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Über dieses Buch

This book explores the different ways in which human-factors engineering influences organizations’ and enterprises’ well-being and competitiveness. It covers a wealth of interrelated topics such as service engineering, service science, human-computer interaction, service usability, attitude and opinion assessment, servicescape design and evaluation, and training for service delivery. Further topics include service systems modeling, anthropology in service science, and customer experience, as well as ethical issues and the impact of an aging society. Based on the AHFE 2016 International Conference on The Human Side of Service Engineering, held on July 27-31, 2016, in Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA, the book provides readers with a comprehensive, general view of current research and challenges in the important field of service engineering. It also provides practical insights into the development of services for different kinds of organizations, including health care organizations, aviation providers, manpower allocation, hospitality and entertainment, as well as banking and financial institutions.



People-Centered Service Systems


Linking Business and Technology for Future Customer Creation

After the 1990s, study on knowledge exploration and exploitation research (March in Organization Science 2(1):71–87, [1]) is initiated. The study recognized the importance of the both of knowledge exploration and exploitation. Furthermore, the knowledge co-creation with the customer and various stakeholders is explored by open innovation and user innovation study. Due to service era, the knowledge creation system affects manufacture companies as well. However, the study focused on knowledge exploration in R&D management of the servitized manufacturing companies is not carried out enough. This paper discusses the importance of management of weak ties for knowledge creation with various stakeholders including the customer in R&D in service era.

Yuriko Sawatani

User-Centered Arrangement of Public Services

This article reports on the issue of arrangement of public services. We argue that public services offered together in one building are often combined without consideration of citizens’ needs. It is not unusual for services to be arranged only according to organizational charts of public administration bodies or space availability. Thus we postulate a shift of perspective from administration-centered to user-centered approach that should be applied in the public administration in general and in public services in particular. To this end we propose a method for decision support on user-centered arrangements of public services. The method is a planning and evaluation tool based on feature modelling. It makes it possible to describe services from the user perspective and compare them in terms of their advantageous arrangement in a facility building. The method has been tested on a real case study and the results are presented and discussed.

Robert Rusek, Joan Colomer-Llinas

What Makes a System Smart? Wise?

The human-side of service engineering community has an opportunity to participate in an emerging trend to connect sociotechnical system research and engineering with the DIKIW (data-information-knowledge-intelligence-wisdom) hierarchy. The digital economy is grounded in big data and information systems. The knowledge economy is being redefined in the cognitive era by artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing capabilities, and as a result our systems are getting more intelligent or smarter. However, beyond smarter, what are wiser systems? Can these terms be made more rigorous and operational? The goal of this paper is to provide a jumping off point for the AHFE HSSE community on this topic, and to explore the concept of smart versus wise from three related socio-technical systems perspectives: polycentric systems, viable systems, and service systems.

Jim Spohrer, Clara Bassano, Paolo Piciocchi, Md. Abul Kalam Siddike

Physiological Evaluation and Quantification of Physician’s Cognitive Workload During Interaction with Computer Based Clinical System

Tracking cognitive workload (CWL) of physicians interacting with health information technology (HIT) might be useful in order to identify high-risk tasks, and to flag situations when performance might be expected to decline. Eight physician radiation oncologists (3-faculty, 5-residents) pupillary responses were monitored during treatment-planning tasks. The average change in task evoked pupillary response (TEPR) from pre-set baseline was calculated and the percent of time that the TEPR dilated by ≥0.45 mm (from historical studies) was taken as a measure of CWL where performance degradation could be expected. Physician performance was assessed subjectively (willingness-to-approve the treatment-plan) and objectively (number and severity of errors). There was an association between CWL and subjective performance (p < 0.01), but not objective performance (p > 0.05) as assessed using logistic regression analysis. Future research is needed to further advance available methods to quantify the relationship between CWL and performance during physicians-HIT interactions.

Prithima Reddy Mosaly, Lukasz Mazur, Lawrence Marks

Measuring Cognitive Workload and General Activity of Controllers in Hazardous Liquids and Gas Control Rooms

Operators of hazardous liquids, gas transmission, and gas distribution control rooms are required by the US Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) to monitor the general activity of their controllers to make sure they have enough time to analyze and to react to alarms. The regulation emphasizes that these Operators monitor what controllers are doing and how often they do these activities. Pipeline Performance Group has conducted over 145 workload studies in this industry over the past six years and has created industry benchmarks to determine baseline measures of workload and general activity for controllers.

Michele Terranova, Charles Alday

Assessing the Quality of the A3 Thinking Tool for Problem Solving

The objective of this pilot study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of a newly developed A3 Quality Assessment (QA) rubric to evaluate the quality of completed Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) projects that used an A3 Thinking Tool (A3) for problem solving. One A3 was independently reviewed by 7 PDSA experts using 5 main levels and 22 sublevels. Evaluations were compared and coded for agreement and used for statistical analysis. Fleiss’ kappa statistics was performed to test for inter-rater reliability between experts across 5 main and 22 sublevels. Preliminary results suggest that the A3 QA rubric meets reliability criteria with a moderate level of agreement beyond chance alone (κ = 0.44) and it is applicable to measure progress on problem solving abilities spearheaded via PDSA cycles. Additional verification testing is needed across multiple A3 improvement projects completed in multiple A3 Thinking templates.

Alison Amos, Kinley Taylor, Kendra Johnson, Elizabeth Comitz, Robert Adams, Gregg Tracton, Bhishamjit Chera, Lawrence Marks, Lukasz Mazur

Ethics in Service Design for Children with Autism and Cognitive Disabilities

Service design for persons with autism and cognitive disabilities poses ethical challenges with regard to how to best involve these individuals in user participatory design in ways that are sensitive to their abilities and produce useful data. This study will identify a set of best practices for inclusion of persons with cognitive disabilities and autism into the design cycle as part of user participatory design. A case study of the design of creativity workshops for children with cognitive disabilities and autism will be discussed with regard to data collection methods and the ability of that data to inform aspects of the service design process.

Debra Satterfield

Integrating Health Services Engineering: A Multidimensional Approach

During the past two decades in health care, increasing numbers of preventable hospital deaths and medical errors, an explosion of technologies, pharmaceuticals, and diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, and rising costs have resulted in a shift in focus away from “one doctor, one patient” to the systems and processes that support care delivery. While leaders in health care have begun to recognize the contribution of engineering tools and principles in improving health care safety and quality, integration of these techniques and the engagement of engineers has not been fully realized. Creating an infrastructure that promotes a collaborative foundation begins in the academic setting. This article describes a three-pronged approach to integration that will ultimately improve results, efficiency, efficacy, and clinical and operational outcomes in health care facilities.

Carolyn Hamasaki Brown

Use of Smart Phones to Improve the Human Factors Engineering of People Suffering from Chronic Diseases

Smartphone play an important role in our lives as well as they have become an integral part of the basic elements in the work environment. Our work deals with the services presents in the media of health care, as a Smartphone user of patients who have the ability to influence the health issues of people suffer from chronic diseases. Chronic diseases may cause heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, depression, diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, oral diseases, arthritis and osteoporosis its effect the ability of human for working and studying. Services provided by using the smart phone has become indispensable to human life, whether family relation, commercial, industrial, bank transfer, emergency and accidents. The results crucially appeared that Smartphone playing pivotal role in the assistance of people suffer from chronic diseases.

Salah A. M. Elshourbagy

3DPro—Development of Low-Cost Prosthetics Using 3D Printing Technologies

An innovative approach for the development of low-cost prosthetics is introduced. The goal is to use new technologies like 3D scanning and 3D printing in order to produce individualized prostheses, e.g., artificial limbs, using recycled plastics. We primarily focus on target groups of injured humans in Third World countries, for example in unsettled regions or countries torn by wars. The specific challenge lies in the individual and precise fit of the prosthetics as well as in the visual approximation of the constructed elements at high cost efficiency. In this context the application of 3D printing technologies offers promising perspectives. Our approach includes two major tasks: the accurate measurement of (leg) stumps using cheap depth cameras (e.g., Microsoft Kinect), as well as the development of a manufacturing concept along the supply chain from plastic selection and recycling up to printing the prostheses based on body scans. Current research results based on prototypic developments are presented. They include the analysis of appropriate types of synthetic materials, the conduction of load tests, as well as the transfer of the stress test results into simulations of various 3D models using finite element methods.

Christian Zagel, Sebastian Huber, Jochen Süßmuth, Markus Obermeier, Freimut Bodendorf

Virtual Rehabilitation Use for Paretic Upper Limb for Individuals with Chronic Hemiparetic Stroke

Stroke causes numerous deficiencies. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of virtual rehabilitation on chronic hemiparetic upper limb functionality with application of Motor Activity Log–MAL, Wolf Motor Function Test-WMFT and Abilhand. Quality of life was assessed by Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale-SSQOL-Brazil. A single case study (ABA type) was done. Two participants were evaluated in the baseline, during the training using virtual-reality with X-box360Kinect, and in followup. About MAL, the participant 1 improved in the followup, while participant 2 remained. For Abilhand, the data remained stable for both. In the participant 1 WMFT obtained improvement in the task 7 (weight in box) and task 14 (prehension). The participant 2 acquired a constant behavior in relation to the same tasks, while the results related to qualitative aspects, remained stable for both. Virtual rehabilitation contributed for greater functional use of the upper limb and better quality of life.

Renata Cristina Magalhães Lima, Ana Paula Dias de Menezes, Maria Carolina Gomes Inácio, Silvia Moreira Amaral, Regiane Relva Romano

Cognitive Workload to Performance During Human-Computer Interactions


Classification of EEG Features for Prediction of Working Memory Load

The objective of this research was to compare classification methods aimed at predicting working memory (WM) load. Electroencephalogram (EEG) data was collected from physicians while performing basic WM tasks and simulated medical scenarios. Data processing was performed to remove noise from the signal used for analysis (e.g., muscle activity, eye-blinks). The data from basic WM tasks was used to develop and test the four classification models (LASSO regression, support vector machines (SVM), nearest shrunken centroids (NSC), and iterated supervised principal components (ISPC) to predict a WM state indicative of physicians’ optimal performance. The naïve misclassification rate was 19.74 %; LASSO and SVM outperformed this threshold: 18.10 and 12.21 % respectively). Both classification models had relatively high-specificity (LASSO: 97.2 %; SVM: 99.8 %); but relatively low-sensitivity LASSO: 20.7 %; SVM: 39.6 %). Results from simulated medical scenarios suggest that physicians were approximately 83 % of the time in the WM state that is likely indicative of optimal performance.

Anthony Abrantes, Elizabeth Comitz, Prithima Mosaly, Lukasz Mazur

Are Behavioral Measures Useful for Detecting Cognitive Workload During Human-Computer Interaction?

Commonly used techniques for measuring cognitive workload during human-computer interactions can be cumbersome or intrusive to task performance. In the current work, we examine the utility of heuristic behavior analysis, including keystroke dynamics, mouse tracking, and body positioning for measuring cognitive workload during direct interactions between humans and computers. We present a method for modeling behavioral measures as well as physiological and neurophysiological data using probabilistic, statistical, and machine learning algorithms for real-time estimation of human states. We believe this discussion will inform the capability to provide estimates of cognitive workload in real-world scenarios.

Seth Elkin-Frankston, Bethany K. Bracken, Scott Irvin, Michael Jenkins

Workload Model for Situation Awareness

For human system interfaces involving supervisory control with a high degree of automation, maintaining situation awareness (SA) can be an important and challenging operator task. Additionally, maintaining SA for these types of operator tasks can be a significant percentage of the operator workload to execute their mission. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the workload required for an operator to obtain and sustain SA in an operations center during a typical eight hour shift. The methodology can be used to assist in identifying operator stress points during operations, crew task allocations, and potential user interface design modifications required to increase an operator’s SA. Our method for modeling SA workload uses Wickens et al. (Hum. Factors 45:360–380, 2003 [1]), McCarley et al. (A computational model of attention/situation awareness [2]) Salience, Expectancy, Effort and Value (SEEV) model. SEEV estimates (or models) how often an operator will attend to specific data to obtain or maintain SA. This paper describes how SEEV was used to estimate SA workload and provides a sample of empirical data that was obtained to demonstrate the validity of future research on our concept.

Richard Steinberg, Alice Diggs, Dan Donohoo

Data-Driven Services in Omni-Channel Customer Relations


Using Smartphones for Information Retrieval in Omnichannel Scenarios—Assessing the Effectiveness of Technological Triggers

The use of consumer-owned technologies increasingly gains importance while shopping in brick and mortar retail stores. This is especially important when considering young focus groups like the digital natives that have grown up with mobile devices as their primary means of entertainment. Nevertheless, little is known about the entry points into the omnichannel customer journey and which technologies and methods can be applied by a retailer to steer the user to the most appropriate information source. This paper investigates the effectiveness and attractiveness of different technological triggers, respectively entry points for information retrieval in a physical store environment by using consumer-owned smartphones. The results of a laboratory experiment conducted amongst 191 participants are presented and transferred into recommendations for action. As an implication for future research a concept is presented that intends to reveal the influence of computer-related attribution styles towards the willingness of using different trigger technologies like QR codes or NFC.

Christian Zagel, Adelka Niels, Freimut Bodendorf

Computer-Related Attributions: An Intercultural Comparison

Attribution theory deals with the causal explanations people find for things happening around them, and also with the extent of control people feel they have over external events. When applied to computer use, specific computer-related attribution styles can be found. However, so far research on computer-related attributions has only been conducted with Western samples, and intercultural differences have not been taken into account. In this study we investigated computer-related attribution styles among Chinese users by means of an online survey with N = 66 participants. Based on characteristics of Chinese culture, we hypothesized that Chinese computer users would show predominantly external attribution patterns. This hypothesis was confirmed for attribution of success, while attribution of failure followed different patterns. Generally, Chinese attribution styles matched those found among Western samples, albeit the prevalence of each style varied between Eastern and Western users.

Monique Janneck, Jianqing Xiao, Adelka Niels

The Impact of Causal Attributions on the User Experience of Error Messages

Attribution theory deals with the causal explanations that individuals find for events and behaviors and the extent of control they feel to have to influence the cause. A person’s understanding of the causes of past events influences his/her future actions, e.g. the motivation to carry on with a task. This study examines whether causal attributions of computer users have an influence on the perception and the experience of system and error messages by means of an online survey with N = 196 participants. The study results give hints that the attribution of computer-related failures indeed partly influences how users perceive systems and error messages.

Adelka Niels, Tobias Lesser, Torben Krüger

Multi-Sided Measurement of Service System


Toward a Value Metrics—A Service-Dominant Logic View

The main objective of this research is to develop a framework of value metric in the paradigm of service-dominant (SD) logic. We define value as benefits experienced by beneficiaries using providers’ competences, customers’ experiences, and other stakeholders’ intention which alternatively considered as “service content”. Based on extensive literature review, we develop a framework of value metrics where interaction, context, time, and institutional arrangements are the candidates of mediators for converting potential value into realized value. Our framework is the first attempt to develop a concrete value metrics. Finally, this paper suggests future research direction for developing and validating more concrete scales in measuring value in the view of SD logic.

Md Abul Kalam Siddike, Kazuyoshi Hidaka

The Relationship Model of Three Benefit Factors in Delayed Benefit Services

We focused on how customers of Delayed Benefit Services (DBSs) perceive their benefits from service providers in the service delivery processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among benefits, customer participation and customer satisfaction as a case of medical service. It was found that there are three fundamental benefit factors (Emotional Benefit, Functional Benefit and Perspective Benefit) in DBSs. We conducted our research with a questionnaire administered to 1984 patients with chronic diseases. This survey collected data on service quality, three benefits, customer participation and customer satisfaction. In delivery of DBSs, customers acquire Emotional Benefit and Perspective Benefit, after that Functional Benefit. Perspective Benefit promotes customer participation and customer satisfaction. This study suggested that the measurement of Emotional Benefit, Functional Benefit and Perspective Benefit in DBSs could be helpful for comprehending the level of service quality and predicting customer participation and customer satisfaction.

Chihiro Morito, Kazuhiro Fujimura

Qualitative Analysis of Hospitality Extended to Patients by Reception Desk Clerks at Japanese Dental Clinics

The way appropriate manner and speaking for customers is one of the important things for the people who are engaged in the service industry. With the maturity of society and the market, besides the quality of products, improvement of the service extended to customers is one of the important factors to increase the company’s turnover and profit. Currently in Japan, due to the upsurge of the dental clinics, the dentistry industry as a whole is suffering from severe and excessive competition. In this study, we focus on the dental clinic management in Japan, where the service quality exerts a great influence to the clinic’s outcome. In order to make the good evaluation criteria of dental clinic reception, corresponding dental receptions in dental clinic with established reputation were employed. One dental clinic in Kanto region and three dental clinics in Kansai region were chosen to investigate through video analysis. The responses of clerks in reception to their patients at dental clinic were taken by videos since the entrance of patients. Analysis of greetings, smile and sight line were carried out. The results showed that clerks with 10 years experiences commonly communicate with patients with more sight contact and smile face than those clerks without 10 years experiences, which is considered as the guideline to make the good evaluation criteria.

Yuko Kamagahara, Tomoya Takeda, Shanshan Jin, Xiaodan Lu, Noriyuki Kida, Tadayuki Hara, Tomoko Ota

A Taxonomic Classification for Advertising Design and Development Process Based on Concurrent Engineering

The aim of this article is to make a methodological analysis of Advertising Design and Development Process (ADDP) from the context of Concurrent Engineering (CE) dimensions to define a research agenda from the strategic point of view that can address a possible problem solution in advertising sector. The study is based on the design of a literary classification methodology to analyze the applications that have been developed, taking into account the type of study, the nature of the data, the purpose of the research, the amount of dimensions of CE addresses and which have been the most studied. The article identifies that does not exist in the literature a methodology to evaluate the ADDP in light of the dimensions of CE by providing an important finding for those interested in performing management related studies and ADDP.

Dayni Reyes Sanjuán, Rita Peña-Baena Niebles

Program Entrepreneurship and Innovation: Education as the Core of Innovation

The entrepreneurship grow up significantly in the last decade, showing new ways to emergent economies. With that development has become the necessity of entrepreneur education. The society look for one guidance to build new opportunities of business or some help to innovate in some way. Universities have created bachelors and schools have developed courses for entrepreneurs. The program Undertake and Innovate look outside of the undergraduate public and consider that entrepreneur should offer for teenager, students that yet concluded the graduation and people that work in plant of big companies. In this paper will show some results of the program Program Entrepreneurship and Innovation: Education as the core of Innovation.

Douglas Henrique Garcia, Andreia Damasio Leles, Regiane Relva Romano

Study of the Difference in the Movement of Experienced and Inexperienced Persons in Japanese Bowing

In Japanese, to receive a guest with hospitality and assist him in various ways is called “omotenashi”. The word “omotenashi” has become internationally recognized as designating a form of welcoming rooted in the traditions and culture of Japan. Greeting is the basis of omotenashi, and one of the ways to greet is to bow. We conducted an experiment on the difference in maneuver between an experienced and inexperienced person and measuring the positions and timing of the bowing motion. Furthermore for the inexperienced persons, we conducted an analysis of the improvement of the motion with presence or absence of instruction as variable. The bow of the experienced person had a stable angle, with the shoulder angle (θ1) being around 180° all three times, and the angle of the waist (θ2) was almost 30° all three times. Inexperienced persons can be trained to a certain level by watching footage of model bowing, though there are significant differences according to the individual.

Tomoya Takeda, Yuko Kamagahara, Xiaodan Lu, Noriyuki Kida, Tadayuki Hara, Tomoko Ota

Ethical Issues in Online Education

Ethical issues in online education are present in course content, methods of engaging students, and evaluation strategies. Ethical issues are also present in determining the role of online education in access or barriers to information, the role of the instructor in the online education process, and determining student competencies through granting degrees or formal completions such as certifications. Students also show preferences with regard to online content delivery especially when the classroom environment itself negatively impacts learning such for students with autism or other social anxiety issues. This paper aims at giving an overview of ethical issues that concern MOOCs, as well as the smaller typical online class in a degree program, and motivates this view with results from a study about the connection between Autism and Online Education.

Debra Satterfield, Sebastian Kelle

Evaluation of Services: Methods, Tools and Approaches to Enhance Quality and Operational Sustainability of Services


Describing Service Performances: What Are the Challenges?

To enhance operational sustainability of services, service quality is needed to be monitored. Expected and experienced service can be compared to evaluate service quality. Service performances involves a sequence of events with many details; describing performances can therefore be challenging. Several methods and tools supporting description of service performances have been introduced. However, there has been little attention on which methods or tools are used in practice and what are the challenges. We conducted an online-based survey with fifty-four people working in service design and development in Norway. We found that there is a need for standardised and consistent methods that can illustrate different communication channels in service delivery processes and support description of both the details and whole process in an intuitive manner. Having a standardised software tool and the guideline, which support illustration of service delivery processes, will be a possible way to overcome the challenges.

Eunji Lee

A Field Evaluation: The Effects of Rear-Camera-On Mode for Texting While Walking

Using a smartphone while walking (e.g., texting-while-walking) is a dual task causing cognitive distraction. Several solutions have been proposed to improve pedestrian safety by researchers in CHI community as well as industries, including transparent texting technique, which enables the device’s camera continuously capture and present video images as a background within a text messaging session. We conducted an experiment to evaluate the effects of rear-camera-on mode on typing speed, typing accuracy and walking speed. For a better manipulation, we designed an app for iPhone 5S that can record the user input data with millisecond precision and enable the user to switch on/off the rear camera within a texting session. In our study, 12 participants evaluated the performance of transparent texting. The ANOVA for typing speed, typing accuracy in two different typing conditions showed there were no significant differences at the 5 % significant level. However, there was a significant difference between the average walking speeds in two conditions at the 5 % significant level.

Xiangzhen Kong, Shengwu Xiong, Shili Xiong, Zhixing Zhu, Guoyang Long

A Method to Detect Problems in Information Display Design of Fast Food Restaurants Based on Customers’ Eye Movement Data

This paper discusses a gaze-based method to find design problems in a Japanese UDON restaurant. The gaze-based method proposed is based on video-recorded customers’ behavior while staying at a restaurant as well as their eye movement data. In the method, the eye movement data are interpreted with their relations to customers’ task contexts. A series of experiments were conducted in which customers’ eye movement data as well as their behavior while staying at a Japanese UDON restaurant named Hanamaru Udon (including entering, ordering, paying and eating) were recorded in real store conditions. Based on the data, we are now conducting comparative analysis of each customer’s tendency of attention allocation processes to infer possible design problems. In this paper, we present some of analysis results obtained from our on-going data analysis.

Hirotaka Aoki, Satoshi Suzuki

An Assessment of the Occupational Noise Exposure of Toll Tellers Along the North Luzon Expressway

Traffic Noise is one of the primary occupational hazards experienced by the toll tellers. The sustained exposure to significantly high noise levels negatively affects the cardiovascular and auditory system. The study evaluates the toll booth location along the North Luzon Expressway (NLEX), Philippines in need of mitigation measures to further reduce the workers’ exposure to noise and reduce the stress experienced because of sustained noise exposure. 31 out of 99 toll tellers at eleven booths were surveyed and subjected to audiometry test. Environmental sound levels were measured. 71.88 % of the tested workers experience poor hearing, the remaining 28.13 % exhibit mild hearing impairment. Most toll plazas located in cities, municipalities, or commercial centers exceeded 75 dB sound level. Locations of toll facilities falling within the standard noise level are found to have lesser employees displaying symptoms of mild or poor hearing compared to locations surpassing the standard.

Maria Josefina Fider, Ma. Andrea Naguit, Mary Jef Rose Orata, Benette Custodio

An Integrated Approach for Measuring and Managing Quality of Smart Senior Care Services

Smart Services play an increasingly important role in all parts of the economy. Existing quality approaches fail to capture a holistic view on these data-based and technology-centered services offers. However, health-related sectors, such as the Senior Care sector, have to guarantee a high quality of their smart services. Thus, the paper presents an integrated approach for measuring and managing smart service quality that is based on existing quality approaches and insights of service research. The approach can be applied for the senior care sector but is not limited to it.

Jens Neuhuettler, Walter Ganz, Jianbing Liu

The Impact of Reviews and Average Rating on Hotel-Booking-Intention: A Qualitative Study

User-generated information types (ratings and reviews) are highly used when booking hotel rooms on Online Travel Agency (OTA) websites. The impact of user-generated information on decision-making is often investigated through quantitative research, thereby not examining in depth how and why travelers use this information. This paper therefore presents a qualitative study conducted to achieve a deeper understanding. We investigated the use of reviews and average rating in a hotel-booking-context through a laboratory experiment, which involved a task of examining a hotel on a pre-designed OTA website followed by an interview. We processed the data from the interview, and the analysis resulted in a model generalizing the use of reviews and average rating in the deliberation phase of a hotel-booking. The findings are overall consistent with related research. Yet, beyond this, the qualitative approach has given some deep insights that expand the knowledge in the field.

Line Thomassen Buus, Charlotte Thodberg Jensen, Anne Mette Karnøe Jessen, Lotte Ishøy Jørgensen, Jeanette Kølbæk Laursen, Lars Bo Larsen

Centrality of Human-Side in Services: The Interface of Disruptive Technological Innovations and Consumer Face


Reflecting Human Values in Service Design

Services are dynamic, unfolding over a period of time through a sequence of events and steps that produce value for the customer. A key contributor to the value of service is the experience of interpersonal interactions. Designing services that result in desirable experience and motivate customers to sustain the customer loyalty is challenging. Human centered approach towards service design captures the deep insights of customer expectations. However, human values i.e. beliefs exist at a deeper and more subconscious level in a customer as a human, than his expectations as a service consumer. Hence there is a need to understand and realize human values e.g. empowerment, motivation, and awareness of the customers to reflect exactly what customers want from the service. Design patterns provide a structured yet creative method for service design. This research paper elaborates the use of service design patterns as effective enabler incorporating the human values in service design solutions through findings of two case studies.

Ravi Mahamuni, Shivani Sharma, Pramod Khambete, Ravi Mokashi-Punekar

From the University to Smart Cities—How Engineers Can Construct Better Cities in BRIC’s Countries: A Real Case from Smart Campus FACENS

Program created by FACENS to support the training of engineers so they can identify opportunities related to the concept of smart cities. Uses the college campus as a place of prototyping to convert real problems into applicable solutions in an urban context, aligning them with Brazil’s needs and challenges for the coming decades. The focus is provide an innovative multidisciplinary learning experience using the campus as prototyping space and support the education of the citizen engineer, through solutions to real problem, in order to multiply them in the urban context supported by innovative thinking and with commitment with the environment, social responsibility and be replicable in others BRIC’s countries.

Luciana Gomes Pereira Pinto, Regiane Relva Romano, Matheus Akira Tomoto

How a Fab Lab Can Drive Ordinary People to Become Engineering Enthusiasts and Help to Make a Better Society

A Fab Lab (fabrication laboratory) is such an amazing place to make (almost) anything as the Fab Lab creator, Mr Neil Gershenfeld from MIT uses to say. Many machines, tools and special spaces provides a creative and collaborative environment where students, teachers, inventors and enthusiasts can interact. There are virtually no limits boundaries because, above all, a Fab Lab is an open space for children, youth and adults. Fab LAB Facens is inside a small-forty-years-old and private college which main purpose lies on how engineering students can learn through real hands-on experimentation. This experience are based on a new hybrid methodology we call Deliverable-Based Learning (DBL) where students are lead to think on what they want to deliver as a result of their learning process and then they start a reverse build process till understand how each micro fragment (things, thoughts, process and people) interact to achieve the deliverable. Preliminary results shows that DBL by means of Fab LAB Facens can drive ordinary people to become engineering enthusiasts and help to make a better society.

Adriano D. Pila
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