts, for selected statistically relevant process parameters. The approach presented in this paper can be used as a tool supporting the decision-making processes and, in the future, as a tool for direct or automated process control.

Jacek Kozłowski, Michał Jakimiuk, Michał Rogalewicz, Robert Sika, Jakub Hajkowski

Comparison Study of Different Production Control Policies in Condition of Various Demand for Final Products

The article presents the results of research on the comparison of the variants of the production planning and control on the example of the production department (department 1), active in the production of polyurethane products. The article contains an analysis of literature, which focuses on the presentation of concepts and methods related to the planning and control of production, including the aspect of leveling production. The article presents the current state of the production planning and control in the analyzed production department. Three concepts of the planning and control system were presented and compared based on accepted criteria. The tests were carried out using a simulation experiment. Simulation results were presented and changes for the department were proposed.

Paulina Rewers, Krzysztof Żywicki, Jacek Diakun

Methodology of Manufacturing Process Analysis

Most manufacturing companies from the machine building industry are operating in a short-run and miscellaneous production which is very complex in terms of decision-making processes. In the face of fierce competition combined with changing customer expectations and requirements, enterprises strive to remain flexible. Decision making and efficient management of manufacturing processes based on facts and data are only possible with a thorough knowledge and understanding of the production system. The paper presents an original methodology of process mapping and provides a detailed description of its stages. The methodology provides guidance on the creation of a process map, identification of bottlenecks and key problems in a manufacturing system, and selection of an approach to continuous improvement of manufacturing processes. The methodology was applied in a manufacturing company operating in the packaging industry.

Marta Szczepaniak, Justyna Trojanowska

Production Scheduling and Capacity Utilization in Terms of Mass Customized Manufacturing

As well-known good planning is a prerequisite to scheduling. This paper outlines methodology framework to optimize schedules in order to employ earliest due date criterion that plays crucial role in mass customization environment. For this purpose, the new concept for production scheduling is described by using proprietary software. In the second part of the paper, the proposed methodology framework was applied and explained on the theoretical example. Enumeration and analysis of the selected production indicators are also provided in this part. The last section of the paper summarizes useful findings.

Vladimir Modrak, Zuzana Soltysova, Pavol Semanco, Pandian R. Sudhakara

Experimental Examination of Surface Roughness in Low-Environmental-Load Machining of External Cylindrical Workpieces

This paper deals with the experimental examination of surface roughness when machining cylindrical workpieces with low volume of coolants and lubricants. The volume of coolants and lubricants was reduced in order to decrease the environmental load caused by cutting fluid. Our aim was to obtain a function relation between cutting data (cutting speed, feed rate), parameters of applied coolants and lubricants (viscosity, applied flow rate), and 3D surface roughness parameters of machined cylindrical workpiece. The cylindrical surface is machined on a standing workpiece with a special fixture in which the single point cutting tool executes both the principal (rotating) and auxiliary (linear) motions as well. The material AISI 1045 steel and external boring was carried out with a tool having a carbide insert. The aim of the research is to determine empirical formulas between the technological parameters and the surface roughness parameters by full factorial experiment design. Based on examinations, the best parameter combination can be selected.

Gyula Varga, Bogdan Sovilj, Michal Jakubowicz, Matej Babič

Application of Strategy Manager Tools for Optimized NC Programming

The optimization has an important role in machining processes preparation of NC programs. The article deals with the possibilities of the automated creation of NC programs by using the NC strategies in CAD/CAM systems. The experiments deal with the comparison of NC strategies effectiveness applied to the components with different geometric features. The experimental components are divided into three groups. First group is represented by components with 2D features. On this components were verify the NC program’s accuracy that was created by usage of NC strategies. The second group of components contains complex 3D features. For the third group of components were designed complex shapes with several types of features. The motivation for this type of research is to increasing efficiency of the machining processes creation by automation tools in CAD/CAM systems. The present article deals with the possibilities of automation and optimization of NC programs in selected CAD/CAM system, Edgecam 2017 R2, as well as a brief analysis of the possibilities of automation of machining processes creation in CAD/CAM system Mastercam 2017 and PLM system Siemens.

Tomáš Dodok, Nadežda Čuboňová

Parametric Optimization of Fixtures for Multiaxis Machining of Parts

Fixtures play an important role in the production of high-quality and competitive products, especially in the context of multiproduct manufacturing, which requires fast reequipment in the transition to the machining of parts of the other type. The article deals with the problem of determining the optimal dimensions of the fixture functional elements for machining of the lever-type parts within a given size group. The purpose of the research is to increase the efficiency of machining by optimizing the design of a flexible fixture through the proper choice of parameters of the fixture elements. Fixture configurations were analyzed by means of the parametric optimization algorithm. The reserves for fixture optimization were revealed, and possible variants of the fixtures for the limiting size of the levers within the given size group were investigated. Based on the research of static structural, modal, and harmonic analyses of fixture configurations, optimal parameters of each element of the flexible fixture were found out. The optimal design of the fixture is proposed, which can provide multiaxis machining of all sizes of levers within a given size group with the required accuracy.

Vitalii Ivanov, Ivan Dehtiarov, Ivan Pavlenko, Oleksandr Liaposhchenko, Viliam Zaloga

Tools Implementation in Management of Continuous Improvement Processes

Technological development and pressure to meet customer requirements through high productivity and low costs forces companies to be extremely flexible and efficient. For this purpose, many organizations have been adopting continuous improvement strategy which promotes constant insertion of small incremental improvements and better results in regard of efficiency and quality. The aim of this paper is to show how a company has progressed its continuous improvement of management processes. This was successfully achieved through new tools developed to solve different problems in distinct dimensions regarding continuous improvement. The developed tools were database systems and it was possible to realise their positive impact in continuous improvement of management processes in the focused company were they were implemented, since they established access to consistent data and did enable to reduce redundant information spread across multiple files and software tools, and thus eliminating waste. Moreover, these new tools developed allowed to pass from traditional and manual recorded methods to computerized systems, making information more accessible and always updated. Thus connection between information systems and management of continuous improvement processes is essential for companies’ evolution and success.

Mariana Martins, Maria Leonilde Rocha Varela, Goran Putnik, José Machado, Vijaya Kumar Manupati

The Use of Simulation Games in Teaching Lean Manufacturing

The article presents the theoretical basis, in which the nature and benefits resulting from the use of simulation games for training purposes were characterized. Its main goal is to present the game created by the authors simulating the assembly process of the toy house construction. As a cooperative game, it engages all participants to actively search for losses and causes of their formation in the process, as well as to search for methods and techniques to eliminate waste. This game was created for educational purposes, as support for teaching classes. However, it can be used in the training of production workers in order to better understand the methods of looking for waste in the assembly process.

Agnieszka Terelak-Tymczyna, Agata Biniek, Monika Nowak

Improvement of the Educational Process by the Creation of Centers for Intellectual Development and Scientific and Technical Creativity

On the basis of the analysis of international experience, ways of solving problems concerning the design of the learning environment and the construction of variable models of subjects in the natural sciences and mathematical cycle with the use of functional modules of the computer-based learning system (CBLE) are proposed. Improvement of the education system in Ukraine is possible providing the revealing of the relationships and a pedagogically balanced combination of the traditional system of learning with the individual components of CBLE through the creation of centers for intellectual development and scientific and technical creativity. In order to improve variable educational programs in Ukraine, including programs for additional education of children and students, specific mechanisms within the framework of established centers of intellectual development and scientific and technical creativity “Clever” based on educational institutions are suggested to implement. The research proposes a methodological basis for CBLE with a thorough analysis of functional modules. The use of CBLE provides a concentration of learning resources; the diversity of learning trajectories and the results of the formation of the necessary competences; accessibility and equality of opportunities in learning for students; multifunctionality of the interaction of subjects in the educational process; the orientation of the content, forms and technologies of preparing students for the educational, scientific, research, and production integration in the educational process.

Olena Hrybiuk

Challenges of Calculations for the Contract Individual Production of Welded Structures

The aim of this article is to establish how different authors approach the calculations, what calculation models are available, and how these models take into consideration the specifics of the field in the individual production of welded structures. As an approach, we have used a review of the references in the WoS (“Web of Science” [1]) database, keywords from the period 1970–2018, and the case study method. We have established that the universal nature of the calculations for the contract individual production of welded structures can only be achieved on the economic calculation level. For every specific product and an actual production process, there are numerous perimeter conditions that prevent setting up a universal model. Industry-specific solutions that depend on the production type (individual, small series, mass production), the design of the actual production line, as well as the complexity and structural design of a product are all acceptable. We have established that in certain cases, the “intuitive method”, which requires little invested time compared to the analytical method, provides the same calculation accuracy. With a case study, the article shows the application of the intuitive and analytical approach to a calculation.

Viktor Ervin Troha, Tomaž Kern, Matjaž Roblek

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