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Über dieses Buch

This book draws together the most interesting recent results to emerge in mechanical engineering in Russia, providing a fascinating overview of the state of the art in the field in that country which will be of interest to a wide readership. A broad range of topics and issues in modern engineering are discussed, including dynamics of machines, materials engineering, structural strength and tribological behavior, transport technologies, machinery quality and innovations. The book comprises selected papers presented at the conference "Modern Engineering: Science and Education", held at the Saint Petersburg State Polytechnic University in 2013 with the support of the Russian Engineering Union. The authors are experts in various fields of engineering, and all of the papers have been carefully reviewed. The book will be of interest to mechanical engineers, lecturers in engineering disciplines and engineering graduates.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Rotary Forging of Hollow Components with Flanges

Abstract
This paper is about development and testing of cold rotary forging technology for manufacturing of hollow shaft flanges. Rotary forging mills with rotated die and conical roll were used for forming. Pre-machined blanks were made from pieces of welded or extruded pipes from carbon steel with 0.2 % of carbon. Design of tool-sets, sketches of blank and forged parts are presented.
Leonid B. Aksenov, Sergey N. Kunkin

Chapter 2. On the Research Technique of Mesogene Lubrication Layer Optical Properties

Abstract
The principles of polarizational tribometry and its instrument realization are described. Models of thin lubricating layer rheology are proposed and the possibilities of recording for an object’s optical anisotropy in these models are compared.
Elena V. Berezina, Alexej V. Volkov, Vladimir A. Godlevskiy, Anton G. Zheleznov, Dmitry S. Fomichev

Chapter 3. Auto-Ignition Problem Titanium of Oxygen and Possible Ways of Solving

Abstract
We note the negative feature of titanium alloys’ spontaneous combustion in an oxygen environment, which prevents their widespread use in autoclave equipment operating with oxygen. We discuss the basic tenets of the theory of metals in fire destruction with an explanation of the anomalous ability of titanium to spontaneous combustion in oxygen. We concluded that the exclusion of self-ignition of titanium alloys in oxygen environment autoclaves can be achieved by developing technical measures to prevent the heating of the potential sites of friction titanium structures to auto-ignition temperature T * alloys at these partial pressures of gaseous reactants.
V. I. Bolobov

Chapter 4. Control of Biped Walking Robot Using Equations of the Inverted Pendulum

Abstract
This paper presents a control method for a 3-D biped robot walking in different modes: walking in the up or down direction, walking up stairs or down stairs, and rotation. The control strategy is developed on a simplified model of the robot and then verified on a more realistic model (Pott A, Kecskeméthy A, Hiller M (2007) Mech Mach Theory 11:1445–1461). This paper includes the results of the numerical solutions, showing stepping on and off a 0.1 m high platform, walking in the down direction (surface slope angle is 0.02 rad), and rotation on the second step by a 0.3 rad angle.
Valeriy Tereshin, Anastasiya Borina

Chapter 5. An Efficient Model for the Orthogonal Packing Problem

Abstract
The orthogonal packing problem is considered in the article. A new model for management of free spaces of containers is presented. The efficiency of the proposed model of potential containers is demonstrated on the three-dimensional orthogonal bin packing problem.
Vladislav A. Chekanin, Alexander V. Chekanin

Chapter 6. Designing a Power Converter with an Adaptive Control System for Ultrasonic Processing Units

Abstract
We describe the features of circuit design construction and design of power converters included in ultrasonic process plants. We discuss the results of simulation of an equivalent circuit of the power converter. We then develop information flow diagrams of adaptive control system of the power converter.
Vladimir I. Diagilev, Valery A. Kokovin, Saygid U. Uvaysov

Chapter 7. Features of Multicomponent Saturation Alloyed by Steels

Abstract
In this work we consider the mechanism of formation and structure of multicomponent diffusive boride coverings on steels.
Sergey G. Ivanov, Irina A. Garmaeva, Michael A. Guriev, Alexey M. Guriev, Michael D. Starostenkov

Chapter 8. New Modelling and Calculation Methods for Vibrating Screens and Separators

Abstract
This work reveals the authors’ experience in developing a fast-acting computational modelling algorithm and calculation of devices for vibrational size classification of ores, solid waste and other bulk materials. It is shown that adaptation of several analytical models to computing allows creating a new, less resource-intensive approach, as compared to widespread multi-functional computational methods (including DEM). This algorithm, based on problem-oriented models, requires neither preliminary calibration nor adjustment, which additionally reduces its deployment time and application costs. Moreover, the algorithm enables parcel-wise improvements, as illustrated by introduction of an advanced openings-passing model and a layer-based vibrational separation sub-model.
Kirill S. Ivanov, Leonid A. Vaisberg

Chapter 9. Remote Monitoring Systems for Quality Management Metal Pouring

Abstract
In this chapter we reveal the most influential quality on processes of production of details of car production at the technological stage to be molding of cast iron in forms, A scheme of remote monitoring of provision of a filling ladle is developed for ensuring quality of filling of metal during production of metal products. The device of remote control of positioning of a ladle with the melted metal is developed. The method of decomposition of linear optical spectral characteristics of objects offers a harmonious row. The characteristics of reflection of objects of the spectrophotometer created by the Swiss firm X-Rite are investigated. Comparison of experimental data and results of submission of characteristics by Fourier’s ranks and linearity allows a harmonious row to be executed. An increase of accuracy of decomposition in comparison with Fourier’s number is proved. For metrological levels of errors the required number of members of a number of decompositions is defined.
Vladimir F. Minakov, Tatyana E. Minakova

Chapter 10. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Leaks

Abstract
Our research is devoted to the study of the possibility of determining the parameters of leaks in the pipelines of ITER by the acoustic emission method. Research results are presented for leaks in pipelines, length from 900 mm to 150 m. Flow was carried out with steam and water through fatigue cracks in size from 5 to 39 mm in the pipelines. We investigated regularities of changes of the amplitude, temporal and spectral parameters of acoustic emission signals. The loss through flow and the distance from the source of leaks to the AE sensors were changed. Methodology was developed, which allows us to determine the coordinates and parameters of leakage through information on the AE signals.
Evgeny Nefedyev

Chapter 11. Dynamic Model of the Two-Mass Active Vibroprotective System

Abstract
While noise and vibration reduction requirements for modern power installations have become tougher and tougher, possibilities of passive vibration insulation are almost settled. Thus active vibroprotective systems (AVPS) have become crucial. In this paper we investigate the dynamics of two-stage AVPS and define the areas of efficiency and stability.
Mikhail J. Platovskikh

Chapter 12. Structural and Phase Transformation in Material of Blades of Steam Turbines from Titanium Alloy After Technological Treatment

Abstract
By using optical metallography, electron microscopy, ray analysis and microspectral analysis, we devised a systematic research method to explore structural and phase transformation in blades material of steam turbines from a titanium alloy VT6 after technological treatments on different modes.
Margarita A. Skotnikova, Galina V. Tsvetkova, Aleksandra A. Lanina, Nikolay A. Krylov, Galina V. Ivanova

Chapter 13. Conflicts in Product Development and Machining Time Estimation at Early Design Stages

Abstract
The paper considers the problem of efficiency and quality enhancement in computer-aided product development and manufacturing based on professional conflicts prevention between experts in different domains using a design model concept. The model enables manufacturability and logistical risk evaluation at the design stage and also ensures the decision’s validity. A machining time evaluation model is also proposed.
Dmitry I. Troitsky

Chapter 14. Vibrations Excitation in Cyclic Mechanisms Due to Energy Generated in Nonstationary Constraints

Abstract
The exchange of vibrational energy between an external source and subsystems of the cyclic mechanism schematized as a dynamic model with slowly varying parameters is studied. The conditions are obtained whose violation yields the formation of regions where the energy of vibrations appears in the time interval of the kinematic cycle, even in the absence of external perturbations. It was shown that this effect occurs due to the operation of the external source upon implementation of nonstationarity of dynamic constraints and the dynamic instability of the system on a finite time interval. The dynamic effects and key conclusions are illustrated by results of computer simulation. Engineering recommendations for decreasing the vibrational activity of cyclic mechanisms are presented.
Iosif I. Vulfson

Chapter 15. Dynamics, Critical Speeds and Balancing of Thermoelastic Rotors

Abstract
Linear dynamics of a thermoelastic rotor in a rotating reference system is considered. Inertia forces change rigidity in essence. Critical regimes emerge and can be recovered by balancing adjustment. Continual and discrete mathematical models are presented.
Vladimir V. Yeliseyev

Chapter 16. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Fatigue of Titanium Alloys

Abstract
In this work the questions are connected with research into the influence of small plastic deformations on fatigue of titanium alloys. We determined that there is a reduction of fatigue of titanium alloys after plastic deformation from 0.1 to 1 % depending on material structure and the strain resistance.
Vladimir A. Zhukov
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