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2023 | Buch

Advances in Mechanics of Materials for Environmental and Civil Engineering

herausgegeben von: Francesco dell’Isola, Emilio Barchiesi, Francisco James León Trujillo

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Buchreihe : Advanced Structured Materials


Über dieses Buch

This book deals with both mathematical modeling and experimental studies related to systems relevant for various civil engineering fields. The book explores the intriguing effects of phenomena occurring at lower length scales on the behavior at higher scales, as the influence of polypropylene macro-fiber thickness in fiber-reinforced concrete mechanical strengths. Generally speaking, the book addresses several key topics, including artificial intelligence applied to the control and monitoring of construction site personnel, finite element models for endplate beam-to-column connections under various load conditions, random functionally graded micropolar beams, and many others. The book explores the design and study of microstructures aimed at increasing the toughness and durability of novel materials in building and construction, based also on the re-utilization of residues and wastes of metallurgical industry produces. In conclusion, the book highlights innovative approaches to various fields of civil engineering, including microstructures for enhanced mechanical properties, offering insights into design strategies.


Chapter 1. Experimental Research on the Influence of Polypropylene Macrofiber Thickness in Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Mechanical Strengths
Herein, the effects of polypropylene fiber thickness on the compressive strength, split tensile strength, and flexural strength or modulus of rupture of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete (PPFRC) were investigated. In consequence, knurled straight polypropylene fibers with three different thicknesses of 0.75, 0.90, and 1.05 mm and a constant length of 50 mm were used in conjunction with three fiber weight dosages of 4.00, 5.00, and 6.00 kg/m3 and four water-cement ratios of 0.40, 0.45, 0.50 and 0.55. In total, forty different concrete mixes were prepared with four control samples. The mechanical behavior of PPFRC as a function of polypropylene fiber thickness was determined in conjunction with its fresh-state properties. The results showed a strong indirect proportional correlation between fiber thickness and compressive strength of PPFRC for mixtures with water-cement ratios of 0.45 and 0.50. On the other hand, there is no statistically significant correlation between the split tensile strength and the modulus of rupture with fiber thickness.
Alexandre Almeida Del Savio, Darwin La Torre, Bruno Gamboa, Jennifer Zuñiga
Chapter 2. Artificial Intelligence Applied to the Control and Monitoring of Construction Site Personnel
Many countries are working towards gradually lifting restrictions generated by the COVID-19 virus as post-quarantine measures. The construction industry has had to adapt to new forms of work with economic and physical restrictions. For physical restrictions, the most worrying one is the risk of contagion, as many studies have indicated that social distancing is one of the most effective biosecurity measures. In this research, a training process was executed on a neural network to ensure an adequate social distance policy in a construction environment to identify people inside construction sites. More specific training was carried out to identify people performing activities in a position other than being completely upright, as is usually the case with construction workers. The “You Only Look Once” (YOLO) version 4 algorithm was used to train 2 classes of objects, an upright person and a crouched person. More than one thousand images of a construction site were used as a data set, achieving an accuracy of 77.98%. This research presents the results and recommendations to detect the people and calculate the distance between them. Based on the distance calculation, an alert report can be generated for the work areas for the health and safety team to take preventive actions.
Alexandre Almeida Del Savio, Ana Luna Torres, Daniel Cárdenas-Salas, Mónica Alejandra Vergara Olivera, Gianella Tania Urday Ibarra
Chapter 3. Finite Element Model for End-Plate Beam-to-Column Connections Under Bending and Axial Forces
The assessment of steel beam-to-column connections is a fundamental piece in the design process of steel structures according to the guidelines established by standards such as Eurocode 3—Part 1.8 and ANSI/AISC 358-16. In addition, the finite element analysis is an alternative path to determine the behavior of steel beam-to-column connections in contrast to the analytical methods. Furthermore, the axial force in a semi-rigid steel structure connection is usually negligible compared to a bending force. However, there are some scenarios where the influence of axial forces cannot be ignored due to their elevated value. Therefore, a finite element model for end-plate beam-to-column connections is proposed considering the actions of bending and axial forces. The numerical simulation results were validated with experimental data, and an approximate representation of the physical phenomena was obtained.
Israel Díaz-Velazco, Alexandre Almeida Del Savio
Chapter 4. Use of Residues from the Metallurgical Industry in Construction
The metallurgical industry produces a large amount of residues and wastes that can be successfully applied in building and construction. Key sectors, like iron and steel, aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, silicon and ferrosilicon, were analyzed, the residues identified, and potential applications described. The most important residue is metallurgical slag, which finds applications in cement making, admixture to mortar and concrete mixes, aggregate in concrete and asphalt and others. Bulky residues from aluminium and zinc hydrometallurgical processes, which take up a lot of land space to dispose, are more difficult to use, but several applications were also found.
George Power
Chapter 5. On the Random Axially Functionally Graded Micropolar Timoshenko-Ehrenfest Beams
This work aims to propose a simplified method for the random analysis of axially functionally graded micropolar Timoshenko-Ehrenfest beams (ATBs). First, new approximated closed form solutions in terms of displacements are derived. Secondly, the probability density functions (pdfs) of the displacements are obtained starting from the pdfs of the constitutive parameters, and vice-versa. The probability transformation method (PTM) and the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation are both applied. The choice of studying random axially functionally graded micropolar beams lies into many reasons: the growing importance of the functionally graded (FG) materials within the scientific panorama; the generic nature of the mathematical model, which proves useful to study beams where the assumption of constant and deterministic stiffnesses along the axis does not hold anymore; the recent application of micropolar continua in the analyses of nano- and micro-electromechanical systems (NEMS and MEMS).
Gabriele La Valle, Giovanni Falsone
Chapter 6. Influence of Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction on Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Buildings
It is well known that Peru is located in one of the most active seismic zones in the world and seismic design is a primary concern. Building constructions has increased in Peru during the last few years, especially on the north coast where loose soil deposits predominate. Soil conditions have increased the need of pile foundations. However, the soil-pile-structure interaction is usually not considered in design of superstructures. The soil-foundation system beneath the superstructure influences the seismic performance of buildings. The soil-pile-structure interaction is influenced by the highly non-linear behaviour of the soil, where the interface pile-soil seems to play an important role in design. This study focusses on the influence of soil-pile-structure interaction on seismic response of buildings. A dynamic finite element model of a typical building founded on sandy soil is used to investigate the ground response and earthquake behaviour of a reinforced concrete building based on frames and plates. The results are presented in terms of the most important design parameters such as the lateral displacement of the piles, shear stress, bending moments, structural inter-storey drifts and storey lateral displacements. Effect on ground response in term of spectral acceleration and changes in natural period are also discussed.
Ricardo Madrid, David Zegarra, Pablo Perez, Miguel Roncal
Advances in Mechanics of Materials for Environmental and Civil Engineering
herausgegeben von
Francesco dell’Isola
Emilio Barchiesi
Francisco James León Trujillo
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN


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