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Über dieses Buch

This book gathers timely contributions on metrology and measurement systems, across different disciplines and field of applications. The chapters, which were presented at the 6th International Scientific-Technical Conference, MANUFACTURING 2019, held on May 19-21, 2019, in Poznan, Poland, cover cutting-edge topics in surface metrology, biology, chemistry, civil engineering, food science, material science, mechanical engineering, manufacturing, metrology, nanotechnology, physics, tribology, quality engineering, computer science, among others. By bringing together engineering and economic topics, the book is intended as an extensive, timely and practice-oriented reference guide for both researchers and practitioners. It is also expected to foster better communication and closer cooperation between universities and their business and industry partners.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Statistical Comparison of Original and Replicated Surfaces

Abstract
This article is focused on the statistical comparison of the original and replicated surface. Surface replication has been used for a long time, but recently a material with the commercial name Dentacryl™ has been used for the replication. However, this material has some disadvantages that outweigh the benefits. The article focuses on the use of Siloflex© dental impression material that is very sensitive to the detailed control. It also uses the non-contacting profile of Talysurf CLI 500, where initial parameters of the roughness (Ra, Rz, Rp, Rv and Rt) were recorded both on the original surface and on the replicated surface. These parameters are then compared using statistical methods such as K- means Clustering, PCA, and Factor Analysis.
Milena Kubišová, Vladimír Pata, Libuše Sýkorová, Mária Franková

Application of Acoustic Emission Signals Pattern Recognition for a Firearm Identification

Abstract
In the paper, important security issue of firearm identification is addressed. State of art on the acoustic pattern recognition is widely presented emphasizing that no research is reported being conducted on the firearm identification based on acoustic signal emitted during reloading. It was demonstrated that reloading sound pattern is dependent on manufacturing technologies, dimensions, materials and other features, and thus can serve as a recognizable signature of a firearm type. In particular, the firearms manufactured out of a metal piece with milling technologies, as well as molded guns expose higher stability of the main components, and their emitted acoustic signal is characterized by wider spectrum and smaller energy than that of the guns manufactured by stamping technology out of the flat sheet metal. The respective measurement system is presented and results of the measurements are discussed. This novel system is based on two microphones and parallel processing of two registered acoustic signals, which proved to be highly effective. The results confirmed the individual characteristics of the acoustic “signature” of different types of firearms and possibility to apply the registered reloading sound in the security recognition systems.
Leszek Chałko, Paweł Maciąg, Mirosław Rucki

Automated System for Workpiece Leveling on a Machine Tool

Abstract
The paper presents a concept, a mathematical model and a control algorithm of an automated system for workpiece leveling. In the proposed solution, a workpiece is placed on a set of electrically-powered variable-length supports. The location of each support is not known before the leveling. A current orientation of workpiece is measured by a precise biaxial inclinometer. The leveling is performed in three stages which involve subsequent extensions of supports and measuring the resulting orientation. This system allows determining the location of each support and the required displacements of each support that are necessary for leveling the workpiece. The system is controlled by an industrial PLC. A single power source and motion controller as well as a distributed demultiplexer, which activates each support, are used to reduce the cost. The supports were manufactured and tested for accuracy and repeatability according to ISO 230-2:2014. The proposed solution can be used for layout and for leveling workpieces on a machine tool table.
Marcin Pelic, Tomasz Bartkowiak, Andrzej Gessner

Technological Assurance of Machining Accuracy of Crankshaft

Abstract
The typical technological processes of manufacturing crankshafts are considered. The main directions for technological assurance of the accuracy and quality of machining these parts are given. For a compensation of an influence of cutting force on a quality and an accuracy of manufacturing crankshafts, the design of the following steady rest was proposed. The studies of a dependence of the total cutting force for grinding wheels with different grit from ultimate strength of the material, width of main journal and infeed speed were made. The design calculations of the spring were performed and the value of the pressing force developed by spring was obtained, which is capable to level the influence of the cutting force on the deformation processes during crankshaft machining. The elastic deformations which occur when grinding the crankshaft main journal with and without the proposed steady rest were estimated by simulation modeling with finite elements method. The values of pressing forces, which are necessary to compensate the influence of the total cutting force on the shape accuracy of shaft, were obtained.
Alexey Kotliar, Yevheniia Basova, Maryna Ivanova, Magomediemin Gasanov, Ivan Sazhniev

Nonparametric Assessment of Surface Shaping by Hybrid Manufacturing Technology

Abstract
Development of surface metrology tries to respond to the needs of the industrial environment and to keep up with increasingly sophisticated manufacturing methods and products. However, a multitude of surface texture parameters, as well as the research equipment available on the market, often complicates the estimation and comparison of surfaces, e.g. between different branches. The authors present a method of nonparametric assessment of milled and then burnished surfaces which is alternative instrument to parametric assessment of surface topography. This method gives directly answers, whether the treatment was conducted in line with expectations. This instrument can also be helpful in a very wide spectrum of technological cases, where the cloud of points is collected by stylus and optical systems. The measurements were conducted with an AltiSurf A520 multisensor instrument, manufactured by Altimet according to own developed methodology.
Sara Dudzińska, Daniel Grochała, Emilia Bachtiak-Radka, Stefan Berczyński

Analysis of the Geometry and Surface of the Knife Blade After Milling with a Various Strategies

Abstract
The main objective of the paper was the analysis of knife blades and knife bevels made by milling and grinding. The first part of the work focuses on the typical knife construction, materials used for knives, and parameters describing production quality. The research determined the influence of various milling methods on the machining time, surface roughness of the obtained surface, topography of the surface and thickness of the remaining machining allowance for further processing. The research has shown that the morph milling strategy allows obtaining the most accurate surface and the shape of the knife bevel. The proper programming of the tool path had an important influence on the final shape of the knives. A hand-ground knife requiring a lot of experience despite the longest execution time has the smallest surface roughness and allowance for further processing of the assumed value.
Jakub Czyżycki, Paweł Twardowski, Natalia Znojkiewicz

Uncertainty of Sine Input Calibration Apparatus for the Air Gauges

Abstract
In the paper, dynamic calibration of air gauges with small chambers is discussed. Proposed sine input test rig is described, and its uncertainty is evaluated. Three main sources of uncertainty are identified as a Mechanical Unit, Pneumatic Unit and Digital Unit. Type B uncertainty estimation is considered, and the most difficult to assess sources are pointed out. Namely, it is the fluctuation of the back-pressure due to the airflow inside the air gauge. Thus, it was proposed to estimate the Type A uncertainty through the repetitions of the time constant measurement. The results provided highly satisfactory level of expanded uncertainty ca. 0.001 s. This result is covering all factors of influence on the dynamic calibration result.
Michal Jakubowicz, Miroslaw Rucki, Matej Babic

Testing Geometric Precision and Surface Roughness of Titanium Alloy Thin-Walled Elements Processed with Milling

Abstract
Many branches of industry aim to minimize the weight of the structure. This can be achieved by selecting a low-density construction material or by making thin-walled structures. The specificity of the aerospace industry requires a combination of these two methods of manufacturing the structure. During machining of thin-walled components, there are a number of problems associated with the reduced rigidity. The main problems include issues with obtaining the required accuracy and assumed quality of the machined surface. One of the causes of these difficulties may include the occurrence of vibrations of thin-walled elements while machining. The paper presents the results of geometric accuracy and surface roughness after the milling process of thin-walled elements using various machining strategies. Titanium alloy Ti6Al4V samples were used for studies. The tests were carried out on a three-axis machining centre using four strategies for making walls with the same dimensions. Fixed cutting technological parameters included: cutting speed vc, feeding rate vf, milling width ae. The variation was based on the application of cutting depths specific for the axial strategies. A significant impact of the machining strategy was shown on the geometric accuracy and quality of the processed surface.
Józef Kuczmaszewski, Kazimierz Zaleski, Jakub Matuszak, Janusz Mądry

Influence of Cutting Conditions in the Topography of Texturized Surfaces on Aluminium 7075 Plates Produced by Robot Machining

Abstract
Current manufacturing processes attempt to improve productivity by reducing idle time in the system, without being detrimental to quality requirements. Robotic machining is increasingly being introduced because of the advantages compared to CNC machines, for instance better adaptability to use the same equipment to perform different products or the feasibility to machining higher dimensional parts. But nonetheless robots have less rigidity, which means a loss of accuracy in geometrical dimensions. The research carried out in this study is focused on the introduction of robots in the machining of surfaces to be joined by adhesives. The main objective is to study the surface quality by the analysis of geometrical dimensions of textures made in aluminium 7075 by robotic machining. The experiments consist on reproducing different texturing patterns by robotic machining, where machining parameters such as axial and radial depth of path and angle between paths have been considered as variable parameters. Results have been analysed by different dimensional metrology devices, such as a Nikon SMZ800 microscope, a Trimek Coordinate Measuring Machine and an Alicona 3D interferometer with variable focal length.
Alejandro Pereira, M. T. Prado, M. Fenollera, Michał Wieczorowski, Bartosz Gapiński, Thomas Mathia

The Effect of Dimple Distortions on Surface Topography Analysis

Abstract
In this paper the influence of improper selection of reference plane on dimples distortions was taken into consideration. The effect of application of various procedures (cylinder fitting algorithm; polynomial approximation; digital filtering: regular Gaussian regression filter, Robust Gaussian regression filter) were compared and discussed. Plateau-honed cylinder liner surfaces were studied (more than 20 measured and/or 20 with digitally added dimples surfaces were studied). They were measured by stylus instrument Talyscan 150 or white light interferometer Talysurf CCI Lite. The influence of usage of commonly applied algorithms on surface topography parameters (from ISO 25178 standard) was also taken into account. It was assumed that dimples distortion is of a great importance for calculation of surface topography parameters (especially of Sk parameters) of plateau-honed cylinder liners with additionally added oil pockets created by burnishing techniques. False estimation of areal form removal procedure can cause of classification of properly made parts as a lack and its rejection. The dimples size (width DW and depth DD) was also taken into consideration for proposal of selection of areal form removal procedure.
Przemysław Podulka

Errors of Surface Topography Parameter Calculation in Grinded or Turned Details Analysis

Abstract
In this paper the influence of errors of pre-processing methods on surface topography parameter calculation was taken into consideration. Two types of surfaces were analysed: grinded and/or turned details. Various procedures for separation of form and/or waviness were proposed: polynomials, regular Gaussian filters and splines. More than 20 surfaces, measured by stylus instrument Talyscan 150, were taken into account. The effect of errors of surface topography parameter calculation (from ISO 25178 standard) was taken into consideration. It was assumed that application of commonly used algorithms of polynomial fittings did not always provided a reasonable results; in some cases digital filtering (e.g., Gaussian regression filter) was required. It was also suggested to extract some irregularities with spline pre-processing appliances.
Przemysław Podulka

The Effect of a Stylus Tip on Roundness Deviation with Different Roughness

Abstract
This article deals with the measurement of roundness deviations with examined samples of different roughnesses. The intent of this research is to determine a proper method for measuring different roughnesses. The experiment was measured on coordinate measuring machine WENZEL LH65 X3M Premium and using the software Metrosoft QUARTIZ R6 located in a laboratory of the Technical University of Ostrava. The final measured values of roundness deviation using a filter were lower than the values measured without a filter. The MZC method showed slightly lower circularity deviations than the LSC method. When using the LSC and MZC method of scanning with a filter, it was found that when using a ball with a diameter ø 2 mm, the deviation is smaller than when using a ball diameter ø 5 mm. Research has shown the dependence of roughness along with the size of the ball on the deviation of circularity.
Jan Zelinka, Lenka Čepová, Bartosz Gapiński, Robert Čep, Ondřej Mizera, Radek Hrubý

The Problems of Measuring Selected Geometric Deviations on a CMM After Machining

Abstract
The article is concerned with the measuring of the chosen geometrical deviations as follows: flatness, parallelism, cohesiveness and perpendicular. All the surfaces of the samples are milled in two milling centers which are DMG Mori NLX 2500 with C axis & DMG Mori NLX 2500 with a Y axis. After their creation, the samples were measured on the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) ZEISS Prismo 7. The end of this article contains an evaluation of the impact of the method of milling on geometrical deviations while measuring on a 3D CMM.
Ondřej Mizera, Lenka Čepová, Marek Sadílek, Robert Čep, Radek Hrubý, Jan Zelinka

Optimal Prioritization of the Model of Distribution of Measurement Points on a Free-Form Surface in Effective Use of CMMs

Abstract
Investigation of the optimal model of the distribution of measurement points (DoMPs) on a free-form surface (FFS) for performing coordinate measurements is vital for the effective use of coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). The selection of the optimal model is currently being made in an ad hoc manner. The selection criteria of the best distribution of measurement points in general may depend on the possibility of estimating the curvature on an FFS, the time taken for measurements, the deviations of the substitute geometry from the nominal free-form surface and the deviations calculated based on the probe radius correction process. This manuscript demonstrates the use of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to deal with the multi-criteria nature in the selection of the optimal model of the distribution of measurement points. It also demonstrates how to prioritize the measurement points’ distribution models based on the selection criteria.
Marek Magdziak, R. M. Chandima Ratnayake

The Geometric Surface Structure of X5CrNiCuNb16-4 Stainless Steel in Wet and Dry Finish Turning Conditions

Abstract
The paper presents the research results on forming the texture of the X5CrNiCuNb16-4 stainless steel surface when finish turning. Surface texture parameters were measured using the Sensofar S Neox optical profilometer. The tests were carried out in wet and dry conditions for varying cutting speeds and feeds with the constant depth of cut. The Parameter Space Investigation (PSI) method was used for planning the research, as this allows the research to be realized with a minimum number of experimental points. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistica 13 software. It was found that the feed influences greatly the values of surface roughness parameters, while the cutting speed affects insignificantly. For both cooling conditions, a reduction in the feed rate reduced surface roughness parameters. Lower values for surface roughness parameters were obtained when cutting with cooling in comparison with dry cutting.
Kamil Leksycki, Eugene Feldshtein

Analysis of the Application of Gypsum Moulds for Casting Strength Samples of Aluminium Alloys

Abstract
The paper presents tooling for simultaneous casting of a set of strength samples made of aluminium alloy in gypsum moulds. Using the NovaFlow&Solid simulation program, the filling and solidification process of variants used for casting strength-testing samples made with the traditional investment casting method and the casting concepts proposed by the author were analyzed. Simulations and experimental tests were performed on proportional and disproportional samples designed in accordance with the PN-EN ISO 6892-1 standard. Application of the disproportional casting samples set, proposed by the author, has been confirmed by measuring the microstructure of selected samples expressed by the distance between the Dendrite Arms Spacing (DAS).
Lukasz Bernat

A Study of Raters’ Agreement in Quality Inspection with the Participation of Hearing Disabled Employees – Continuation

Abstract
This paper looks at the results of a repeated study of the level of agreement between raters in a sensory quality inspection, with the participation of hearing-impaired individuals. The study was conducted in a manufacturing company supplying to the automotive sector. Hearing-impaired employees perform quality inspection which includes visual inspection of products. The level of agreement between raters, including hearing-impaired ones, was assessed using the MSA procedure for non-measurable characteristics, but with the application of Gwet’s AC1 coefficient. The study outcomes show that hearing-impaired employees perform at a quality level at least equal to that achieved by able-bodied employees. The results are valid for both a study conducted in a laboratory environment and one conducted at the manufacturing site.
Beata Starzyńska, Karolina Szajkowska, Magdalena Diering

Electronic Nonconformities Guide as a Tool to Support Visual Inspection

Abstract
The article presents an electronic guide to the nonconformity of parts produced in an enterprise in the automotive industry. In visual inspection, it is very important to be familiar with errors that can potentially be detected at a given control position and clearly define the control criteria. In the automotive industry, in which products must conform to very high requirements, not only in terms of safety of use, but also appearance, repeatability and reproducibility of this product feature is extremely important. What appears to be helpful then is nonconformities catalogues, which contain pictures of possible defects and their descriptions. The innovatory approach of the guide consists in taking into account the needs of deaf and hearing-impaired people working in the quality control department and using Orbitvu 3D to take pictures of nonconformities.
Agnieszka Kujawińska, Michał Rogalewicz, Karolina Szajkowska, Wiktor Piotrowski, Wojciech Parczewski

Use of White Light and Laser 3D Scanners for Measurement of Mesoscale Surface Asperities

Abstract
Depending on the purpose of a manufactured part, quality assessment is performed within macro-, micro-, or mesoscale. The first two apply strictly to geometry and surface texture (topography or profile) measurements, respectively. The latter however, applies for measurements of features that do not belong strictly to either of the two scales mentioned above, and its boundaries are ambiguous in their nature, often overlapping the two basic scales. In this paper the authors have undertaken the assessment of the possibility to use macro-scale dedicated scanners for surface asperities measurement – features usually considered as micro-scale. The choice of the measurement systems was inspired by the limitations of previously used roughness measurement systems, which lacked a sufficient vertical range. At the same time, due to high roughness values, large areas have to be measured, which would take significant amount of time, when performing traditional roughness measurement. Several scanners were evaluated: white and blue structural light, laser, and laser with tracking device. The collected data were compared to the results obtained from a specialized Coherent Scanning Interferometer (CSI). The final results have undergone a two-level assessment: qualitative, which compared the quality of whole surfaces; quantitative, using surface texture parameters. The results allow to state that 3D scanners can be used in some cases for surface asperities assessment, however most promising values were obtained, when using devices with higher resolution.
Bartosz Gapiński, Michał Wieczorowski, Lidia Marciniak-Podsadna, Natalia Swojak, Michał Mendak, Dawid Kucharski, Maciej Szelewski, Aleksandra Krawczyk

Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Measurement System in the Production of Surgical Instruments

Abstract
The aim of the work undertaken in an enterprise producing surgical instruments, including needle holders and surgical scissors, was to improve the principles and methods of measurement for the critical features of selected tools. The quality control process for the production of surgical instruments was studied, statistical analysis of control and measurement systems for this process was performed and, on the basis of the %GRR value, their suitability for the measurement tasks was assessed. The conducted study shows how much influence the human factor as well as the organizational conditions and environment have on the result of the evaluation of the usefulness of the measurement system.
Magdalena Diering, Agnieszka Kujawińska, Anna Olejnik

NDT Porosity Evaluation of AlSi10Mg Samples Fabricated by Selective Laser Sintering Method

Abstract
The orientation of the sample during selective laser sintering (SLS) process is one of the factors that affect quality of the final product made from the AlSi10Mg powder. Most of the properties of AlSi10Mg bulk fabricated by SLS are strongly related to porosity, therefore one of the stages of quality inspection should enable for quick and precise analysis of the porosity without destruction the manufactured part. The paper shows that an effective tool in this area is computed microtomography. The presented methodology enabled not only the detection and visualization of pores in the whole volume of the samples, but, above all, allows for a full quantitative analysis, which included description of such features as: number, volume, shape and arrangement of the pores.
Joanna Maszybrocka, Bartosz Gapiński, Andrzej Stwora, Grzegorz Skrabalak

Evaluation of the Longitudinal Roughness of the Thin-Walled Cooler for the Robot Control System Made Using CAM Programming

Abstract
The article deals by design, programming production, measuring and evaluation of the longitudinal roughness of the contact surface of the thin-walled cooler for the robot control system. The dimensional design was made on the basis of the output of the power supply. A software model Autodesk Inventor 2019 was used to model the 3D model of the heat sink and generate the NC code for the program needed for its production. The milling and drilling was done on a Pinacacle 2100 Vertical CNC Machining Center with Fanuc Control System. The surface roughness was measured using a Mitutoyo SJ 400 whereby was measured with a maximum value of Ra = 0,69 µm and Rz = 4,1 µm.
Peter Tirpak, Peter Michalik, Jozef Zajac, Vieroslav Molnar, Dusan Knezo, Michal Petruš

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