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This book reports on the state of the art in physical ergonomics and is concerned with the design of products, process, services, and work systems to assure their productive, safe, and satisfying use by people. With focus on the human body's responses to physical and physiological work demands, repetitive strain injuries from repetition, vibration, force, and posture are the most common types of issues examined, along with their design implications. The book explores a wide range of topics in physical ergonomics, which includes the consequences of repetitive motion, materials handling, workplace safety, and usability in the use of portable devices, design, working postures, and the work environment. Mastering physical ergonomics and safety engineering concepts is fundamental to the creation of products and systems that people are able to use, as well as the avoidance of stresses and minimization of the risk of accidents. Based on the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Physical Ergonomics & Human Factors, held on July 27-31, 2016 in Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA, the book provides readers with a comprehensive view of the current challenges in Physical Ergonomics, which are a critical aspect in the design of any human-centered technological system, and factors influencing human performance.



Erratum to: HTA-Based Tracking of Pilot Actions in the Cockpit

Sebastien Mamessier, Karen M. Feigh

Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders


Physical Load Among Construction Workers and Analysis with Objective Ergonomics Research Method

There is growing number of work related musculoskeletal disorders among workers in construction industry. Employees in construction professions admit physical load and discomfort in various body parts after the work. Accordingly to Eurostat statistical data 60 % of total work related diseases are attributed to musculoskeletal disorders in Latvia. The aim of this study was to determine physical load of construction auxiliary workers and bricklayers using objective ergonomics research method HR monitoring and subjective ergonomic risk assessment methods. The research involved full time 8 auxiliary construction workers and 7 bricklayers. Analysis of the heart rate monitoring data proved that objective physical load analysis method is more precise than subjective workload evaluation methods. Results showed that construction workers workload falls into hard and moderate work heaviness category. More experienced workers with longer length of service were subjected to lower work heaviness category.

Zenija Roja, Henrijs Kalkis, Ingars Reinholds, Inara Roja

An Ergonomics Research for Developing Senior Citizens’ Mobile Devices Gesture Display

The advanced countries in Europe, US, and Japan start to focus on the design problems of aging society from the point of social welfare because of the global trend towards the aging society. However, there are a variety of mobile devices on smart phones and tablets showing the flashy and high-tech effect to attract the users’ attention but it is confusing to the elderly for searching and judging important information. An industrial designer should know the elderly requirements, follow the principles of the universal design, be able to design suitable gestures for the interface operation of the mobile devices, and promote the value of products. This research applies the concept of ergonomic methods in building ergonomic decision evaluation system, modeling development and demonstrating the developed designs to help improve the gesture of interface operation on the mobile devices for the elderly people.

Shou Fang Liu, Ming Hong Wang, Ming Chyuan Lin, Tsung Sheng Huang

Application of Hidden Markov Model in Human Motion Recognition by Using Motion Capture Data

The present study outlines an approach that describes how the statistical pattern recognition tool as Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is used to segment, extract features from different types of human common locomotion data, classify them and make a reliable probabilistic recognition. We have utilized six type of motion (climb, forward jump, jump, run, sit and walk), and each of them was composed of eight AMC data format specifically chosen from the CMU online library. The captured data were transformed from three dimensional (3D) joints trajectories into Matlab analyzable 2-Dimensional matrix using the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) features factorization algorithm and then trained using the Baum-Welch algorithm, which has performed a classification of each motion’s extracted features for computational evaluation. The maximum iterations tolerance according to the number of motion was around 0.001 for highly accurate probability. In spite of the noisiness of the hand and toe trajectories, the recognition level was pretty higher than expected. Although, this investigation doesn’t take in account the different motion’s trajectories speed. The overall model has shown the probabilistic efficiency of HMM when it is about segmenting and evaluating vectorized motion’s features. The proposed study is suitable to any human common locomotion capture in AMC format and can be a great tool for further modeling in motion prediction.

Joëlle Zita BolaBola, Yao Wang, Shuang Wu, Hua Qin, Jianwei Niu

Estimating the EMG Response Exclusively to Fatigue During Sustained Static Maximum Voluntary Contraction

The increase of surface electromyography (sEMG) root-mean-square (RMS) is very frequently used to determine fatigue. However, as RMS is also influenced by muscle force, its effective usage as indicator of fatigue is mainly limited to isometric, constant force tasks. This research develops a simple method to preclude the effect of muscle force, hereby estimates the EMG amplitude response exclusively to fatigue with RMS. Experiment was carried out on the biceps brachiis of 15 subjects (7males, 8 females) during sustained static maximum voluntary contractions (sMVC). Result shows that the sEMG RMS response to fatigue increases to 21.27 % while muscle force decreasing to 50 % MVC, which implies that more and more extra effort is needed as muscle fatigue intensifies. It would be promising to use the RMS response exclusively to fatigue as an indicator of muscle fatigue.

Jing Chang, Damien Chablat, Fouad Bennis, Liang Ma

The Metabolic Rate of Male Adults in Different Garments Under Different Upper Limb Workloads

While we are working or living in severe environment, the internal pressure changes of functional garments, the resistance from clothing and the thermal insulation for individual will lead obviously changes of our workload, heart rate and metabolic rate. Working in extreme circumstances and dressing pressure garments make workload increased significantly which limit people’s ability to accomplish the tasks and reducing the efficiency of activity. This paper mainly report the study on relationship between different upper limb workloads and metabolic rate when subjects were dressing, undressed or with pressures. Specially, we focus on the relationship between heart rate and metabolic rate in clothes. The main conclusions of this paper is: Wearing different garments the correspondence between heart rate and metabolic rate are far from the same. And Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG) is the most effective garment for human metabolism among the clothes in this research. The pressures inside clothes increased workload, as well as the metabolic rate.

Wanxin Zhang, Hao Du, Tao Wang, Jinlin Li, Li Ding

Study on Quantitative Evaluation Method of Cooperative Task Operation Process on the Ship

Personnel establishment and task type are complex on the ship. In order to guarantee the efficient accomplishment of cooperative task, optimal man-machine function allocation on the premise of limited space and time is in need, which can be used to evaluate the rationality of cooperative task. In this article, typical missions are selected to be evaluated. Three methods are used to assess the task from different aspects. Human cognitive reliability(HCR) model, entropy method and Cooper-Harper method evaluate completion rate, rationality of man-machine function allocation and difficult degree respectively. Human operation error rate based on HCR model accords well with real error rate and there is no significant different between them (p < 0.05); The score of work strength and complexity by the entropy method indicate the task complexity. The higher the score is, the longer the finish time becomes. The score by the Cooper-Harper method imply the operation difficulty. The higher the score is, the longer the completion time becomes. Three methods used in this article are practical and effective. The results of these methods correspond well to the real performance. Therefore, they are applicable to serve as quantitative evaluation method of cooperative task on the ship.

Yumei Zhang, Wenbo Zhang, Junwei Xie, Sheng Guo, Li Ding

Relating Musculoskeletal and Disability Conditions of Occupation-Induced Musculoskeletal Disorders to Non-occupational Congenital Disabilities

Previous research indicates congenital disabilities may have similar physical outcomes to circumstantial disabilities encountered by occupational workers. This study attempted a preliminary mapping of musculoskeletal conditions of rice farmers to cerebral palsy (CP) patients. The farmers and CP patients were examined for lower extremity (LE) malalignment, perceived pain, and origin of structural damage. In agreement with farmers, CP participants exhibited foot pronation and knee valgus and perceived more hip and knee pain. In partial agreement with farmers, CP participant’s pain origins included knee and ankle joints, and hamstring and gastrocnemius muscles, but not quadriceps muscle. The comparison showed that occupational and congenital disorder populations can be associated in terms of knee valgus prevalence, pain perception, and musculoskeletal impairments. Therefore, knee impairments and disorders should be emphasized for developing dual-use assistive technology to prevent further risk of LE injury for both farmers in work and CP populations in daily living tasks.

Manida Swangnetr, Usa Karukunchit, Komkrit Juntaracena, Rungthip Puntumetakul, Michael T. Gross, David B. Kaber

The Relationship Between Working Conditions and Ergonomic/Musculoskeletal Disorders in a Manufacturing Facility

My research investigates the relationship between working conditions and musculoskeletal disorders in an assembly facility. I believe that the physical and psychosocial aspects of work have a significant influence on the individual worker’s health and well-being. The work organization at which I evaluated the employee’s health and well-being was at a large manufacturing assembly facility. This research is based upon the Balance Theory Model of Smith and Carayon-Sainfort [1, 2]. The overall aim of this research is to improve the long term health and well-being of worker’s in a manufacturing assembly facility. The overall purpose of this research is to try to identify the stressful working condition and attempt to control it. By trying to control the various musculoskeletal disorders in the work environment, you should also attempt to reduce or eliminate the level of stress, and to try to reduce or eliminate the level of strain.

Dennis R. Jones

Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Rice Keeper Basketwork Workers

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) are obvious problems in occupations that can result in poor functional activity. A survey of the Thai national statistical office indicated the percentage of informal employment was as high as 62.6 % of the total employed persons in Thailand. Considered by the work regions, the informal employment mostly worked in the northeast of Thailand. In Khon Kaen province, rice keeper basketwork (RKB) is the major supplement of career. Most tasks in RKB are performed with prolonged sitting on the floor and using repetitive movements of upper extremity for long periods, were likely to increase the MSDs. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the MSDs and the association between MSDs and baseline demographics, work characteristics among RKB in basketwork group. Data were collected through the use of the Standard Nordic Questionnaire (SNQ) in Thai version. The results showed that the top three of MSDs in twelve months period were shoulder pain, upper back pain, wrist and hand pain and the last seven days was found slightly less in the same following areas were shoulder pain, upper back pain, wrist and hand pain. Therefore, this study can be used as guide in planning for prevent MSDs.

Orawan Buranruk, Wichai Eungpinithpong, Rungthip Puntumetakul, Kulwarang Wongwilairat

H1TA-Based Tracking of Pilot Actions in the Cockpit

This work presents a computational goal-oriented task model based on Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) able to support accurate tracking of pilot actions and current goals in a controlled environment. Formal semantics are proposed to capture the expressiveness of pen and paper HTA using a computational approach based on open petri nets. Finally, a case study involving professional airline pilots is conducted to demonstrate the resulting tracking system with realistic data.

Sebastien Mamessier, Karen M. Feigh

DFS ConceptDesk—An Approach to an Intuitive UX for Air Traffic Control

In this ergonomic, experimental case study, the design and implementation of an experimental workplace for air traffic controllers (ATC) is described. It discusses how such a project in the development of new forms of interaction for highly complex and safety-critical HMI workspaces makes sense.

Thomas Hofmann, Jörg Bergner, Robert Schnuell

The Pattern of Upper Arm and Back Movements for Automotive Assembly Operators: Exposure Variation Analysis of Acceleration Data

Upper limb and back injuries are common musculoskeletal disorders among automotive assembly operators which can reduce operators’ ability and increase industries costs. Characterizing and quantifying movements and postures of the upper limb and back can discriminate the workload between assembly tasks in the real settings. Characterizing and developing a pattern of movements help to understand the function of body parts and to investigate the reasons of injuries. The aim of this study was, therefore, to characterize upper arm and back movements in the automotive assembly tasks, using accelerometer data and Exposure Variation Analysis. One workstation of a truck assembly plant including various assembly tasks was selected for data collection. Two experienced operators who assembled Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) tank on trucks during the 11 min cycle time were included as participants of the study. Acceleration data were registered by the triaxial accelerometers placed simultaneously on the right/left upper arms and lower back of the participants. Video-recordings of operators’ activity were performed and synchronized with the acceleration data. The EVA method was used to plot movements of the upper arms and lower back. The pattern of movements for the arms and back was plotted for various assembly tasks such as tightening, material handling, and inserting (with force). The EVA showed the difference between assembly tasks in term of frequency and intensity which can be used to distinguish the tasks causing either upper limb disorders (such as rotator cuff syndrome) or low back pain. Furthermore, transition of accelerometer data in a way that provide meaningful and understandable information has been a challenge in the quantification of workload, and the EVA can illustrate and characterize a pattern of movements and postures during different tasks.

Mohsen Zare, Benard Mignot, Jean-claude Sagot, Yves Roquelaure

Repetitive Working in Slaughterhouses: The Esthesiometry Use of the Hand as a Proposal for Assessing Levels of RSI Compression Syndromes of the Upper Limbs

This is a descriptive, exploratory and cross-sectional study aimed at determining the predictive value of esthesiometry for diagnosing compressive neuropathies of the upper limbs in freezer warehouse workers. Participated in the study 300 workers aged from 20 to 50 years who work for more than 12 months in poultry slaughterhouses, whose work activities are characterized by repetitive movements and prevalence of biomechanical requirements. Data collection used esthesiometry resources to determine the sensitivity of the hand of workers; the use of a dynamometer to verify and assess the handgrip strength, and the use of a questionnaire to record socio-demographic characteristics of participants. As statistical criterion for analysis, descriptive statistics and the ROC curve (Receiver Operating Characteristic) were selected in order to identify the best cutoff point handgrip strength value and the result of hand esthesiometry to indicate the presence of RSI in the upper limbs. The results indicated that the handgrip strength is efficient in diagnosing RSI by compression syndromes in 77.67 % of cases for the right side of the body and in 71 % of cases for the left side of the body. Thus, considering the analysis by statistical method by applying the ROC curve, the esthesiometry procedure used as predictive diagnosis was characterized as the best criterion for the early identification of RSI by compression syndromes in the upper limbs. Thus, esthesiometry seems to be an easy-to-apply quantitative tool able to identify changes in sensitivity even before the onset of RSI, providing more accurate objective results when compared to the handgrip strength, both for its diagnosis and follow-up, which can be used in slaughterhouses safely and effectively.

Pedro Reis, Antônio Moro, Diogo Reis, Eliane Ramos

Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Among the Hairdressers: A Pilot Study

The amount of data and research effort to indicate the MSDs among hairdressers has been limited. This study aims to describe the work-related musculoskeletal disorders among on-job hairdressers, by identifying the body regions associated with significant discomfort. The study was conducted with thirty professional hairdressers. Self-reporting work related questionnaire on MSDs to develop, were distributed in hairdressing of Setubal (Portugal). The results from the study show that all of hairdressers reported spine discomfort, followed by discomfort in the shoulders (83 %), hands and wrists (43 %) and lower limbs (30 %). The main causes of these symptoms is the standing posture throughout the workday, repetitive movements and the maintenance of high upper limbs during prolonged time. Within the limitations of the study, it reveals that there is no relationship between the increased level of discomfort with age or with working hours. More research is needed on musculoskeletal problems with hairdressers and beauticians with an emphasis on a larger sample.

João Cruz, Mónica Dias-Teixeira

Physical Ergonomics in Design


Effect of a Functional Garment on Postural Control for Adolescents with Early Scoliosis: A Six-Month Wear Trial Study

Postural alterations that are associated with the orientation of the head, shoulders, scapula, and pelvis in the three basic planes of the human anatomy are commonly found in adolescents with scoliosis. Yet there is a lack of functional garments in the market specifically designed for postural control to address early scoliosis in adolescents. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of a functional garment for girls aged 10–13 who have the early stages of scoliosis. The effects of this functional garment on postural changes are investigated in this study. Nine subjects have been recruited to take part in the study. A wear trial has been undertaken for 6 months to evaluate the effectiveness and practical use of the posture correction girdle by 3D motion capturing and 3D body scanning. After carrying out the 3D motion capturing, significant postural improvements are mainly found in the acromion and pelvis as observed from the frontal plane during standing, the back angle as observed from the sagittal plane during sitting, as well as control of the maximum range of anterior and lateral bending. After implementing the 3D body scanning, it is found that there is no significant change in the rotation angle in the horizontal plane due to a large standard deviation. The design of the functional garment is found to better control the acromion. The effectiveness of the girdle on postural changes could be affected by compliance, growth and curve type.

Joanne Yip, Pak-Yiu Liu, Kit-Lun Yick, Mei-Chun Cheung, Chi-Yung Tse, Sun-Pui Ng

Older Adults and Digital Technology: A Study of User Perception and Usage Behavior

Nowadays, with aging society, there are an increasing number of older adults, who are current or potential users of digital technologies. However, how older adults perceive and use digital technologies does not receive sufficient research attentions. This study investigated older adults’ user perception and usage behavior of digital technologies in Hong Kong. A semi-structured interview was designed to understand their feelings and experience of daily digital technology use. The results found that older adults presented positive attitudes to the digital technology use but less self-efficacy of their own capabilities of learning these technologies. The majority of participants reported difficulties when using and learning digital technologies, especially navigation problems. Additionally, there is a tendency of using mobile computing devices instead of computers among older adults. By considering older adults’ special needs and limitations in future digital technology design, a better user experience could be assured.

Qingchuan Li, Yan Luximon

Academic Professor Perception of the Future of Electronic Textbooks

Electronic textbooks have slowly made their way into regular usage in classrooms, yet many electronic textbooks remain a digital representation of their physical counterparts and an understanding of how they should be organized or utilized is still lacking. In past research, questions to professors have not focused on how electronic textbooks are used in their course, how they believe students should use them, and what they believe is necessary in the future. Semi-structured interviews with design and engineering professors found that generally professors agreed with student ideas regarding future components. They did feel some additional components, such as tagging, would help facilitate student learning. This paper presents an understanding of different disciplines approaches and an understanding of electronic textbooks and what professors think should be included in the future. It also assists in highlighting any mismatch between student and professor perception of future electronic textbook components.

Kimberly Anne Sheen, Yan Luximon

Relationship Between Footwear Design Factors and Footwear Fitting and Comfort

Footwear fitting and comfort is an important customer need which involves multiple factors. It includes both objective measurements and subjective perceptions, and can be influenced by shoe materials, weight and styles, foot shape, inside shoe climate, even colour and fashion. However, the influences of other design factors are still not clear. This research investigated the relationship between footwear design factors and footwear fitting and comfort. Two-level fractional factorial design analysis was used to evaluate the effects and find the vital factors. The results indicated that heel height has relatively significant influences on footwear comfort. High topline, low heel height, soft material, round toe, open toe, open heel and thin platform can provide better fitting and comfort.

Lanyin Jiang, Ameersing Luximon, Abida Younus

The Role of Footwear Fitting and Comfort in the Environmental Impact of Footwear

Sustainability has become a global concern in recent years. The traditional production and consumption patterns bring heavy environmental burdens. As the increasing of sustainability and environmental awareness, not only the governments launched regulations and policies to reduce the environmental impacts, consumers also have begun to show interests in eco-friendly products. The footwear industry plays a significant role in the impact of the contribution of apparel section. Various analyses have been conducted on this field aiming at optimizing the footwear life cycle management and design strategy to reduce the impact. As one of the most important properties of wearing products, fitting and comfort can influence consumers purchasing and usage, thus indirectly affects the environmental impact of footwear considering the whole product lifetime. This study focuses on the role of footwear fitting and comfort in the environmental impact of footwear, analysing the influence of fitting in different product life cycle stages.

Ameersing Luximon, Lanyin Jiang

Good Sleep Quality and Ways to Control Fatigue Risks in Aviation—An Empirical Study with Commercial Airline Pilots

As sleep is considered an important influencing factor on human fatigue, the correlation between sleep quality and fatigue was investigated. Secondly, the impact of the safety climate on the attitude towards reporting events was examined. One hundred and six German-speaking pilots participated in an online survey. The results showed a high correlation between a poor sleep quality and fatigue (r = 0.67) and a high correlation between fatigue and acute fatigue symptoms (r = 0.68). The subjective ratings of the safety climate within an organization correlated with the attitude to report human error related events (r = 0.58) and correlated with the attitude to report fatigue related events (r = 0.33). Further research should investigate the impact of mitigation measures on acute fatigue symptoms.

Sebastian Sieberichs, Annette Kluge

Biomechanical Evaluations


Comfort Posture and Position of Push-Pull Operation of the Sagittal Plane in Standing

Push-pull operation is often used in daily work and life. The position of the operating lever, the grab bar, handrail, and the buckle slot is one of the main factors that affect the push-pull task performance. Through the test analysis of 30 people’s push and pull task, the comfort movement ranges of the elbow joint and the shoulder joint, as well as the acceptable height ranges of hand in the sagittal plane were obtained. The research results demonstrated some practical applications for the comfort evaluation of single light load push-pull operation and the ergonomics evaluation of the general manual control layout and position.

Ai-ping Yang, Wen-yu Fu, Guang Cheng, Xin Zhang, Hui-min Hu

Effectiveness of a Balance Chair for Maintaining a Seating Posture During Light-Duty Work

This study discusses the effectiveness of using a balance chair and adjusting a desk height and working position for maintaining seating posture during light-duty work. It is important for a worker to maintain good posture to improve work efficiency and protect his or her health. However, the worker’s body trunk tends to lean forward unconsciously when he or she is working on an ordinary chair. Meanwhile, a person sitting on a balance chair, which comprises a forward-declined seat and a knee pad, can maintain a posture that resembles that of standing. This study measures the body trunk angles of a subject performing light-duty work while seated on an ordinary chair and a balance chair and discusses the influence of desk height and working position.

Noriyasu Hirokawa, Takahiro Tanaka, Ken’ichi Itose, Tadashi Shibue, Takashi Hayami, Toru Sawai, Mitsushi Ohmasa

Analysis and Evaluation of Physical Workload Regarding Non-cyclic Tasks

Most of the ergonomic methods to rate the physical strains of jobs (EAWS for example) can only be used for traditional production workplaces such as assembly lines. Craft professions are difficult to rate with these methods, since the tasks of these professions are long cycled or uncycled and do not repeat after a short time. This work will show a new way, making it possible to conduct a work place assessment for long or uncycled tasks using the example of roofers and carpenters. The so called SOP method uses short sections of a working day to define the whole strain of a day.

Lukas Bier, Katharina Rönick, Dorothee Müglich, Andrea Sinn-Behrendt, Verena Bopp, Ralph Bruder

Investigation of the Office Environment with Ergonomics Products

In previous research, we investigated the fatigue degree of humans when they are in the environment with the ergonomics products and other environment without, by the typing task using the EMG (electromyography) measurement and the body fatigue questionnaire and the interview. As a result, we found that the environment that human feels the least fatigue is furnished with ergonomics products. We found out that it leads to reduction in fatigue degree by using more ergonomics products continually. Following this, we conducted the research how the workers use the ergonomic products and experienced the change of the fatigue using the original questionnaire. The results show that the use of an ergonomics product showed leads to the reduction in degree of fatigue and the creation of comfort. However, the results will show a different picture when we examine the effect of the continuous use of an ergonomics product.

Reiko Mitsuya, Shunji Morita, Kunihito Matsuura, Satomi Fukuda, Kanya Sakuraba, Manami Nozaki

Electromyographic and Kinematic Patient Handling Risk Assessment: Overhead Lift Versus Floor Lift

The use of mechanical patient lifting devices has already been proved to reduce the risk of caregiver injury during patient transfers. Despite this evidence, nowadays this equipment is still underused in the working environment. This study aims to compare sEMG activities and trunk kinematic, obtained by means of an optoelectronic system, between overhead lift devices versus floor lift devices and to verify if the patient movement with a mechanical lift may be safely performed. Seven experienced operators were studied by means of surface electromyography during an 85 kg surrogated patient handling from the bed to the wheelchair and vice versa by a single caregiver at a time using both a floor lift and an overhead lift. Results show that the use of these devices allows the operator to work safely and could be helpful in case of reduced fitness for work.

Francesco Draicchio, Giorgia Chini, Agnese Marchesi, Alessio Silvetti, Alberto Ranavolo

Postural Analysis and Assessment of Perceived Musculoskeletal Pain of Cleaners in Metro Manila, Philippines

Risk of Work related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) due to the nature of cleaning work has been proven abroad. The study aims to determine the prevalence of WMSD and the correlation between perceived discomfort and actual risk faced by cleaners due to daily routine tasks in the Philippine context. For the study, cleaners in educational institutions and commercial establishments in Metro Manila were analyzed using a survey based on the Standardized Nordic Questionnaires for the Analysis of Musculoskeletal Symptoms, Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA). Survey results show that there is high WMSD prevalence among Filipino cleaners while RULA and REBA scores indicate medium to very high risk. Results of both objective and subjective assessment had no correlation. This suggests an improvement in the method and tools used in identifying the risks of WMSD, and the possibility of other factors affecting the perceived pain of Filipino cleaners.

Johntee T. Tantuco, Ian Vincent O. Mirasol, Trisha Anne C. Oleta, Benette P. Custodio

The Experimental Research on Joint Range of Motion

Joint ROM is one of the foundational data for product interface design and working space design. The active ROM of 8 large joints were measured by VICON and BTE system. The statistical analysis showed that females had significant larger values over males in the joint ROM, especially in the lower limb and spine. Young participants had larger joint ROM than old participants on most of the upper limb items dramatically. No significant age difference was found in lower limb and spine. The larger joints showed more significant difference (overall) in gender and age. The significance testing for symmetrical items revealed that all participants had perfect conformity on joint ROM of two sides. The comparison of VICON measurement and BTE measurement indicated that the BTE seemed like more precise than VICON. The results are helpful for design and evaluation of product interface and working space.

Huimin Hu, Junmin Du, Xuehuan Hu, Chaoyi Zhao, Xin Zhang, Linghua Ran, Haimei Wu, Haitao Wang

Upper Limbs Exposure to Biomechanical Overload: Occupational Risk Assessment in a Poultry Slaughterhouse

Brazil is the largest poultry meat exporter, especially in the form of cut-up parts. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the risks associated with repetitive movements of the upper limbs in meat processing tasks. The study was conducted in a slaughterhouse with 3000 workers that slaughtered 300000 chickens/poultries per day. The OCRA checklist was used to evaluate work tasks. The 22 work tasks analyzed were the following: cutting (n = 11); chiller (n = 1); freezing tunnels (n = 1); reception (n = 3) and packing (n = 6). The average of occupational repetitive actions performed by poultry workers was 59.1 ± 18.0 per minute. The average score of OCRA’s checklist was 16.8 ± 4.2 (moderate risk). The scores for the right upper limb (18.3—moderate risk) were significantly higher (p = 0.003) than the contralateral limb (15.3—moderate risk). Two work tasks were considered high risk (9 %); 17 represented moderate risk (77 %), and 3 were considered low risk (14 %).

Diogo Reis, Antônio Moro, Eliane Ramos, Pedro Reis

Total Forearm Muscle Activities in Various Hand Postures

This study examined total forearm muscle activities in five different hand postures of pinching with two fingers (2P), three fingers (3P), four fingers (4P), five fingers (5P), and power grip (5G). Male students participated in the experiment. EMG signals were recorded by using nine dual surface electrodes to record the activities of forearm muscles of flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), extensor digitorum (ED), flexor pollicis longus (FPL), and extensor pollicis longus (EPL). The nine muscles were combined to estimate total muscle activities by the summation method of the EMG index. Analysis of variance showed that the total muscle activities were significant for the hand postures. The muscle activities for 2P and 3P hand postures were about 20 % higher than those for the 5P and 5G postures. Overall, the summation value of % MVC decreased as the number of fingers used increased.

Kyung-Sun Lee, Jiyeon Ha, Seokhwan Yoo, Myung-Chul Jung

Experimental Research for Motion Ranges of Knee Joints

To investigate the range of motion (ROM) of knee joints in the human body, the difference of ROMs between man and woman in subgroups, and how the difference of ROMs relates to age itself; One hundred healthy volunteers of ages 18–60 were recruited to complete the study. They were divided into two groups, with half of them male. The VICON motion capture system was used to measure ROMs of knee joint. The average value of knee joint ROMs for two groups was calculated. The changes in the ROM for two groups were compared along with the differences in the ROM between male and female, and between the left and right knee joints. ROMs of knee joints decreased as the age increased. The difference between the ROMs in the two groups was not significant. Female ROMs of knee joints were bigger than the male in the same age group.

Wen-Yu Fu, Guang Cheng, Yu-Feng Ma, Ai-Ping Yang

Measurement of Low Back Muscle Fatigue and Recovery Time During and After Isometric Endurance Test

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between myoelectrical manifestation and muscle oxygenation level by surface electromyography (EMG) and Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), respectively. As well as the recovery time based on tissue oxygenation index (TOI) after isometric exercise on erector spinae muscle (ESM). Eleven healthy females (age = 18.8 ± 0.7 years, height = 1.59 ± 0.0 m, BMI = 20.1 ± 1.8; mean ± SD) performed an isometric back trunk extension (Biering-Sørensen Muscle Endurance test—BSME) of their 40 % of their mean maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) until exhaustion. Muscle oxygenation decreased immediately at the beginning of exercise. Maximal deoxygenation occurred at 100 % BSME time, and decreased about 15 % from the resting value. A strong correlation between frequency content of the EMG signal and TOI was established, r = 0.78 (right) and r = 0.90 (left). These findings suggest that the fatigue resulting from sustained isometric exercise are related to a decrease in oxygenation level following by the increasing time of contraction of the ESM.

Douglas Mori, Hiroshi Sumiil, Mitsuhisa Shiokawa, Mika Kunisada, Toshihide Harada, Takeya Ono, Toshitaka Horiuchi

Clothing and Personal Protective Equipment


Cooling Dynamics of Wet Clothing

Protective clothing is frequently used to provide safety and comfort for persons exposed to various temperature environments. Water absorbed by clothing can significantly influence the heat transfer characteristics of the clothing material. Understanding the dynamics of evaporative fabric cooling is important in the development of new garments. To investigate the cooling dynamics associated with wet clothing, a series of experiments was conducted to document the cooling created by single and multi-layered fabric samples exposed to controlled temperature, humidity and airflow conditions. The results revealed that the onset and the magnitude of evaporative cooling are determined by the amount of water absorbed in a fabric. The number of fabric layers used in turn, determines the amount of water retained within a material. This information can now provide the basis for determining the number of fabric layers to be used in new garment design and development.

Uwe Reischl, Kylie Pace, Conrad Colby, Ravindra Goonitelleke

Mechanical Property and Function of Bamboo Charcoal Paperboard

In this research, the bamboo charcoal paperboards (BCPs) were manufactured by paper making method. The paperboards constitute of many layers and each layer could be produced by different fibers materials. Bamboo charcoal was used and combined with recycled paper such as magazine, newspaper and corrugated paper box and so on. The mechanical properties included tension, compression, and pealing were tested to evaluate its potential applications. The scanning electron microscope observation was also conducted on the bamboo charcoal particle. At the same time, the benefit of bamboo charcoal paperboards on promoting attention for study was also evaluated. For attention effects on study, questionnaire survey was conducted from student to evaluate the effects of BCPs environment on studying. The brain wave data could be obtained during this process and investigated. The results indicated bamboo charcoal walls have good effect on concentrate attention to study.

Takanori Kitamura, Kanta Ito, Suguru Teramura, Hiroki Nishimura, Noriaki Kuwahara, Zhang Zhiyuan, Hamada Hiroyuki

Measuring the Influences of Footwear Shape and Area on the Coefficient of Friction by English XL

This study explores the influences of different footwear shapes and areas on COF by conducting a four factors experiment including five footwear areas, two footwear shapes, two floors with different roughness, and three floor contaminating conditions and the COFs were measured by English XL. The results demonstrate that the footwear area, footwear shape, floor roughness, and floor contamination condition all affect COF significantly. The COFs of square footwear treads are significantly higher than the cofs of round footwear treads. The relationships between shoe sole area and COF were affected by floor roughness dramatically. The relationships between different shoe sole area and COFs did not show any rules. The lower the floor roughness the lower the COFs with the larger shoe sole area under water and detergent contamination conditions.

Ching-Chung Chen, Zhi-Xuan Chen, Chih-Lin Chang, Fang-Ling Lin, Liwen Liu

Effects of Body Armor Fit on Marksmanship Performance

This study examines the effect of body armor fit on marksmanship performance. Specifically, (1) does wearing body armor affect marksmanship performance, and (2) does the fit of the armor affect marksmanship performance. Fifteen male Soldiers participated in a marksmanship performance task using a weapon simulator in four different body armor configurations (no armor, initial fit, increased and decreased size). Accuracy (closeness to target center), precision (shot group tightness), and speed (transition time) were measured. Accuracy and precision were not significantly different regardless of body armor fit. However, speed was degraded in the initial fit body armor size and the increased size configurations relative to the baseline and decreased size configurations. In other words, in the decreased size, Soldiers engaged targets as quickly as when not wearing body armor, indicating body armor fit may impede Soldier’s ability to transition between targets, thereby impacting mission performance.

Hyeg Joo Choi, K. Blake Mitchell, Todd Garlie, Jay McNamara, Edward Hennessy, Jeremy Carson

Study on the Operation of Liquid-Filled Anti-G Suit Based on Finite Element Method

High-performance military pilot’s blood shifts from upper extremities to the legs and feet and causes impaired vision and loss of consciousness. To avoid the effect of acceleration forces, a kind of liquid-filled protective garment has been proposed instead of pneumatic anti-G suits. In this paper, the finite element model of upper extremities and lower extremities of the body consisting of liquid-filled anti-G suit and human aircraft can generate extremely high gravitational acceleration which can shift pi tissue was developed to study the influence of liquid-filled anti-G suit on the body of pilot under different overload acceleration. The results show that: (1) the surface pressure gradually increases along with the increase of overload acceleration and liquid-filled level; (2) the maximum deformation of human mesh tissue increases along with the increase of overload acceleration and liquid-filled level; (3) the maximum stress and deformation of the clothes are similar with the pattern of human mesh tissue.

Wei Zhang, Ying Xu, Haibo Zhang, Lei Zou, Hua Peng, Xianxue Li, Li Ding

Effectiveness of Personal Protective Equipment for Farm Workers Who Grow Pineapples

One of the most challenging agricultural crops from the perspective of worker protection is the pineapple growing. Previous studies reveals the ineffectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) usually used by workers to protect themselves against accidents with poisonous animals and punctures by pointed leaves, particularly on the tasks of planting seedlings and harvesting. In view of these results, this study aims to experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of a commercial set of PPE in protecting workers against real venomous snake attacks. Four sets of PPE were tested, including shoes and protective gloves, leggings and over sleeves, each set with three different models. Only 5 models were approved in the tests, including one model of a shoe, two models of leggings and two models of gloves. The equipment that pass the real attack tests will then be evaluated by a group of workers in real use situations, according to qualitative criteria, including comfort and usability. It is expected that the results allow the selection of a set of PPE which effectively protect the workers and that facilitate, or do not interfere adversely during task execution.

Maria Cristina Gonzaga, Roberto Funes Abrahão, Mauro José Andrade Tereso

Product Design


Design of a Universal Mounting Fixture (UMF) for ROPS Using Finite Element Method

A finite element model of Universal Mounting Fixture (UMF) was developed in CATIA_V5. This model consisted of a number of beam elements and nodes connected to the tractor frame. For the simulation, fasteners between the ROPS and tractor axle housing were designed. The finite element model was developed parametrically to accommodate a range of tractors and ROPS sizes. The parametric design permits changes in the model dimensions without varying the number of nodes or elements. It was important to note that this research examined trends for various scenarios for one base-fixture finite element model. The final design of fixture was developed and tested in accordance with IS 11821 (Part 2): 1992 [1]. With due consideration of part geometry, OCTREE Tetrahedron mesh was selected and parabolic displacement interpolation was used between the nodes and elements. After getting the satisfactory result of UMF, the fixture was fabricated and validated through static testing of ROPS. The sequences for the loadings were as follows: rear longitudinal, vertical crush, transverse, and second longitudinal. Each testing except vertical loading, were carried out until the fulfillment of energy criterion. The vertical loading test required maintaining of the load for a specific period of time. The axle housing and mounting fixture combinations must pass the static testing criteria as per standard for acceptability. The fixture design has been patented and being used in testing different types of tractor ROPS.

V. K. Tewari, A. K. Shrivastava

Research on the Effect of Body Height on Zonal Spring Mattress Design

This study discussed the spinal alignment and lying comfort for the subjects within different height ranges when lying on zonal spring mattresses by indentation measurement and body pressure distribution measurement. Nine healthy female subjects were instructed to lay on three kinds of zonal spring mattresses. The height ranges of subjects were from 150 to 170 cm. The results indicated that the ratio of back to buttock sinkage of different height subjects laying on mattresses is in the range of 0.6 to 0.8, the distance of waist and back of different height subjects laying on mattresses is 20–30 mm. Height difference on mattress sinkage of three kinds of five zonal spring mattresses has no significant effect. Tall subjects got better pressure distribution on the mattress with more length in back zone and short subjects on the mattress with less length in buttock zone. It’s a matter with height of subjects.

Yuding Zhu, Xiaochun Zhang, Liming Shen, Fei Fang

Ergonomic Consideration for Wearable Device Design in Frozen Shoulder Rehabilitation

This paper is regarding the wearable device design which is based on frozen shoulder game rehabilitation. At present some studies are focus on sensors and rehabilitation outcomes. However the sensors designed without a suitable wearable device and it will influence the sensed results and wear comfort. Thus, this article records the design process of the wearable device, particularly the worn ways and the fabric. The way in which wearable device are worn will be analyzed with the user experience to improve sensing accuracy and comfort. The material in which wearable device are used will be tested with making models. Then the models of the wearable devices are made and tested to find out the design factors which are suitable ergonomic.

Huei-Huang Chen, Chien-Hsu Chen, Zheng-Yu Hoe, Zong-Xian Yin

Ergonomic Keyboard Layout Designed for the Filipino Language

The Philippines is a developing country and computers have become an essential component in everyday activities. However, prolonged exposure to keyboard typing may result to Repetitive Strain Injury. In this study, a keyboard layout was designed and generated specifically for the Filipino language using Carpalx. Applying its typing effort model, the model parameters were determined by acquiring language data from a Filipino corpus of 10 million words and by gathering finger strength. Quantitative comparative analyses were performed to assess the efficiency of the generated layouts in comparison with other existing keyboards. Results showed a decrease in total typing effort and suggest that a layout designed for the Filipino language may be developed that will be more fitting than the existing QWERTY. Usability testing may be performed to further justify the results of this study.

Jose Miguel R. Salvo, Christian Jay B. Raagas, Maria Tatjana Claudeene M. Medina, Alyssa Jean A. Portus

Redesign the Cleaning Tools from Analysis of Working Postures at a Cleaning Job Using the Task Analysis and OWAS Methods

Work of physical labor is conducted in many parts of different workplace. The relationships between a poorly designed workplace, poor working posture and diseases of the musculoskeletal system have been demonstrated. A number of studies also have reported that cleaners have a high risk of developing health problems particularly musculoskeletal problems, especially affecting the back, neck, shoulders, elbows and hands. This study used task analysis to analyze the typical cleaning job and used OWAS to analyze the working postures of cleaning workers in the university environment. We collect the all daily routine cleaning tasks for task analysis. Thirty cleaning workers, with an average work experience of 8.5 years, participated in this study. For an overall distribution of trunk postures, OWAS identified that a bent and twisted trunk posture, which fell into action category 3, was the major poor posture for cleaning workers. Distribution of arm posture were also fell into action category 3. This study also identified that trash cleaning task, class washing task, and toilet cleaning task were the 3 principal tasks in which cleaners cleaning the school environment exhibited poor working posture. This study used the posture analysis of OWAS to redesign the assistant cleaning tools. We extend the length of tools by the heights of the cleaners and the angle of cleaning tool could be adjusted by the different tasks of cleaning job. The redesign tool would help the cleaners to work without the over extending postures. To help them work with the normal postures to reduce and evaluate poor posture in a dynamic cleaning job site.

Ming-Hsu Wang, Bi-Hui Chen, Wen-Ko Chiou



Anthropometric Evaluation of the Design of the Classroom Desk for the Sixth and the Seventh Grades of Benghazi Schools

This study is a part of an ongoing project aiming to evaluate the existing design of the classroom desk used in the basic education stage in Benghazi schools. This study represents the third phase of the project covering the sixth and the seventh grades. Anthropometric data was gathered for a total of 120 students (children of age 10–13 years old) from several schools in Benghazi. Selected body dimensions were measured for each student. The evaluation procedure involves the utilization of several equations relating body dimensions to desk dimensions. Each equation computes an acceptable range for each desk dimension based on the associated body dimension. Each desk dimension is compared to the range computed for the related body dimension for each student and percentages of matches/mismatches are determined accordingly. Results of the evaluation revealed considerable percentages of mismatches between the desk dimensions and students’ anthropometry.

Ahamed Altaboli, Moatasem Elhinaid, Aisha Alasbali, Isra Egjam

Develop a Circumference Measurement Device for Patient with Upper Limb Lymphedema

The lymphedema often happens after breast cancer therapy and brings patients great discomfort in their daily life. Therefore, measuring, tracking, and recording becomes a serious clinical issue, but there are still no standard definition and measuring method for lymphedema. The water displacement and circumference tape measurement are mostly used to date. But there are some disadvantages of these methods and influence the difficulty and the accuracy. Thus, the device would be developed according to the conditions relative to disadvantages of these two existing methods. To achieve the conditions, the rotary encoder and grating has been rearranged and tested to develop a new measuring method. The multiple encoder data will be developed and computed as further study in the future.

Tsai-Wei Chang, Chien-Hsu Chen, Zheng-Yu Hoe

Study on Human Body Dimensions Used for Ergonomic Design and Evaluation of Mattress

Mattress is very closely related to people’s life. The ergonomics design is very important to the comfort of mattress which directly influences the health, sleep quality and rest efficiency. A large number of studies show that the ergonomic design of the mattress has a direct relationship with human body dimensions, such as height, weight, spine curvature and so on. And human spine curvature is an important influence factor for the ergonomic design of mattress. This study aims at establishing the ergonomic design index of mattress and obtains the human body dimensions used for ergonomic design of mattress. Based on the collected human body data, the contrastive analysis on the spine curvature of different groups of people was conducted. It was found that there were obvious differences in the spine curvature between different groups of people. This experiment result has important reference significance on the ergonomic design of mattress.

Huimin Hu, Yanlong Yao, Chaoyi Zhao, Fan Yang, Ling Luo, Yinxia Li, Fan Zhang, Haimei Wu

SizeNorthAmerica—The New North American Anthropometric Survey: Conceptual Design, Implementation and Results

Size NorthAmerica is a comprehensive look at today’s population to provide vital information of body shape and size to numerous industries. Understanding the human body provides a critical advantage for usability of any product or service. Prior studies are both out of date and had minimal industry input to ensure relevancy of final data gathered throughout the studies. There has been very little previous research focusing on children, ethnicities and regional differentiation. In addition, by including sociodemographic information of the subjects; it provides a realistic profile of how physical and characteristical data correlates amongst the participants. By incorporating the guidelines of ISO standards 20685, 15535, 8550 and 7250 and ASTM garment construction; the study will meet and exceed any requirements for products in Automotive, Apparel, Consumer, Digital, Medical and Military. An active sampling strategy will prioritize data as it is collected from near 18000 participants throughout the USA and Canada. Partnering with universities and the industry at large creates unique opportunities to create a clear picture of the population and target audiences simultaneously with the highest accuracy. It will also serve as a strong foundation for future projects focusing on body profiling, morphotypes and CAD application, while providing specific insights needed by each industry sector. While data from previous studies may be accelerated and extrapolated; it is still very much up to interpretation and prediction. Conducting studies actively to create concrete data that is representative reduces much of the variability that is biproduct and inherent of previous data and allows subscribers of the study the utmost accuracy in their work respectively.

Andreas Seidl, Rainer Trieb, Hans-Joachim Wirsching, Adam Smythe, Tim Guenzel

Assessing the Relationship Between Hand Dimensions and Manual Dexterity Performance for Turkish Dental Students

The objectives of this study included: (i) a determination of whether there is a difference in manual dexterity as a function of gender and dentistry curriculum and (ii) an assessment of hand anthropometric characteristics on manual dexterity test performance. In total, 155 dental students (86 males and 69 females) in their first, second, third, fourth, and fifth years of a five-year undergraduate program took part in the study that involved a simple manual dexterity test. We used a paired sample t-test to compare differences between males and females and among students of different years. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were computed as a measure of association between parameters. The results demonstrate that anthropometric data of both hands have small but significant effects on test performance, and that small hands are associated with better test performance.

Erman Çakıt, Behice Durgun, Oya Cetik

Performance and Productivity


Optimal Arrangement of Inertial Sensors for Workload Estimation Using Digital Human Model Based on Body Surface Deformation Analysis

Nowadays, digital human models are often used to evaluate the usability of manufactured products. Such models can also be used to estimate loads on the body when motions are input and musculoskeletal simulations are carried out. When actual work motions are input into the digital human correctly, an accurate workload can be estimated. We used the “Dhaiba” digital human to estimate workload, and we used inertial sensors to measure work motion. In this paper, we propose the optimal sensor arrangement on the back for measuring waist posture based on analysis of body surface deformation due to motion.

Saori Miyajima, Natsuki Miyata, Mitsunori Tada, Takayuki Tanaka, Masaaki Mochimaru

Application of Actigraphy on Shift Workers for Sleep Quality

The subjects of this study are based on 36 manufacturing operators working on a shift system, there are respectively 12 operators in the day shift, middle shift and night shift being examined. The study uses actigraphy to measure the quality of sleep of the employees under different shift schedules. The results of the study are as follows. On the measurement aspect of quality of sleep on each respective shift, the sleep latency on the night shift is relatively longer as compared to those in the day shift (p < 0.05). The instances of sleep barriers on the night shift are relatively more as compared to those in the day shift (p < 0.05). The total sleep time on the night shift is relatively longer as compared to those in the day shift (p < 0.05). The study discovered that sleep latency is the longest for the middle shift, and differs with the conclusion of past literature stating that employees working in the night shift needed a relatively longer time to fall asleep. The total sleep time for employees working in the night shift is the shortest.

Fang-Ling Lin, Chih-Lin Chang, Zhi-Xuan Chen, Ching-Chung Chen, Chien-Wen Wang

Ergonomics and Increasing Marginal Returns

One of the biggest challenges for humans is to find a middle ground. This applies to a wide variety of situations and is especially useful when it comes to increasing productivity and preserve the health of people, taking into account that these two variables seem to be inversely proportional. This work aims to design a system to estimate the optimum point, related to the theory of diminishing marginal returns. The central idea is to get the point at which the additional resources generated higher returns, just before they a decreasing yield curve. From an ergonomic perspective, the resources used can be biomechanical or psychosocial: weights, repetitions, worktime or cognitive load. Through mathematical modeling work situations, and the results obtained and documented in industrial activity, we completed a model of two variables where the maximum point is where we get a derivative zero.

Igor Bello, Acran Salmen-Navarro

Estimation Method of Muscle Fatigue and Recovery Progress Using a Muscular Fatigue Model

This study investigated a mechanism of muscle fatigue and proposed a muscular fatigue model to evaluate muscle fatigue progress under several muscular force patterns. Previous studies have already proposed a muscular fatigue model. However, these previous studies discussed about the condition of the maximum voluntary contraction. The new point of this study is considering several muscular force patterns including muscle recovery progress. This study proposed the method to estimate the endurance time for keeping constant forces considering the physical characteristics. This study also proposed the method to estimate the iteration numbers for keeping constant forces with interval. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, experimental verifications were conducted. The experimental results had a good agreement with the evaluation of muscle fatigue progress using the proposed method. The results of this study will provide ergonomically safe and efficient working environments considering the physical properties of each worker.

Isamu Nishida, Kazuya Sata, Masato Maeda, Tsuneo Kawano, Keiich Shirase

The Effect of Back-Carrying Load and Fatigue on Gait Characteristics at Heel Contact

Slip is one of the leading causes of accidental falls. Load-carrying and fatigue might increase risk of slip-induced falls during locomotion. The objective of this study was to determine the main and interactive effects of load carriage and fatigue on gait characteristics at heel contact. An experiment was carried out with five participants walking on a medical treadmill. Different back-carrying loads were applied before and right after the fatiguing exercise. The heel velocity and heel deceleration right before heel contact and the heel contact angles were examined. The results showed that the both heel contact velocity and deceleration increased with fatigue and with the application of the heavy load. These findings suggest that both fatigue and back-carrying load increase the risk of slip-induced falls by compromising gait stability at heel contact. Findings from this study can aid in developing interventions that are able to minimize fall risks especially with the application of fatigue and/or external load.

Xinyao Hu, Xingda Qu

The Impact of Man-Seat Interface on Long-Time-Sitting Fatigue and Comfort

To explore the impact of man-seat interfaces on long-time-sitting fatigue and comfort, a simulating flight facility in which can fix three different seats(A, B and C) was set up. 4 volunteers carried out simulated flight operation in it for 8 h continuously. 8 objective indicators were monitored, and the subjective fatigue and discomfort feelings were investigated too. The results showed 5 objective indicators were significant to long-time-sitting fatigue. Visual sensitivity declined along with the increase of fatigue. The fatigue feelings of neck, back, waist, buttocks and thighs all had an increasing tendency with the extending of sitting time. The comfort of seat A was superior to that of seat B, and seat C was superior to both A and B. Adjustable lumbar pad could effectively improve comfort, and a modeling designed man-seat interface could do that significantly.

Xingwei Wang, Heqing Liu, Xianxue Li, Li Ding, Weiping Bu

Light: Visual Comfort Versus Artwork Health

The lighting of museum exhibition’s spaces involves different areas of knowledge to guaranty the preservation of the master pieces as well as the good understanding of them by the spectator. This paper aims to study the impact of natural daylight in museum exhibition spatial areas particularly, the ones where natural light is the main lighting source remembering that exhibited works require a good conservation. From this awareness different questions emerge seeking the answer to the previous question: How to balance our individual understanding of a master piece and its integrity? Would a replica be a solution to preserve original master pieces leaving them intact for more demanding studies? Is this replica exhibition an ethical solution for the observer and the author? To achieve such goals the research will be conducted throughout literature review and the analysis of three case studies: Nordjyllands Kunstmuseum, Museum Solomon R. Guggenheim, and Tate Modern.

Sandra Preto, Cristina Caramelo Gomes

Developing a Social Capability Model of Inclusive Public Facilities: A Case Study of Play Space in Hong Kong

Through a case study of Hong Kong, the paper presents how the Inclusive Design Cube (IDC) can be referenced to develop and evaluate inclusive play space in practice. While social activities take place frequently in play space, the paper advocates that it is essential to include social aspect in public design. Consequently, based on the IDC, the paper develops a model of Socially Inclusive Design Cube (SIDC) to investigate and identify the relationship among social, motion, cognitive and sensory capabilities in the context of play space. Through the development of the SIDC model, the paper raises a question about inclusive design approach. It is hoped that the further development and the application of the SIDC model will contribute to the discipline of inclusive design with social concerns.

Yi Lin Wong, Kin Wai Michael Siu, Mei Seung Lam

Analysis of Parent-Child Interaction at Various Space and Furniture of Reading Environment—Take Parent-Child Reading Areas in Taipei Public Libraries as an Example

Different reading environment affects parent-child interaction, joint reading time and reading posture. The research is based on the example of parent-child reading areas in Taipei public libraries. We visited eight Taipei public libraries in person, analyzing pros and cons of space and furniture arrangement with mandatory of “Learning Environments for Young Children” as well as recording parent-child reading behavior at varied environments with Nonparticipant Observation Method. After evaluation and analysis of the research, we found two aspects to be improved which are library space and furniture arrangement—furniture lack of containing space and space lack of artistic display and decoration. Through parent-child reading interaction, the result of analyzing relations between environment and behavior is that the design of soundproof space is too confined and that massive bookshelves cause pressure on children attracting no child to enter the area. Diversified reading chairs may increase intention of parent-child reading. Making good use of children-related subject in interior design helps arouse parents and children’s interests in coming. Switching to different reading environments and books every 10 min may prolong the duration of reading. The common parent-child reading posture is sideways sitting. The seating designed especially for parent-child reading may increase the comfort of reading and duration of reading.

Jo-Han Chang, Jun-Yu Wang

Firing of a Cannon: Psychophysical Evaluation of Ergonomic Hazards

Musculoskeletal-related occupational illnesses and injuries comprise a majority of military medical encounters resulting in decreased combat readiness and degraded human performance. An artillery company performing a live fire exercise was observed for two days along with the collection of perceived exertion, fatigue and pain data. Twenty-five U.S. Marines were involved in the study. Sixteen (64 %) reported becoming injured after returning from combat during a “Call for Fire” exercise and four (16 %) were on limited duty at the time of the study. Their perceptions of exertion, fatigue, and pain increased over the course of both days. In addition, human error also increased over the course of the day and moral decreased as well. The study uncovered that the exposure profile during the support of the “Call for Fire” exercise is leading to degradations in physical performance and increased exposure to physical work place risk factors resulting in various soft tissue injuries.

Theresa Stack, Daniel Autenrieth, Lee Ostrom

Color in Glossolalia: Much Ado About Blue

The aim of this article is to present the Glossolalia project in the aspects that deal with color. Since color is intrinsic to the creation of any designed product and is essential in the process of recognition, perception and communication, it determines the semantics of a given object. In establishing the meanings of color, the aspects that are addressed encompass a broad gamut that include neurology, vision and illumination and the interactions of light and color in the understanding of the nature of design at stake as well as the cultural context. A multidisciplinary approach allows other qualities to be addressed, such as synesthetic reactions to color, communicative variables, color terminology, aesthetics as well as historic and cultural embedding. This essay will address some of these dimensions on the color blue in Western culture.

Leonor Ferrão

GlanceID: A Usable, Single, and Yet Strong Optical Authentication Method

Biometric authentication is being viewed to a greater extent as a credible option to knowledge or key based security systems. GlanceID is a usable, single optical authentication method with strong authentication capability. It captures and processes eyes gaze direction, and object positioning in real-time with the aim of granting access to users for physical access control. GlanceID is the only existing single biometric authentication method which provides a two-factor authentication. Additionally, GlanceID makes use of the rising “slippy” user experience which is all about glance-ability and focuses less on engagement but more on quick task-based user requirements.

Christina Braz, Ahmed Seffah

Innovation of Modern Architecture—Expressionist Tendencies

The subject of this work are reflections and comments on the architecture of recent years, and in particular of objects that are examples of a search for originality and expressiveness of form. Examples that, by using modern technical possibilities, are representations of ideas—architectural concepts, which up to now most frequently remained only in the form of drawings. This concerns the architecture of recent years—objects that are a continuous subject of the interest of our team. Objects in which evolution and development of technical and technological options in architectural design lets “placing” a large building “at the corner” in a way that it still gives the impression of stability and durability.

Nina Juzwa, Adam Gil, Katarzyna Ujma-Wasowicz

A Study of e-Picture Books and Traditional Picture Books on Children’s Reading Attention

In the recent years, the rapid development of multi-media assistive technology and teaching aids has led to the increasing variety of children’s reading devices. This study aimed to explore the influences of e-picture books and traditional picture books on children’s reading concentration. There were two phases in this study: (1) the literature review, which illustrated different forms of picture books and psychological and physiological cognitive processes of concentration; and (2) the experiment, in which participants were asked to read traditional picture books and e-picture books. Their concentration was then measured using an EEG. The experiment was performed in June, 2015, with the participants being 42 first-grade students from an elementary school in Xindian District. The results are summarized below: (1) the EEG results showed that the concentration of those reading the traditional picture books was higher than those reading the e-picture books. (2) The form of the picture book had a significant influence on children’s understanding of the story content. Due to the short duration of the experiment, the form of the picture book had no significant influence on children’s attention level. (3) According to the observations, it was found that the children were easily distracted when they were not interacting with any e-media.

Tien-Ling Yeh, Chun-Ching Chen

Portable on Orbit Printer 3D: 1st European Additive Manufacturing Machine on International Space Station

Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies represent a solution for enabling astronauts to manufacture parts in situ, as needed, starting from feedstock material. The importance of these capabilities are particularly evident in manned space exploration missions, e.g. on human Mars missions, for which cargo capacity is paramount key factor in order to supply the astronauts with everything they may need during the mission, but at the same time is a severely constrained resource. Also, AM technologies enhance freedom of shape optimization for mass savings, compared to conventional manufacturing processes, thus helping in reducing overall mass at launch. The capability to make parts in space, during the mission, would allow a dramatic reduction of the mass transported to the destination site and would also help astronauts in solving any unexpected problems that may occur during a space mission: if the Apollo had been equipped with a 3d printer, the filter housing with a suitable interface could have been easily manufactured by astronauts using Additive Manufacturing technology. The Portable on-Orbit Printer 3D represents the first European additive manufacturing experiment in space. The Printer implements the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) process for the fabrication of parts using PLA, a biocompatible thermoplastic polymer. The objective of the experiment is to validate the 3D printing technology in microgravity and to pave the way for an Italian and European development of the additive manufacturing technology on board the ISS and, more in general, in space. This paper will present the results of the demonstration activities performed with “Portable on-Orbit Printer 3D” while its permanence on board the International Space Station. It also presents the analysis performed on the on orbit “printed” part, in comparison with the same part “printed” on ground.

Giorgio Musso, Giuseppe Lentini, Luca Enrietti, Costantino Volpe, Elisa Paola Ambrosio, Massimo Lorusso, Gabriele Mascetti, Giovanni Valentini

Effects of Arctic Conditions on Human Performance

Modern technologies are used to create competitive performance in industry, and highly specialized personnel are often needed to operate and maintain the technology. However, both the technology and the personnel are influenced by the environment in which the technologies are operated. In this paper we study how human performance is influenced by an Arctic environment in conjunction with a remote location. Based on a literature study, we map Arctic factors and study how they affect human performance in remote locations. The results show that operational and maintenance personnel may be significantly affected by the Arctic conditions. If not taken into consideration during the design phase, human and organizational performance may be significantly affected. Examples are discussed in relation to petroleum production in Arctic locations north of Norway.

Anecito Reyes Balindres, Rupesh Kumar, Tore Markeset

Multinomial Logistic Regression Model by Stepwise Method for Predicting Subjective Drowsiness Using Performance and Behavioral Measures

The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of physiological and behavioral evaluation measures for predicting a drivers’ subjective drowsiness based on a multinomial logistic regression model. The participants were required to steer a steering wheel and keep their vehicle to the centerline as much as they could, and to maintain the distance between their own car and a preceding car properly as much as possible using a brake or an accelerator. A number of measures were recorded during a simulated driving task, and the participants were required to report subjective drowsiness once every minute. EEG (electroencephalography), heart rate variability (RRV3), and blink frequency were the physiological measures recorded. Meanwhile, behavioral measures included neck bending angle (horizontal and vertical), back pressure, foot pressure, and tracking error in a driving simulator task. Drowsy states were predicted via a multinomial logistic regression model. Physiological and behavioral measures were independent variables in the regression model and equated to the dependent variable: subjective evaluation of drowsiness. The stepwise method was adopted for the estimation of parameters of multinomial logistic regression model. The interval used for attaining the highest prediction accuracy was a 100 s interval between 20 and 120 s before the prediction. This approach clarified that the parameters finally appeared in the multinomial logistic regression model were different among participants, which indicated that the optimal structure of the model for predicting subjective drowsiness should be different among participants.

Atsuo Murata, Yukio Ohta, Makoto Moriwaka

Implications of Sedentary Lifestyle for Designing Dynamic Work in Times of Digital Selfness

Physical as well as mental health represents substantial preconditions for people’s well-being as well as productivity. In times of increasing share of skill-intensive work, societies worldwide in this connection are facing a further challenge: the so-called sedentary lifestyle characterizing those behaviors for which energy expenditure is low, including prolonged sitting time in transit, at work, at home and in leisure time. The study displays results and hypotheses for origination of diseases by sedentary lifestyle for the development of an integrated model in order to design dynamic work in times of digital selfness.

Wilhelm Bauer, Christian Vocke

Computational Prediction of Subjective Sense of Force Based on Muscle Activity Estimation

We feel the effort during manipulation of a product. The effort takes a key role in the subjective product usability. It is known that muscle activity correlates with the subjective effort. Knowing the muscle activity is useful to predict one’s subjective sense. In this paper, we propose a computational prediction method of subjective sense of force based on the estimation of muscle activity. In this study, we make a hypothesis the subjective sense of force changes according to the amount of the muscle activity. To validate the hypothesis, we developed a three dimensional musculoskeletal model, and estimated the muscle activity during a weight holding task. We also defined the perception change ratio based on the measurement of the relationship between the quantitative applied force and the subjective perceived force. In the experiment, the subjective sense of force was predicted by using the perception change ratio that depends on the muscle activity. The experimental results confirmed the feasibility of the proposed computational prediction method of subjective sense of force.

Yusuke Kishishita, Toshio Tsuji, Yuichi Kurita

Ergonomic Factors in Virtual Intensive Interactions

The capabilities of building virtual organizations where people can interact and collaborate bring up variety of advantages, especially when face to face collaboration may not be always feasible. When the outcomes of virtual interactions and collaboration are measureable, and these are aligned to known objectives with accountability, client’s performance to reach expectations and to achieve personal goals increases. At the same time the vision of driving a nurturing environment to emulate an on-site collaborative environment becomes more pronounced when favorable outcomes for the client and for the host of the virtual environment increase. This paper explores how the Smart Grid model and prediction analytics can work in tandem to facilitate client’s efficiencies and performance at the same of driving system’s performance feedback mechanisms related to the ergonomic design of the environment.

Norma Antunano

Electromyographic Assessments of Muscle Activation Patterns During Driving a Power Wheelchair

Power wheelchairs are essential for cerebral palsy children with mobility impairments. The purpose of this study was to establish a muscles sequence pattern of the upper limbs to help clinicians determine a child’s readiness to control the joystick for maneuvering a power wheelchair. Five individuals performed four joystick control tasks, including forward, backward, left-turn, and right-turn. The X/Y positions of joystick and surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were record simultaneously. The surface EMG was used to record the contraction of four right upper limbs muscles, including extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), extensor carpi radialis (ECR), pronator teres (PNT), and deltoid anterior (DA). A technique for analyzing and comparing the dynamic patterns of EMG collected during driving a power wheelchair was presented. Driving EMG patterns were computed to consist of both magnitude (amplitude) and phase (timing) components. For the magnitude component, the magnitude component of the EMG patterns is defined as the muscle during rest, slight contraction, or forceful contraction. The phase component of the EMG patterns is defined as the muscles of contraction duration with active or inactive regions in each joystick control task. The results showed that participants use more muscle efforts of the ECU and ECR compared to PNT and DA during four joystick control tasks. The active regions of the phase component were similar between the ECU and ECR. There were more phase component of forceful muscle contraction of the ECU compared to ECR during left-turn task. PNT muscles did not contract during the right-turn task. DA muscles were only slight contraction during the forward task. The findings imply that the joystick control strategy for power wheelchairs may be profiled by the muscle sequence patterns of the wheelchair users.

Chi-Wen Lung, Tse-Yu Cheng, Yih-Kuen Jan, Hsin-Chieh Chen, Ben-Yi Liau

Wearables and Innovative Interfaces


Can Secondary Traffic Alerts Improve the Latent Hazard Anticipation Ability of Novice and Experienced Drivers? A Simulator Study

The current simulator study aims to investigate whether warnings of an impending latent hazard, delivered on Google Glass can improve both, young and middle-aged drivers’ latent hazard anticipation ability. Twenty young and 30 middle-aged drivers were pseudo-randomly assigned to either the Google Glass condition or the control condition. All participants completed seven simulated driving scenarios with potential hazards. Participants in the Glass condition received text messages alerting them about the presence of a potential hazard, approximately 400 ft in advance of the hazard. Participants in the control condition received no such alerts. The results showed that warnings on Google Glass significantly improved the proportion of latent hazards anticipated by young drivers. The performance of middle-aged drivers was not affected by the warnings. It is concluded that head mounted displays like Google Glass offer a promising platform for the delivery of traffic warnings to help young driver better detect hazards on the road. However, its application on middle-aged drivers requires further research attention.

Tingru Zhang, Siby Samuel, Tracy Zafian, Cheryl Ann Nicholas, JingYi Zhang, Michael Knodler, Donald L. Fisher

Analysis of Stress and Strain in Head Based Control of Collaborative Robots—A Literature Review

The aim of this review was to provide an overview on possible fields where robots with head based control might be used. In that context another object was to investigate the effect of different neck movements on the user’s stress and strain. All in all, 13 studies were included in this review. Their quality was evaluated by a checklist. A total of ten studies showed useful for the further approach. Five dealt with application possibilities for head based control. Four studies assessed the muscle activity of the neck via sEMG and five studies used other measurements for the assessment of stress and strain. In conclusion, there are many possible application areas for head based control which can be further developed to support working persons as well as disabled people. The application of a robot controlled via head movements will be investigated in an upcoming study following the recommendations gathered through this research.

Jochen Nelles, Susanne Kohns, Julia Spies, Christopher Brandl, Alexander Mertens, Christopher M. Schlick

Design a Stretchable Elbow Brace by the Use of 3D Printed Mesostructure

In addition to the functionality, wearing ease is also an important element for joint protective garment design. Besides, clothing fit is one of the important factors controlling the wearing ease. However, previous research in this area has been neither sufficient nor systematic. As elbow joint is one of the most strained joint of the body, the skin surface around it also has significant length change. Therefore, in this research an attempt has been made to analyze and quantify the length variations of skin surface around the elbow joint, and arrange a stretchable mesostucture on the base of these variations. 3D printing with its advantages of rapid manufacturing and design complexity than traditional textile industry, it is the method used for making the prototype in this study. Finally, an application for elbow brace design of the research results is suggested.

Yun-Jing Li, Chien-Hsu Chen, Zheng-Yu Hoe, Zong-Xian Yin

Development of a New Information Interface for Elderly Using Vibrations

For older people it is often necessary to have additional orientation aids esp. when they have to leave their familiar environment. To find a location for implementing such a supporting and helping information interface into daily used and well-known things shoe soles were identified as a possible usable place. To derive the requirements and application parameters several tests were processed and afterwards with their results test equipment consists of sandals with vibrational soles, power supply and electronic components for controlling it was assembled. First tests had shown the general applicability of these soles and shoes to give the needed information to older people, but some optimizations have to be done before the system can be applied for daily use.

Stefan Lutherdt, Fred Roß, Hartmut Witte

Standardization of Human-Computer-Interface for Geo-Fencing in Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

The use of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) has increased significantly in the past year. Geographic fencing (geo-fencing) is software built into most medium-cost consumer sUAS. This software is typically used to limit the altitude above launch point, the flight distance from the transmitting controller, and/or restrict flight inside a no-fly zone. While the concept of a geo-fence is simplistic, the human-computer-interface (HCI) varies drastically among platforms, and even between software iterations on the same platform. This research examines the HCI of three popular consumer-level sUAS with regard to geo-fencing. The software procedures and human interface for the DJI Inspire-1, 3D Robotics IRIS+, and Yuneec Typhoon Q500+ were evaluated through review of relevant literature, software, and flight-testing. This assessment yielded several recommendations for geo-fencing software for sUAS.

David Thirtyacre, Robert Brents, Michael Goldfein, David Hunter, David Ison, Brent Terwilliger

Development Gestural Interface for Motorized Wheelchair Control

The project contributes to the development of technologies to aid mobility vehicle technical and control of the desktop or housing with disabilities from semi-automatic methodology. The proposal consolidates enabling to the holders of locomotor disability a intuitive gestural interface for control of the wheelchair and control of environmental elements of interior for easy interaction, starting with studies based on the principles of biomechanics, usability and ergonomics analyzing the dynamic behavior of wheelchair user. This initiative also contribute to the consolidation of the research group in assistive technology in Maranhão (Brazil), which include a multidisciplinary team in the areas of mechanical engineering, ergonomics, design and computer science, involving institutions such as IFMA and UFMA.

Beatriz Silva, Emylle Santana, Ivana Maia

Review on Evaluation Methods to Pre-detect the Stroke Using Wearable Devices

The overall aim of this study is to collect stroke assessment methodology for pre-detect the stroke using the wearable devices. The particular objectives of the study were (1) to find various stroke-monitoring methodologies, (2) to compare stroke-monitoring methodologies, (3) to develop a methodology that can pre-detect the stroke. For this purpose, a systematic search was conducted using Google Scholar for studies published from 2010 to 2015. The search was restricted to papers published in English and containing the terms “stroke motion”, “stroke detection”, “stroke application”. The literature survey revealed various stroke detection methods including motion pattern, gait analysis, head impulse test, electrocardiogram, eye movements, muscle activity recognition, and so on.

SeungNam Min, Kyung-Sun Lee, DongJoon Kim, Se Jin Park, Youngseob Seo, Murali Subramaniyam, Seoung Eun Kim

Relation Between Glance-Times at an in-Vehicle HMI System and Number of Letters Displayed on It

This paper reports the relation between glance-times at the screen of an in-vehicle HMI (Human-Machine Interface) system near the driver’s seat and the number of letters and characters dis-played on it. Our experimental results and discussion provide the fundamentals of a design method for HMIs operated by drivers to minimize glance-times. We conducted an experiment with a driving simulator to collect such data as time to read words displayed on in-vehicle HMIs while participants drove on an experimental course. The results indicate that for driving safety, the number of letters and characters displayed on an in-vehicle HMI screen should be less than 120.

Hiroaki Kosaka

Upper Body Motion Tracking System with Inertial Sensors for Ergonomic Issues in Industrial Environments

Recently, motion tracking techniques to acquire human body movements have broadened their range of applications from sports training, to rehabilitation, to ergonomics issues. For industrial applications, motion capture systems are largely used to acquire workers movements to improve working conditions, comfort, safety, etc. Several tracking solutions have been provided to analyze trunk and upper limbs movement based on different sensing technologies such as optical systems, audio systems, radar systems, magnetic systems, inertial systems and mechanical motion systems. Motion tracking with inertial sensors has been an active research area due to its several advantages. In this paper the authors introduce a motion tracking method of arbitrary human upper body motion. Low cost wearable inertial sensors and CPU unit are used in the proposed approach to track the upper body movement in 3D space and in real time.

Francesco Caputo, Egidio D’Amato, Stefania Spada, Fabrizio Sessa, Marco Losardo

Extended Use of Personal Factors in Adaptive e-Learning Environments: Moods in MOOC’s

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC’s) are a new kind of e-Learning environment, which enables us to address untold numbers of students. MOOC’s allow students all over the world to participate in lectures independent of place and time. The sessions that are in some cases joined by more than 100.000 students are based on small units of teaching material containing videos or texts. However today’s MOOC’s are static environments, which do not take into account the diversity of the students and their situational context. Current MOOC’s can be seen as mass processing but not as an individual treatment of individual students. Thus MOOC’s need to be personalized in addition to massive. In order to personalize an e-Learning environment it is first necessary to collect data, or personal factors, about the student, his or her current environment and his or her situational context. This data should later be processed and used as input for adaptive functions. Basically there are many input factors imaginable, such as cognitive style, preknowledge, currently used device or personal goals. The input factors can be grouped into technical, personal and situational factors. Especially situational factors may help to support students in different learning situations. This paper describes an approach to detect the student’s current mood as a situational input factor. The mood of a student in a learning situation might be an interesting feature that can be used as an instant feedback for the currently used teaching materials. The proposed approach is based on widespread availability of built-in cameras in devices that are used by students, such as smart-phones, tablets or laptop computers. The captured frames from these devices are processed by various algorithms for preprocessing, face detection, segmentation and classification. The classification algorithm operates on a large database of faces with basic emotional expressions that is used to determine the student’s current mood from the captured frame. The output of the system may be used to adjust the difficulty level of tests or to determine the preferred media type.

Tobias Augustin

Safety and Health


Physiological Analysis of Stoop Lifting Based on Heart Rate for the Malaysian Population

The growing problem of work related back injuries has contributed to the rising cost of health care, human suffering and loss of productivity. In Malaysia, back pain injury awareness is still low, but the number of casualties as a result of back pain is increasing. In this study, the physiological aspects of stoop lifting posture on heart rate for the Malaysian population were studied. Different lifting heights, frequency, twist angle and weight of loads were studied to identify and recommend the appropriate lifting tasks to be used by the workers. An experimental work was conducted involving 36 subjects between 20 and 40 years old with no history of back pain. The subjects performed stoop lifting posture to lift loads of 10, 15, 20 and 23 kg to a lifting height of 70 cm and 130 cm, with the frequency of 1 lift, 3 lifts and 6 lifts per minute and twist angle of 0° and 90°. The results of the study showed that heart rate is linearly related to height of lifting, weights, frequency and angle of twisting. These findings can be used as a guide to design lifting tasks for the Malaysian population.

Rosnah Mohd. Yusuff, Nor Hafeezah Kamarudin, Ariff Mubarak Kamal Ariffin, Siti Anom Ahmad, Mohd. Amin Mohd. Soom

Evaluation of Physical and Motor Function in an Aging Population—Methodology Design

The paper is focused on issues regarding degenerative changes in older industrial population. Proposed research will focus on measurement of dexterity and motor skills, hand strength and range of motions. The paper reviews actual research studies in previously mentioned areas and forms a methodology for new research. The dexterity tests will be performed by Purdue Pegboard Test, Grooved Pegboard Test and Complete Minnesota Dexterity Test. For hand grip the Jamar dynamometer will be used and range of motions will be measured by standard goniometers. The questions about testing positions, number of repetitions, hand dominance, warm-ups and breaks during measurements are discussed and answered. Within this proposed research a mutual relation between dexterity, strength a range of motions will be evaluated. Also actual normative data for European population will available.

Marek Bures

Toward a Connected Health System for Older Adults: Lessons Learned

This paper aims to provide some lessons learned during the development of the Wireless Insole for Independent and Safe Elderly Living (WIISEL) system that can be generalized for all connected health devices for older adults. The analysis of the different results confirms that there is a clear challenge for modern technologically driven healthcare systems to meet the complex needs of an ageing society. We observed three major themes which should be taken into considerations when tackling the barriers to the uptake of technology enabled care: 1. Face cultural resistance and concerns toward technology enabled care; 2. Improve engagement of users in design; 3. Built or Increase users trust in connected health by spreading awareness and knowledge among end users about technology’s benefit and utility.

Vera Stara, Richard Harte, Mirko Di Rosa, Lorena Rossi, Gearóid ÓLaighin

Ergonomic Intervention in the Sector of Waste Collection, with the Use of Deparis Guide Method: Case of the Municipality of Monastir in Tunisia

Despite the evolution of tools, equipment and work-organization, the collection of waste remains a difficult and dangerous sector. In the town of Monastir, in 2013, the number of operators assigned to the direction of cleanliness and environment was 63 and they ensured in average 1800–2000 tons of collected waste per month up to 3000 tons during the summer season. The current intervention had followed a request of the Mayor of the Municipality of Monastir which focused on the reorganization of the activity of collection of household and similar waste, with the objective to improve both the efficiency and the safety of work and the health of collectors and drivers of vehicles. We based our intervention on the 1st level of the Sobane Strategy: the Déparis guide on its initial version. The focus group was composed of ten actors in the business of waste collection, including key operators (drivers and garbage collectors) but also representatives of local of supervision and also of management (responsible for the municipal park district coordinator). The diagnosis had focused on physical work environments (buildings, equipment, tools, air hygiene, urban transport) but also on team organization and psychosocial factors. Consultation between the team work allowed to retain a number of proposed corrective actions focusing on machines and tools work, but also actions to re-design the work organization. Among these propositions we mention the design and development of new work spaces in the municipal park taking into consideration both the needs but also the activities of operators and the organization of collective work. Over 80 % of the actions proposed by the working group were retained and implemented. Other more complicated aspects of the work situation were chosen as subject of future ergonomic intervention (e.g. computerization of the organizational process of the park) or further reflection objects in budgeting (installation alarm systems).

Lamia Bouzgarrou, Amira Omrane, Awatef Kraiem, Fehmi Sayadi, Salma Kammoun, Taoufik Khalfallah, Mohamed Adnène Henchi

Increasing Awareness About Sport in Turkey

Regardless of their ages, races, and gender all people benefit from active participation in sport and recreation activities because all of these activities aim to promote active participation. Sport for all (hereafter SfA) aims for taking this idea a step further. Sport for all activities demands voluntary active participation to sport for all activities of participants. Besides, voluntary work in maintenance of these activities, giving support to the projects and other events are also important as they help to create and promote a unique network of sport enthusiasts. The aim of this paper is to how Turkish Sport for All Federation (hereafter TSFAF) works to disseminate sport and active life style to the whole country through various organizations along with introducing some activities and their effectiveness in terms of raising awareness.

Erdal Zorba

The Experimental Study of Temperature Effect on Human Blood Flow Based on the Controllable Temperature Cabin

Human body’s endurance for high temperature or low temperature is limited. The change of environment temperature can directly affect the body surface temperature, and then affect the blood circulation system, thereby affecting the efficiency and safety of human. There are only a few reports about the relationship between temperature and blood circulation system so far. In order to explore the specific relations, we established a controllable temperature cabin. Based on the cabin, 15 healthy young male subjects’ blood flow velocity, heart rate and blood pressure were tested. The results show that the blood flow velocity at carotid artery decreases when the environment temperature increases from 15 to 25 °C, and then increases along the environment temperature increases from 25 to 40 °C. Heart rate and blood pressure presents the similar trend as the blood flow velocity along the variation of environment temperature.

Yao Chen, Huiting Qiao, Baoqing Pei, Yubo Fan, Li Ding

The Study of Evaluation Method for Safety Activity at Railroad Station Service in Consideration of User’s Security Feeling

We decided research object station service, and use the report that is sentence written by employee when they encounter event that making user’s uneasiness of an accident happens and so on. By reference to evaluation method of non-technical skill enforcement (SPLINTS and maker system for US Navy ODD), we made evaluation method by next 6 Categories how much words written in the reports: (1) Usual times Situation, (2) Event occurs Situation, (3) Process of Think and Do, (4) Result Prediction, (5) Consideration for Users, (6) Consideration for Colleague. And we make Advice Collection that Advice for activities about enhances safety awareness that are derived from the evaluation.

Kazuki Kiyota, Yuya Tanabe, Yusaku Okada

User-Centered Design Applied to USAF Civil Engineering Explosive Ordnance Disposal Tools and Jigs

This research employed a user-centered design process to examine the application of additive manufacturing (AM) to fabricate tools and jigs in USAF civil engineering (CE) operations. Within this research, numerous parts were designed and printed for use within CE operations, rapidly evolving the design based upon user feedback. The results of the part testing and the resultant surveys indicate that AM can impact the daily operations of a CE unit, improving operational effectiveness. Further, the research determined that AM has reached a point that the integration of AM into strategically coordinated units, along with proper education and training, can be beneficial for the CE career field. However, this research raises questions regarding the dissemination and rapid adoption of successful designs across DoD operations, without creating burdensome evaluation methods or proliferating an overwhelming number of less than ideal designs.

Bradford L. Shields, Vhance V. Valencia, Alfred E. Thal, Joseph D. Wander, Michael E. Miller, Jeffrey C. Parr

A Study on Activation of On-Site Management in Railway Enterprise—Focusing on Occupation Responsible for User’s Safety

In this study, by targeting three railroad companies, we evaluated that on-site management work just as assumed to motivate site workers, and extracted problems in the management. First, we analyzed statement by some field supervisors to grasp a situation of the management and the essential points to activate it. Secondly, we modeled an influence of on-site management on site workers’ motivation. And, we analyzed management effect on site-workers’ motivation by using Hierarchical Liner Models and classified issues on the management of each work site. Thirdly, we suggested safety manager of the Japanese railway enterprises guidelines we made to indicate solutions for the issues. Finally, we verified the effective on activation of on-site management in railway enterprises applying the guidelines to the management. Therefore, the study concludes to suggest the possibility of that the analysis and the guidelines we made contributed to activate on-site management.

Minami Wakata, Kumiko Takahashi, Yusaku Okada

Behavioral Ergonomics


The Effect of Speaking Aloud on Prospective Memory Performance in an Interrupted Situation

An ability of remembering an intention in an appropriate time is referred to Prospective Memory (PM). PM error occasionally causes fatal errors in various real industries. Therefore, the developing method of preventing PM error is very important. This study was conducted to investigate whether speaking aloud the intention is effective in preventing PM error or not. Speaking aloud is used to prevent forget important plan as RTC in railway industry. Given this fact, to investigate the effect of speaking aloud in preventing PM error is quite matter. In this experiment, the delay-execute paradigm was used, in which some interrupting tasks were involved. Some participates used speaking aloud technique and the other did not. As a result, speaking aloud decreased prospective performance surprisingly. One reason of it could be that participants committed to speaking aloud itself rather than put the PM task in their mind.

Ayanori Sato

Proactive Behavioral Orientation of a Subject as a Process of Investing in Career Capital in the World of “Boundaryless Careers”

The contemporary social configuration opens for individuals the range of numerous possibilities of career construction. The contemporary study in the subject of career orders to take into account the process of investing in the career capital that aims at making a subject oriented towards proactivity. Being active in the contemporary reality means constantly adapting to the changing context of an individual career construction and the new way of thinking about career means being a manager of the knowledge about yourself and the construction of your career portfolio. A subject’s career proactivity as a cognitive practice that is embodied in a continuous manner will be “a building material” to form the following features: looking for a change, seeing possibilities, creating situations, showing initiative and taking action. Looking at this issue from this perspective, the study of career is actually both, the study of individual changes and the changes in the society.

Agnieszka Cybal-Michalska

Does Instructional Video Advertising Influence Behavioral Intention? Comparative Study Between Hong Kong and Malaysia

This study aims to examine the influence of video type (commercial video vs. instructional video) and three cultural/individual difference factors (location: Hong Kong vs. Malaysia; education background: engineering/science vs. non-engineering/science; experience of using touchless technology: yes vs. no) on an individual’s behavioral intention to use the touchless system. This study was conducted with 60 participants (30 males and 30 females) from Hong Kong and 62 participants from Malaysia (31 males and 31 females) to investigate whether the video type and cultural/individual difference factors has an impact on individuals’ behavioral intention. The findings of this study reveal interesting comparative results between Hong Kong and Malaysia as well as provide useful insights for marketing practitioners.

Emily Yim-Lee Au, Pei-Lee Teh, Ravindra Goonetilleke, Pervaiz K. Ahmed, Soon-Nyean Cheong, Wen-Jiun Yap

Analyzing Driving Behavior Change as Influenced by Visual Feedback in Following Distance

Rear-end crashes are the most common crash in US. One factor influencing this type of crash is following distance. Since achieving and maintaining an appropriate following distance is a function of vehicle speed and distance, a mental model is difficult to establish. In general, it is thought that visual feedback is effective to support driver awareness. In the present research, changing driver behavior was investigated by giving in-vehicle visual feedback. The results indicated that drivers try to improve their behavior in a trip as a result of the visual feedback. The detail of improved behaviors included indirect impact of feedback such as frequency of receiving feedback as well as direct impact such as recovery time. Moreover, the effectiveness was not consistent with all drivers. This also suggests that research should focus on population subgroups instead of the entire group when evaluating the effectiveness of driver assistance systems.

Heishiro Toyoda, Tina B. Sayer, Joshua E. Domeyer

Electromyography (EMG) as a Tool for Computerized Psychomotor Test Validation

Standardized psychomotor tests are commonly used to evaluate human motor and cognitive skills. Computerization of these tests can promote ease of administration and data collection. However, computerized versions of tests are typically validated via performance measures. In this study, a virtual reality (VR) based simulation of the Block Design (BD) test (a standardized psychomotor task as part of the adult IQ test) with a haptically-enabled control was developed and compared with a physical version of the test. Electromyography (EMG) measures of forearm and thumb muscle activation levels were used to assess the validity of the simulation from a muscle use perspective. Results revealed comparable muscle activation levels between the VR-based task and the conventional BD test. Validation of such of a simulation of psychomotor testing promotes application of computerized psychomotor tests in experimental and clinical studies.

Wenjuan Zhang, Manida Swangnetr, Peter Bloomfield, David Kaber

Ergonomics Strategy


How We Can Create an Ergonomic Culture in a Company: An Application in Turkey

Nowadays, many organizations make a great effort to reduce workplace risk, prevent injuries and promote safety and awareness. As it is known, the emphasis is both muscular and mental work in Workstations, as well as the Occupational Health and Safety and foremost the work science that can be contributed is very important for the efficiency of ergonomics. When it comes to reducing ergonomic injuries-soft-tissue injuries, musculoskeletal disease and others that are extremely prevalent and costly for many companies-developing the correct culture is especially important. The aim of this study is to present an ergonomic culture implementation in a chemistry company in a city in Turkey. We implemented some ergonomic improvements in the company and we gave cultural seminars on ergonomics all blue color workers are participated in this theoretical and practical approach. Among the obtained results; Teaching of ergonomic principles to all employees are tested. Applications in pilot workstations are also checked to be satisfactory. By the way some ergonomic instruments are developed.

Gizem Akalp, Ahmet Fahri Ozok

Including Ergonomics Aspects into Mixed-Model Assembly Line Balancing Problem

Not considering ergonomics in the assembly systems can bring to sub-optimal solutions and, in case of high levels of ergonomics risk in the tasks execution, several musculoskeletal disorders affecting the global performance of the assembly line. Several papers have been developed in the last years about how to integrate the ergonomics aspects into traditional Single Assembly Line Balancing Problems (SALBP). In this paper, we have extended our recent integrated ergonomics approach to the Mixed-model ALBP (MALBP), where many products are processed in the assembly system in the same period. First, a theoretical model has been developed in order to simplify the MALBP into SALBP, under time and ergonomic approaches. Then the behavior of the assembly system with the real products has been evaluated in terms of time smoothness and ergonomics levels. General discussions and future agenda will be introduced at the end of the paper.

Fabio Sgarbossa, Daria Battini, Alessandro Persona, Valentina Visentin

Study on the Use of Expanding the Scope of Near-Miss Data in the Work Safety Activities—Based on the Pattern Analysis of the Characteristics of the Methods and Field Activities Related to Work Safety

Industrial safety activities are roughly divided into two types: activities to take measures for “direct factors” and for “latent factors”. Activity which may be mentioned as measures against latent factors is the near-miss activity. How to use the data of near-miss is that they select the required data on the basis of intuition and experience and reflect it in the field activities. However, measures against direct factors have priority over latent factors, and the measures against latent factors often do not work. There are large differences in the quality of the extracted data and the proposal of the activities between the experienced manager/skilled person and the inexperienced employee. Therefore, the aim of this study is to make aware of the lack of view and to help inexperienced employee extend measures against direct factors to against latent factors by encouraging them to systematically understand the methods and activities.

Kota Takahashi, Yusaku Okada

Comparing Psychosocial Factors Associated with Job Stress Among Administrative Staff and Cleaners

In this study the Swedish version of the Demand—Decision Latitude—Social support model was used. A total of 40 administrative staff and 40 cleaners participated. Demands and decision latitude scores were significantly higher in the administrative staff than in the cleaners. Social support scores were not significantly different between the administrative group and the group of cleaners. Psychological demands and skill discretion differed between the two working groups. The administrative staff’s perception of higher work demand and better decision latitude may be based on their belief that they possess appropriate education, general knowledge and detailed information about their work. Both groups had similar social support scores; it may be that members of both groups felt that they work as a group or team where their proximity fostered this perception of group social support.

Rupesh Kumar, Theorell Töres, Tore Markeset
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