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Über dieses Buch

This book presents reviews, examples and case studies of innovative applications in solid and hazardous waste management. The economics of waste management have since become a significant research area in their own right, and two chapters address these issues. In addition, dedicated chapters cover specific categories of waste such as biomedical and institutional waste, plastics and e-waste.

The book subsequently discusses newer analytical methods like SEM, EDX, XRD and optical microscopy, along with selected “older” methods for sampling and characterizing different types of waste. The various applications of mathematical tools like linear optimization, various software/models like WISCLeach, and DRASTIC, and tools like remote sensing and GIS are illustrated in many of the chapters. Lastly, since composting is one of the most popular treatment methods for managing the organic component of municipal solid waste, the book provides an overview of composting and the fundamentals of microbiology that are essential to understanding waste-related biological processes.

The book was primarily written for students and practitioners in the field who are already familiar with the basics. All chapters were prepared by practicing experts and scholars in the field, and are intended to help readers better understand and apply these principles and practices in their own endeavours.

Key topics covered in the book:

• The circular economy and the economics of solid waste management

• Various remote sensing and GIS applications for managing municipal solid waste, coal fires in mines, changes in land use and land cover in industrial areas, etc.

• Treatment and management of different types of solid waste: institutional (including biomedical), residential, e-waste, plastic, and ash from thermal power plants

• Sampling and characterization of municipal waste and compost

• Fundamentals of microbiology

• Overview of environmental regulations, especially those pertaining to solid and hazardous waste management



Chapter 1. Solid and Hazardous Waste Management: An Introduction

Solid waste management is now acknowledged as one of the major environmental issues of our times. It remains a challenge for developed countries and is an exponentially growing problem for developing countries. The last four decades are marked by several incidents highlighting problems with solid and hazardous waste management across the world.
Trans-boundary shipments of hazardous and solid waste have received world-wide attention and media headlines. Infamous examples include Khian Sea which started its journey from Philadelphia in 1986 and Mobro which started its journey from New York in 1987; two US barges or ships with cargoes of municipal solid waste that went from one country to another looking for a port to dump their wastes. The Mobro went all the way to Belize and brought its cargo back to Brooklyn, New York for incineration and landfilling. Many speculate that Khian Sea dumped its cargo somewhere in the Indian Ocean in 1988.
Most recently, a fire started on 27 January 2016 in India’s oldest and largest open dumping site, Deonar in Mumbai, and was visible in satellite images (shown in Fig. 1.1). It continued for several days leading to complaints of air pollution and closure of schools for 2 days. The massive fire was attributed to the buildup of methane gas in the open dump where the waste had reached heights of more than 30 m. Fires in this dumping site have been recurrent making living conditions in the surrounding areas extremely difficult.
Many sources have identified poor solid waste management as one of the major contributing factors to the spread of plague in Surat, India in 1994. Incidents like these led to promulgation of the Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules in India in 2000.
Several industrial sites all around the world remain unusable or a toxic nuisance for their neighbours due to improper handling and management of hazardous wastes on-site. One of the earliest and most cited examples in the USA includes Love Canal, Niagara Falls, New York, where toxic waste was dumped through the 1920s and got national attention only in 1976–1978. The Superfund program (under the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act, RCRA for ensuring proper disposal of solid and hazardous waste) was initiated in 1980 in the USA and was the government’s response for remediating and rehabilitating such contaminated industrial sites.
Sudha Goel

Chapter 2. Moving Towards a Circular Economy in Solid Waste Management: Concepts and Practices

Wastes are defined as those materials, substances, objects and products that are no longer of use to the consumer in terms of its original purpose, and are then disposed to the environment, usually as prescribed by the law. Based on a study in 2012, global municipal solid wastes (MSW) are expected to increase to approximately 2.2 billion tonnes per year in 2025 (Hoornweg and Bhada-Tata 2012). Wastewater, on the other hand, is also considered a global problem with many regions experiencing different issues: from water disease-related deaths in Africa and Asia to eutrophication in China and Europe (GEO5 2012). Another waste, for example, emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from anthropogenic sources, is reported to be one of the major causes of increase in the global mean temperature. These temperatures are expected to increase by 1.8–4.0 °C between 1980 and 2100 (IPCC 2007). Aside from being considered as consumers of environmental resources, mankind is also considered as producers or generators of wastes which has put a strain on the environment. When the environment is affected, this poses a question to the finiteness of our resources. This chapter focuses on solid wastes, waste management, and the significance of a Circular Economy (CE) to solid waste management.
Maria Isabel Dumlao-Tan, Anthony Halog

Chapter 3. Institutional Waste Management

Indian society was regarded as a traditional society until the first quarter of the twentieth century and modernisation emerged thereafter due to change in the social values that are attributed to creation of new social structure and social institutions. Though modernization and advancement in science and technology improves the living standards of the people in the society, it also results in greater exploitation of natural resources and pollution of the environment. In a decade, India has added nearly 20,000 colleges, i.e., the number of colleges increased from 12,806 in 2000–2001 to 33,023 in 2010–2011 which translated into growth of more than 150%. Numbers of degree colleges have doubled from 256 to 564 and IITs (Indian Institute of Technology) have increased from 7 to 23 in a span of 20 years. As a consequence of the increase in educational institutions and other government sectors, enormous amount of waste is being generated with a negative impact on the environment.
Sanjeev Kumar, Anjani Devi Chintagunta, Knawang Chhunji Sherpa, Rintu Banerjee

Chapter 4. Scientific Approach for Municipal Solid Waste Characterization

Knowledge of the composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in specific rural or urban areas is of fundamental importance for the technical planning of waste collection, transport, recycling and treatment systems. Economic requirements, environmental influences and social impacts of waste management are projected and addressed within the system based on the waste composition. However, MSW is usually highly heterogeneous. Waste composition depends on consumption behaviour, housing structure, time, area, climate and other factors. Generation of reliable primary data on the composition of MSW appears to be difficult, time consuming and expensive. However, through an accurate statistical approach uncertainties in the technical planning are limited, and balanced with the required financial constraints for a characterization study. Apart from waste composition, profound and specific information on the generation of waste per person, behavioural aspects and local conditions are generated within the analysis.
Dirk Weichgrebe, Christopher Speier, Moni Mohan Mondal

Chapter 5. Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW): Global Trends

Globally and in India, solid waste management is now a major environmental concern. It is now well-known that increase in the total amount of waste generated is directly proportionate to population growth and economic development. Municipal solid waste (MSW) includes refuse from households, waste from commercial establishments, and refuse from institutions, market waste, yard waste, and street sweeping (IBRD 1999). MSW usually contains food waste, paper, cardboard, plastics, textiles, glass, metals, wood, street sweeping, and tree trimmings, general wastes from parks, beaches, and other recreational areas. The composition of MSW varies according to consumption habits, income levels and standards of living among other factors (Annepu 2012). Global trends with regard to waste generation and composition are summarized in this chapter with greater emphasis on trends in India.
Prashanth Kandakatla, Ved Prakash Ranjan, Sudha Goel

Chapter 6. Applications of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) in Assimilation of Environmental Data

Remote Sensing (RS) is the science and art of obtaining information about an object without touching or changing the object, specifically, the Earth’s surface or atmosphere (Lillesand et al. 2004). Remote Sensing is basically used by the scientific community for mapping and monitoring of natural resources on the surface of the earth. Remote sensing images provide reliable surface information for large spatial areas. The satellite images of an area are records of its changing hydro-geomorphology over time. In India, National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Hyderabad maintains databases of earth surface images using various sensors, viz. PAN, LISS I, LISS II, LISS III, OCM, WIFS, and AWIFS. Satellites providing images are IRS-1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, P5, P6 and OCEANSAT. India currently has 5 Cartosat satellites (1, 2, 2A, 2B, and 2C) with resolution ranging from 1 m (Cartosat-2) to the most recent one (Cartosat 2C launched on 22 June 2016) providing images with resolution of 25 cm. These high resolution images can be effectively used for making digital elevation models (DEM), water resources management and several other applications.
Debasis Deb

Chapter 7. Applications of Remote Sensing and GIS in Solid Waste Management – A Review

Solid waste, thrown away in our surroundings and heaped on Mother Earth every day, is a by-product of civilization. Waste has irritated civilization for thousands of years. With rapid growth in world population, industrial revolution and greater consumerism, the amount of waste generated has grown exponentially. Thus, both economic development and population increase have contributed to the rising volumes of waste. In the last few decades, with greater ease in the movement of money, goods and population, generation and consumption of goods has increased resulting in increased production of waste materials. Generation of wastes is an indication of inefficient use of resources, making products less valuable. From a scientific viewpoint, waste management requires consideration of the waste and the type of place where the waste has originated.
Deblina Dutta, Sudha Goel

Chapter 8. Environmental Impacts of Pond Ash Dumping at Kolaghat Thermal Power Plant (KTTP) – Physico-chemical Characterization of Pond Ash

One of the major sources of pollution in the modern world of industrialization and urbanization is the generation of large quantities of Coal Combustion Residue (CCR) from the combustion of coal in thermal power plants. CCRs include fly ash, bottom ash and pond ash. When pulverized coal is burnt to generate heat, the residue collected from different rows of electrostatic precipitators in dry form contains 80% fly ash. It is an important resource for production of Portland Pozzolana Cement, a replacement of ordinary Portland cement. 20% of residue of burnt coal, collected in the water-impounded hopper below the boilers is called bottom ash. It is generally used for fills, embankments and road construction. Pond ash is a mixture of bottom ash and fly ash as available in ash ponds. It is a resource material for manufacturing clay ash bricks, filling material for area development, construction of embankments etc.
Prasenjit Ghosh, Sudha Goel

Chapter 9. Leaching Behaviour of Pond Ash

Fly ash and bottom ash are mixed along with water in thermal power plants (TPPs) and the resulting slurry is carried to ash ponds through drains (Shivpuri et al. 2011). This slurry contains trace metals such as As, Cr, Zn, Cd, etc. which are toxic in nature and sometimes radioactive elements such as U, Th, etc. are also present. These metals are highly likely to leach into surrounding soil and groundwater (Mandal and Sengupta 2005) making wet disposal of coal combustion residues (CCRs) a serious environmental concern. On the other hand, fly ash is often dumped in dry state which leads to high levels of suspended particulate matter in the air. As the particle size of the dust varies from sub-micron to microns, it can cause serious respiratory problems. So, fly ash particles can be hazardous in nature and their environmental impacts need to be assessed and mitigated.
Prasenjit Ghosh, Sudha Goel

Chapter 10. WQI, DRASTIC and Contaminant Transport Modelling Using WiscLEACH 2.0

In the present chapter, impacts of flyash generation on local river water, ground water and river sediments are discussed. Rupnarayan river water and groundwater samples were collected from the study area and analysed for trace elements and different ions. The concentrations of different elements and ions (both in river and groundwater) were then compared with their recommended acceptable limits prescribed by WHO, IS 10500-2012 and IS 2296-1982 to assess their suitability for drinking and domestic uses respectively. Water Quality Index (WQI) and DRASTIC were applied for qualitative analyses of river water and ground water, respectively. Soil samples were collected from the surrounding areas of the ash ponds in Kolaghat and one soil sample was collected from the campus of IIT Kharagpur as the background or uncontaminated soil sample. Mineralogical compositions and trace metals concentrations in the soil and sediment samples were determined and compared with that of background soil to assess the level of land and river bed contamination. Pond ash and fly ash are used as filling materials in local roads. Since pond ash contains heavy and toxic metals, it is likely that these metals will leach from pond ash when in contact with rain water. Contaminant transport modelling of two metals, Ba and Cr from pond ash stabilized base layers of roads into the soil vadose zone and groundwater zone was done using WiscLEACH 2.0 software. The maximum concentrations of these metals and their corresponding locations in the two zones after 1, 10 and 50 years of their first leaching were predicted using this model.
Prasenjit Ghosh, Sudha Goel

Chapter 11. Degradation of Plastics

Today, plastics are an integral part of modern society. Living without plastics is almost impossible ever since their mass production began in the 1950s (Barnes et al. 2009). Plastics are versatile materials mainly due to their molecular structure and additives, and have many different positive applications that have eased human life to a great extent. However, plastics are a major treatment and disposal problem in urban solid waste management as plastics are relatively inert and non-biodegradable (Nayak et al. 2011). It is an undeniable fact that the environment and its biodiversity is greatly disturbed and damaged as a result of the rampant and uncontrolled use and disposal of these non-biodegradable materials (Barnes et al. 2009; Teuten et al. 2009). The impact of plastics on the environment is now a global concern since treatment and disposal methods are limited while rates of production and usage are increasing. Incineration of these plastic wastes generates toxic and harmful gases causing air pollution and is a common practice in many less developed and developing countries as appropriately engineered/planned landfill sites to dispose these wastes are very limited. Additionally, many disposal methods that are not acceptable like open dumping, uncontrolled incineration, unscientific composting and improper landfilling are often followed in countries like India (Kandakatla et al. 2012). Increasing concern among people about this problem has stimulated interest in the field of biodegradation of polymers such as polyethylene and polystyrene, etc., which are very stable in nature, and are not readily biodegradable. Globally, about 140 million tonnes of synthetic polymers are produced every year (Masayuki 2001) and only about 10% of these materials are recycled or reused as the disposal options are extremely limited.
Bijlee Nithin, Sudha Goel

Chapter 12. Electronic Waste (E-Waste) Generation and Management

With the beginning of this millennium, the world has been struggling to deal with increasing quantities of solid waste. Rapid advancement in technology, especially the production of electrical and electronic goods has resulted in a new stream of waste known as electrical and electronic waste making it the fastest growing waste stream in the world. Equipment at the end-of-life (EOL) leads to e-waste generation in huge amounts. Increasing obsolescence rates of electrical and electronic equipment result in higher e-waste generation rates leading to disposal problems. E-waste, if managed improperly or inadequately, can cause enormous impact on the global environment as well as on human health.
Deblina Dutta, Sudha Goel

Chapter 13. Survey of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Treatment Methods and Compost Samples

The unwanted, useless or used solid materials generated from combined residential, industrial and commercial activities are known as solid waste. As per the Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling Rules, 2000), garbage is defined as Municipal Solid Waste which includes commercial and residential wastes generated in municipal or notified areas in either solid or semi-solid form excluding industrial hazardous wastes but including treated bio-medical wastes. Municipal solid waste consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets.
B. R. Hiremath, Sudha Goel

Chapter 14. Development and Application of a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) Tool for Solid Waste Management: Kolkata as a Case Study

Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a major challenge for developing countries due to rapid increase in Solid Waste (SW) generation rates and financial constraints for proper management. Poorly managed SW causes severe consequences to society like financial and aesthetic degradation, environmental pollution and is a serious health hazard. SWM consists of six functional elements: generation, storage, collection, transfer, processing or treatment and disposal. Current regulations hold the administrative, i.e., municipal authority responsible for SWM and all expenditure on collection, transfer, processing and disposal of SW has to be met using the financial resources available. The main sources of revenue for any municipal authority are municipal or property tax and octroi. In a survey of municipal budgets and revenues for five major cities in India, 38 to 83% of the revenues were derived from these sources (Sekhar and Bidarkar 2013). Non-tax revenue, grants and other contributions formed the remaining part of the total revenues. In general, policy makers prepare SWM plans by optimizing expenditure on collection, transfer, processing and disposal of SW which is proportionate to municipal tax based on direct costs to households. Additional expenditure to be incurred by the municipal authority in improving the system has to be recovered from the community as additional municipal tax. Also, any savings by the municipal authority are transferred to the households in terms of tax relief. However, these SWM plans fail to account for inconvenience costs to users and environmental costs.
Tumpa Hazra, Bhargab Maitra, Sudha Goel

Chapter 15. Fundamentals of Microbiology

While a large number of organisms are involved in the degradation of solid waste, microbes or micro-organisms constitute the biggest group. Other than vermi-composting, all bioprocesses for solid waste treatment are designed based on microbes, mostly bacteria and fungi. Microbes are defined as microscopic organisms that individually are too small to be seen by the naked human eye.
Tandra Mohanta, Deblina Dutta, Sudha Goel


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