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Über dieses Buch

This book addresses emerging issues in usability, interface design, human–computer interaction, user experience and assistive technology. It highlights research aimed at understanding human interactions with products, services and systems and focuses on finding effective approaches for improving the user experience. It also discusses key issues in designing and providing assistive devices and services for individuals with disabilities or impairment, offering them support with mobility, communication, positioning, environmental control and daily living. The book covers modeling as well as innovative design concepts, with a special emphasis on user-centered design, and design for specific populations, particularly the elderly. Further topics include virtual reality, digital environments, gaming, heuristic evaluation and forms of device interface feedback (e.g. visual and haptic). Based on the AHFE 2020 Virtual Conference on Usability and User Experience, the AHFE 2020 Virtual Conference on Human Factors and Assistive Technology, the AHFE Virtual Conference on Human Factors and Wearable Technologies, and the AHFE 2020 Virtual Conference on Virtual Environments and Game Design, held on July 16–20, 2020, it provides academics and professionals with an extensive source of information and a timely guide to tools, applications and future challenges in these fields.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

User Interface and Accessibility

Frontmatter

The Importance of Computer Auto Personalization

Information and communications technology (ICT) helps to provide full and equal participation in social and organizational activities [1] Even though most of them are designed to be accessible, users still face significant barriers. In our study, we used a qualitative method to understand how auto-personalization might affect library patrons. Individual interviews and focus group interviews aimed at getting a deeper understanding of problems that users face when they interact with a computer and getting information about perceptions and attitudes of the participants toward Morphic auto personalization.

Anna Szopa, Gregg Vanderheiden

Designing Universal Icons: An Explorative Study

Goal of this study was to find common features of icons shared by people from different cultures that can be used to derive guidelines for the design of Universal Icons. In an explorative study, we asked participants to draw Universal Icons for various concepts commonly associated with interface functions such as On/Off, Fast/Slow, Light/Dark, Zoom in/Zoom out. The participants came from different countries, which, considering the number of participants, were divided into three geographical regions: Europe, Japan, and Asia (without Japan). Icon drawings of participants differed in the concept categories depicted as well as across the three geographic regions. Participants from Japan depicted more likely images with reference to humans or nature whereas participants from European countries more likely depicted images of technical artifacts or abstract concepts. Participants from other Asian countries fell in-between these two groups. Results of the study suggest that Universal Icons should use referents from the daily living environment of target users. Pre-studies can help to identify common associations with icon functions in the target populations.

Jacqueline Urakami, Anne Morgen Mark

Identifying and Improving Usability Problems of Cryptocurrency Exchange Mobile Applications Through Heuristic Evaluation

Recently, blockchain is noted in many service areas as it is expected to overcome the limitations of the centralized system. Since one of the main features of the blockchain service is utilizing cryptocurrency, cryptocurrency exchanges have an important role. However, there has not much research on the usability of the cryptocurrency exchanges. This study aims to discover the usability problem of KDEX and Bithumb. Four experts conducted a heuristic evaluation based on ten heuristic evaluation items. Twenty-six usability problems were found in KDEX and eighteen in Bithumb. The derived problems were classified by design elements through open card sorting. This study explains derived usability problems and presents guidelines to improve the usability of the two cryptocurrency exchanges based on derived problems. The results of this study can be used to improve the usability of the cryptocurrency exchange.

Hyeji Jang, Sung H. Han, Ju Hwan Kim, Kimin Kown

Enhancing Webpage Navigation with a Novel Scrollbar Design

In this paper, we introduce a novel type of navigation bar especially designed to provide users with additional information as they navigate long web pages that consist of several different sections and a large amount of content. In addition to facilitating scrolling, the proposed navigation bar enables users to quickly traverse the page without needing to manually scroll. Moreover, we present the results of a comparative study that analyzed the effectiveness of our proposed system with respect to traditional approaches. From the findings of our research, which includes an evaluation of individuals’ likelihood to use the proposed navigation bar, we can conclude that users have a strong preference for our system; also we found that it increases accuracy in information finding tasks. Consequently, we believe the proposed navigation bar design could enhance web usability and improve user satisfaction.

Andrew James Miller, Jonathan D. Miller, Nicholas Caporusso

The Effect of Peephole Interaction Mode and User Experience on Wayfinding Performance

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the interaction mode on users’ wayfinding performance. Both the dynamic peephole (DP) and static peephole (SP) interaction modes were examined. Sixty users were divided into two groups, where users in one group had previous experiences of mobile wayfinding (i.e., experienced users) while those in the other group did not (i.e., inexperienced users). The experiment was a 2 × 2 within-subjects design. All of the participants were invited to complete four wayfinding tasks, and the system usability scale (SUS) questionnaire was also adopted. The results show that adopting a dynamic peephole is superior to a static peephole for perceptual wayfinding tasks. Interaction mode and user experience did not significantly affect wayfinding performance in general. Moreover, dynamic peephole gained a higher SUS score.

Xiao Li, Chien-Hsiung Chen

Fine Design of Music Application User Experience Based on First Sense Interactive Node Optimization: Example of Splashscreen

This paper takes the splashscreen of music App as the research object. Starting from fine design, this paper innovatively puts forward the concept of “interaction nodes” at the level of interactive design. This paper applies the primacy effect to the design research of the splashscreen, analyzes and summarizes its importance. Therefore, the concept of “first sense interaction node” is put forward. This paper collects and analyzes dozens of music APP splashscreens and homepages. The splashscreens are divided into “standard” and “freestyle” categories. The semantic difference method is used to design questionnaires. According to the results of data analysis, optimization suggestions are put forward for the design of music APP splashscreens.

Wei Yu, Jie Gao

The Assessment of Motion Sickness Induced by Sensory Conflict and Posture Instability

The aim of this study is to analyze and evaluate the factors of motion sickness for the HMD virtual reality system with six-axis dynamic platform. The research team would like to explore the effects of duration of simulator use, virtual object acceleration, degree of control, and user training on motion sickness. According to literature review, the research team constructed the hypotheses of this study from the postural instability theory and the sensory conflict theory. In order to efficiently understand the perception of motion sickness, the research team makes use of the Fast Motion Sickness (FMS) scale to assess the level of motion sickness of subjects. Experimental results show that the duration of simulator use, degree of control, and user training have significant impacts on motion sickness. However, virtual object acceleration does not have an impact on motion sickness.

Huey-Min Sun

Study on Online Service Experience of Public Cultural Learning Space: Using the Self-service Seat Selection System of University Library as an Example

The creative thinking of contemporary social context, with the Internet of things big and mobile data services to support Internet + technology, creates our public service model of digital and online development prospects, represented by the library of the public space of cultural learning pattern is facing a profound transformation based on the existing public cultural learning space online service experience processes for research, summarizes the basic characteristics and development trend, and by introducing a SUS analysis and user interviews, precise aiming students user community usage scenarios and specific requirements; Emotional design is integrated into the online service of public cultural learning space, aiming to construct specific paths and guidelines for the interface and emotional connection between students and students in public cultural learning space.

Wei Yu, Jieyu Wan

Research on Design of Children’s Experiential Space in Museum Based on Interaction Concept: Take Perth, Australia as an Example

The “interactive” concept of children’s experience space in domestic museums is superficial, rendering a poor sense of experience for children. Taking the design of the museum children’s experience space in Perth, Australia as an example, studying the concept of interaction and children’s experience can introduce the “behavioral logic” in the interaction process. This paper discusses strategies designing the museum children’s experience space based on the concept of interaction, and proposes methods of interaction between children and space environment, child and digital media, child and child, child and adult interaction to achieve the goal of children’s unconscious awareness in museums.

Yuqi Zhang

Usability Evaluation and Interface Design

Frontmatter

Improving the Usability of a Digital Neurobehavioral Assessment

The rapid advancement of technology has encouraged the transition to digital psychological assessment [1–3]. The most recent trend is the use of mobile devices for neurophysiological, clinical, and/or computerized test batteries [4]. This rate of change has led to new and unique usability challenges [5]. The current work evaluated the usability of a neurobehavioral assessment application developed by the National Institute of Health (NIH) and Northwestern University that assesses neurological and behavioral function. A usability analysis of the NIH Toolbox® application, which is capable of assessing cognition, emotion, motor, and sensation, was performed and redesign recommendations were provided. The analysis consisted of: (1) user feedback, (2) heuristic evaluations, and (3) user testing. The analyses, results and recommendations are presented and focus on: (a) Reorganization to support task flow, (b) Search optimization for transparency of options and selections, and (c) Simplicity, for ease of use.

Maria Chaparro, Meredith Carroll, Julie Hook

Progress Bar Effects as a Time Clue for the Touch-Sensitive User Interface of a Smart Microwave Oven

This research study focuses on the design of the interface affordance for microwave ovens as smart home appliances, with time perception as the main axis. It explores the effect of the progress bar designs as time cues on the user’s time perception. The experiment is a within-subjects design using one-way ANOVA to examine the three different operation modes, i.e., traditional, touch, and smart. These experimental data were obtained through task performance and subjective evaluation. The results indicate that: 1. The number of time clues affect the user’s time perception, and there is a significant difference in the main effect of operation modes. 2. Users can quickly understand the task process with high time affordance, reduce their perception uncertainty, and effectively enhance their sense of pleasure. 3. There is significant difference in the main effect of operation modes, with the “smart” type taking the least amount of time. 4. The convenient, fast, and intuitive “smart” type with reduction of load has a positive impact on the user’s subjective evaluation.

HongYu Li, Chien-Hsiung Chen

Designing the AI Developing System Through Ecological Interface Design

In recent years, several kinds of machine learning tools have developed, each involving complex functions and tasks, which means usage knowledge varies between tools. Integrating the environment for effective AI machine learning can be regarded as a complicated task and may even consist of several separate tasks, such as building a test environment, data acquisition, data cleansing, machine learning training, and model management. In terms of the cognitive engineering approach, most tasks not only require knowledge-based cognitive control over skill-based or rule-based behaviours higher cognitive loads and workloads as well. Since complex knowledge and higher cognitive loads are required, the use of AI machine learning is limited and leads to ineffective work procedures. Thus, this research analysed the AI development process via various methods of cognitive task analysis in order to identify which tasks induce cognitive workload. Then, a new integrated AI development system was created, which was expected to reduce the number of ineffective tasks and workload. Experiments were conducted twice to validate the system’s effectiveness, and the results indicate that there were significant differences between the several different AI development tasks.

Daehee Park, Heesung Park, Scott Song

Analysis of Children’s Content on YouTube Channels by Parents

The advancement of technology and the evolution of the means of communication have enabled the proliferation and diversification of access to information, and the use of videos stood out among them. Through this media, thousands of people broadcast the entire range of content, from makeup tutorials to political debates. One of the best known websites for this is YOUTUBE, where, in recent years, there has been an increasing number of videos with children’s content and produced for, or by, children. This article presents an analysis of the channels of child youtubers and their content, based on a survey carried out with people responsible for children between 4 and 13 years old. In view of the results, it identifies the opinion of the parents regarding the quality of the content available, as well as the influence that the channels that stand out on the website have on the culture of youtubers.

Lívia Inglesis Barcellos, Ana Sílvia Lopes Davi Médola, Galdenoro Botura, Ekaterina Emmanuil Inglesis Barcellos

Scent Interfaces Definition: Diffuser Devices Interaction and Control

Interface’s definition, in its various perceptions, is explained as the relation between different systems interaction with or without human intervention. Scents are perceived with a direct link to the brain cortex that handles emotions, often triggering immediate emotions [1]. Aroma cannot be seen, heard or touched; it must be dispersed in the air to be perceived. To do so intentionally, a diffusing device built with the purpose of spreading smell into an environment is usually needed and it requires a controlled source. High-tech scent diffusers make use of new technologies reaching new usage and experiences. This includes smart control in various uses, frequently offering multisensorial interfaces. We can observe this in numerous appliances today. This paper discusses scent interfaces for controlling scent diffusion, investigating on the space between a scent diffuser device and its control source to define and categorize Scent Interfaces.

Miguel Bual

Satisfaction Evaluation of the Passenger Interface Design of High-Speed Train Based on G1-Entropy Weight Method

High-speed train passenger interface (PI) is of great significance for passengers’ experience. CRH3X is a new type of double-layer high-speed train at a closed testing stage, with independent research and development of China. In order to feed back problems existing in the current PI design of CRH3X, the G1 method was introduced and combined with the entropy weight method for quantification of differences of importance degrees between different indexes based on empirical data of passengers’ satisfaction. The innovation is advantageous in that through combination of experts’ experience and passengers’ actual experience information, randomness in subjective empowerment is avoided. In addition, with reference to those evaluation results, designers can better determine an improved preference strategy.

Sijun He, Jinyi Zhi, Zerui Xiang

Usability and User-Centered Design

Frontmatter

Subjectively Experienced Time in Human-Computer Interaction: The Role of Passage of Time in User Experience

A study by Sackett et al. (2010) indicates that participants attribute more fun to an activity when they have the impression that time flies by. We investigate if this effect also occurs in human-computer interaction and impacts on User Experience (UX). We induced differences in the subjective passage of time by dividing the participants (n = 61) into three groups. Although all participants performed the same tasks for 10 min, the groups received different information about the duration of their activities (10, 20, or 5 min). This manipulation should invoke the impression that time passed normally, fast or slowly. Results showed that only a feeling of time passing by slowly could be induced. This temporal illusion led to a lower perceived usability and a lower overall UX while attractiveness and valence were not affected. We conclude that the investigation of subjectively experienced time improves the understanding of UX.

Anna K. Trukenbrod, Manfred Thüring

Storyboarding the Virtuality: Methods and Best Practices to Depict Scenes and Interactive Stories in Virtual and Mixed Reality

Storyboarding is a cinematic prototyping technique to visualize settings, event sequences, dialogues & character depictions. Interactive VR/MR experiences benefit from storyboarding as part of the creation process, yet free movement & immersive 3D introduce challenges. Techniques to visualize 3D settings are explored with methods to conduct traditional storyboarding while requiring multiple viewpoints within a single timestep are elaborated. This is possible w/ perspective scene views. Even with 3D prototyping tools, it is important to maintain practices which optimize VR storyboarding and maintain spatial efficiency, allow storyboards to be hand drawn and be intuitive to read. A powerful solution is to bind several perspectives together to represent a specific time while reverting to a traditional single viewpoint when not necessary, therefore balancing three dimensionality, spatial efficiency & ease of creation.

Thomas Brett Talbot, Katherine Elizabeth Thiry, Michael Jenkins

Scent as a Modality: Study on the Olfactory Sense in Multisensorial Design

Multisensorial design usually relies on vision, audition and haptic senses for interacting with devices, generally leaving taste and smell aside from conventional modes used in most device interfaces. The feedback we get by interacting with appliances is mostly visual, auditive or haptic. We may agree that smell or taste may be secondary to the above referred senses due to several features, some related with cognition and others due to technical constraint. The role of taste and smell as a communicative feature from a device may not be obvious. However, these two senses may be of use. In taste we have the usage of Bitrex® as a safety feature being the most bitter substance in order to avoid ingestion of countless different products. Similarly, the intentional use of an unpleasant smell to prevent people from staying in a given space can be considered a good example of its usage. The use of scent as a secondary sense to help on experiences causing a prosody effect is also possible with smell. This paper will explore the role that a smell may have as a modality to be used in designing devices.

Miguel Bual

Towards Understanding Customer Co-creation Experience for Mass Customization

Mass-Customization (MC) has been considered to answer diversifying customer needs and reshape the consumer product market. However, after about two decades of trials, MC has been largely far from success in practice. One of the major reasons for this is considered to be a lack of user engagement with customized products and the customization process itself. Therefore, this draws the attention from what is provided to the customer to how it is provided. The user involvement in MC is in the form of co-creation and often done through online tools, also known as product configurators. In practice, these product configurators for MC frequently fail in sales conversion. This study investigates the experience for customers throughout the co-creation process in an attempt to shed light on different aspects of this experience and provide a better understanding of all contributing factors.

Mehmet Özdemir, Sander Van Goethem, Xander De Buysscher, Vincent Delrue, Arthur Verburgh, Alexander Van Gastel, Jouke Verlinden

A Methodology for Data Analytics Based on Organizational Characterization Through a User-Centered Design: A Systematic Literature Review

Data Analytics (DA) is the process of seeking knowledge in the data, to make a better supported business decision through the application of a methodology. However, in our paper conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) in five scientific databases by using Kitchenham’s methodology as a methodological guide in order to identify all user-centered design (UCD) key criteria possible to be contemplated in new DA methodology proposal. The UCD criteria will be used as a guideline to build a participatory, adaptable, efficient, collaborative and easy to apply DA methodology. The UCD criteria will be used as a guideline to build a participatory, adaptable, efficient, collaborative and easy-to-apply DA methodology. These criteria will be validated in our research by comparing them with those defined in ISO 9241-210:2010 standard “Human-centered design process for interactive systems”.

Boris Astudillo, Marco Santórum, José Aguilar

Framework Based on Gestalt Principles to Design Mobile Interfaces for a Better User Experience

This paper presents the results of the user experience test comparing a real functional application and a high fidelity prototype that used a Framework to design graphic user interfaces on mobile devices. This Framework links Nielsen’s heuristics with the principles of perception of Gestalt, offering to developers and usability experts, references to generate and evaluate mockups and prototypes. The constructive and evaluative model of the Framework allows to recognize usability criteria in visual components of the interfaces, during the initial phases of a project that uses agile software development methodologies, reducing the “trial - error” regressions. The experiment allowed obtaining data about satisfaction measures and specific user attitudes regarding the interfaces developed.

Daniel Ripalda, César Guevara, Alejandra Garrido

Reflections on the Concepts of Informational Ergonomics and Their Compatibility in User Experience

With the advancement of production systems and technologies, products are becoming increasingly interactive and intuitive. Informational Ergonomics and User Experience are evident in this scenario, since they operate within the projects, sometimes in separate ways, but which become even more efficient when worked together and used since the beginning of development. In this way, a bibliographic review was carried out, from the measurement of the concept to its relevance as a study tool, which helps designers to design interfaces and products aimed at the positive enjoyment of the user and a beneficial experience. It was obtained as a result that information ergonomics has the same objectives and that they help each other, as both surround the user’s interactive study with the product, making it necessary through the systems and tools that incorporate information ergonomics.

João Carlos R. Plácido da Silva, Vanessa Maiara Domingues de Oliveira, Roger Morgado Curiel, Valeria Ramos Friso, Luis Carlos Paschoarelli, Francisco de Assis Lobo

Progressive Disclosure Options for Improving Choice Overload on Home Screen

The average smartphone user has more than 80 apps on their phone while uses 40 monthly and average 9 daily. This study discovered a phenomenon of choice overload in smartphone home screen and intended to shield users appropriately from underlying system complexity. We successively pro-posed two prototypes with effects of “prior disclosure icons” and “second priority disclosure icons”. Both prototypes highlight visual features of the prior disclosure icons by delaying disclosure of others. Research results: (1) Interface of progressive disclosure options effectively highlight the prior disclosure icons of recommendation options and significantly improve choice overload of searching home screen. Prior disclosure icons of high legibility rate on home screen is preferably 3. (2) The application of “second priority disclosure icons” increases high legibility rate icons, and the highly legible prior disclosure icons in 2000 ms time frame is 4 (present by 3 + 1) among older users.

Guan-Jun Ding, T. K. Philip Hwang, Pin-Chieh Kuo

An Exploratory Analysis of Technical Issues in Remote Education Between International Medical Institutions

International education programs that use videoconferencing (VC) are common now and many are being implemented in the medical field. Irrespective of the value of the content, the learning process can be disrupted when technical quality of VC is compromised. In this study, a participatory design (PD) was used with focus group discussion between technical support staff to determine and classify the causes of technical issues in international remote medical education by VC. As a result, a quality of experience (QoE) -based framework was developed based on the technical issues raised. User behavior and three factors (context, human and system factors) influence technical errors, either preventing or creating difficulties, and affecting each other. For future prototyping of the PD process, it is suggested to have a flexible and specific operational procedure which considers variables of engineers’ background.

Shunta Tomimatsu, Kuriko Kudo, Shuji Shimizu, Tomohiko Moriyama, Shintaro Ueda, Yasuyuki Hirai

Easy Identity Management and Enhanced Security in Account Linking

Users in this era are experiencing inconvenient usability problems while signing in and out of their multiple devices and services. Also, an unpleasant leak of personal information has become another inconvenience and threat that users cannot avoid while managing them. In this environment, usability and security become more important, however these two work in the trade-off relationship so that it requires a new UX solution. In this paper, with Account linking, we suggest improving usability while enhancing security by connecting key account and service accounts permanently. Account linking shortens the steps of sign-in so that it releases users from the burden of remembering multiple IDs and passwords by integrating key account and service account. Its benefit will be maximized when using a shared device where users need to sign in not only the device but also individual services one by one. In addition, it blocks the hazard of personal data leak as it enables signing out all services at once and prevents data remaining on a shared device. Likewise, Account linking is expected to enhance usability and security on multi-device, and multi-user environments.

Dahey Yoo, Jin Ra, Bora Kang

How Efficiency and Naturalness Change in Multimodal Interaction in Mobile Navigation Apps

Multimodal interaction has been verified to improve user experience, but the challenge of resource competition and information integration in this human-centered interaction mode may negatively affect the efficiency and naturalness. This paper aims to figure out how efficiency and naturalness change in multimodal interaction in mobile navigation apps, which are mostly used as interactive systems for cars’ navigation tasks. The study was conducted based on the Amap app, with which participants should use the single touch-screen interaction and the gesture-combined-voice interaction, respectively, to complete the same route setting task in the driving environment. With the records of the operation time and participants’ subjective scores of two interaction modes, we analyzed the differences and changes in efficiency and naturalness. The results showed that multimodal interaction was more efficient than single-modality interaction; however, the naturalness of multimodal interaction did not improve significantly.

Jianren Ling, Zhuochao Peng, Lu Yin, Xiaojing Yuan

User Experience and Human–machine Interaction

Frontmatter

Flat-Design Icon Sets: A Case for Universal Meanings?

Nowadays, the Internet has reached a level of maturity that enables categorizing the main types of websites, the most common actions that the end-user can engage in, and the recurring patterns that characterize interactions. As users have become more accustomed to the shared features of websites and web applications (e.g., sign in, access cart, download file), pictographic icons have been increasingly used to replace text labels. Flat design is among the most recent developments in this abstraction climax. However, removing traits, affordances, and attributes increases the ambiguity of symbols, affects their recognition, and impairs the ability to associate them with their intended meaning. In this paper, we focus on open-source typographic icon sets for the web (e.g., Font Awesome). Specifically, we investigate to what extent flat-design icons have acquired a universal meaning and we analyze human factors and design aspects that play a key role in icon recognition.

Andrea M. Legleiter, Nicholas Caporusso

How Can We Improve the Driving Experience with Human-Machine-Interface for Automated Driving?

The head-up-display (HUD), which reflects driving information into the windshield has the goal to lower driving effort from the information uptake and thereby, increase our safety by reducing risks associated to e.g., fatigue and stress. This motivated us to test the HUD in combination with the lane keeping assistant system (LKAS) from n = 48 subjects who drove in real traffic conditions two premium vehicles in a highway in Germany. Subjects then rated the Human-Machine Interaction (HMI) from an assessment about the perceived feelings of safety, degree of relief, information displayed, displays design, and monitoring procedures. Results from CMP regressions show that the HUD has a significant effect on the driving effort and safety feelings, and on the overall subjects’ driving experience. Moreover, we find that this effect is stronger among elderly drivers, students, and females who feel significantly less driving effort. In particular, women felt significantly safer while the HUD was activated.

Seda Aydogdu, Miguel Luzuriaga, Bernhard Schick

Technology Products Suitability for Experimental Display Size and Color Research

In the digital age, the use of technology in music has become a trend with computers and tablet devices, smartphones and the like. In this study, headphone products as the research object, the most suitable headphone color, pattern and experimental display size. First of all, this study uses 16 psychological test methods to investigate and compare the color reaction products of color technology and color psychology of commercial technology products, and carries out the analysis of semantic differences, making statistical research in black and white to obtain the best color matching color. Finally, use the Likert scale statistics and analysis. The results show that black headphones, minimalist design to get most of the preferences

Ming-Chi Hsieh, Lung-Wen Kuo, Chih-Chun Lai

Visual Elements for the Design of a Robotic Head in Si-Robotics Project

For a human user it is fundamental to recognize the synthetic emotion being presented as feedback on a robotic head, that can appear spontaneous or activated in reaction to the user’s action or request. The design of such feedbacks can greatly lower the learning curve of users who need to interact with automated systems, reducing the time and effort that they need to put into learning how to use the system. The paper will present our findings regarding the design of facial expressions and empathic aspects of a robotic head and the resulting interface that will be implemented on the robotic system that is being developed for the European-funded Si-Robotics project.

Niccolò Casiddu, Francesco Burlando, Claudia Porfirione, Annapaola Vacanti

Development of Gender-Sensitive Questionnaire for Transport and Mobility Surveys

Transport systems and infrastructure are rather male centred and unequal from the gender perspective. One of the major barriers in the improvement of gender equality in transportation is a significant lack of available sex-disaggregated data and gender statistics in the area of transportation. Due to the lack of data, it is difficult to properly define and describe the level of gender inequality in a specific environment. This article presents a method of designing a gender-sensitive questionnaire on transport behaviour that will consider all major aspects of gender issues in mobility and transport from a user perspective. The development of this tool is based on an extensive review of theoretical concepts and relevant research from different countries.

Eva Adamovska, Lucie Vondrackova, Petr Zamecnik

Human Factors Guideline in the Human Machine Interface Design of Datalink System

The data link system of civil aircraft plays an important role in enhancing the operation efficiency of airlines, and to a certain extent, it can improve the operation safety level. At present, the integration of virtual control and integrated display has become one of the main features of the latest generation of cockpit avionics human machine interface. For three main data link applications in the civil aviation field, this paper respectively describes the operation scenarios, refines the top-level requirements and gives a comparative analysis. Based on the above technology, the design guidance related to human factor is provided in detail from the aspects of responsibility allocation of operation procedure, consistency with operation environment, priority and sorting rules of messages, degree of automation, peripheral equipment, use restriction and time limitation.

Lei Wu

Technology as a Tool to Improve Student Understanding of Assessment Questions

The main interest of this study, namely the possibility of technology as a tool to improve a student’s understanding of the assessment question, was initiated by the gap between the goals of the assessment conveyed to the student, and what a student may understand in what is required from the assessment. A possible solution required an investigation into different theoretical perspectives, namely usability, user experience (UX), assessment, human brain, brain-computer interfaces (BCI), reading comprehension and serious games from which guidelines could be derived. These guidelines were used to create a Paper-based Assessment (PBA) and a Game-based Assessment (GBA) in order to measure students’ performance, cognitive states (engagement, interest, relaxation, stress, focus and mood) and satisfaction related to both assessment methods. This article pertains to the guidelines derived, application of the guidelines, methods, results, discussion of the findings and lastly a conclusion.

Marie A. Lonergan, Lizette De Wet, Andries J. Burger

Research on Availability of Campus Vending Machines: An Example for Xuhui Campus of East China University of Technology

In the analysis of the availability of vending machines in Xuhui campus, East China University of Science and Technology, a series of problems were found in the product system. According to the results of research and data analysis, a standard model of human-computer interaction of vending machines is proposed, and the influence of human-computer interaction on the use of vending machines in the future is discussed, which will further help retail companies to improve products and upgrade product systems, so as to increase the attraction of products to users. This paper mainly adopts the methods of literature query, questionnaire survey and system availability analysis (SUS). The theoretical support of this article is mainly reflected in the definition of availability. The research in this article can enrich the academic theory of “Vending Machines”.

Miao Liu, Silu Liu

Security Guidelines for the Design of ATM Interfaces

In Peru, 41% of the population over 18 is banked and 76% of them use an Automatic Teller Machine or ATM. However, in some cases the interaction between the users and the ATM (and the User Experience in general) could be frustrating and presents inconveniences in topics about trust and security, considering that clients are mainly carrying out operations that involve withdrawal and depositing of their own money in cash. In that sense, the influence of security (and the perception of security by the user) in the experience of using ATM, given their nature and form of use, has been evidenced. According to the above, we found in the literature that specific design and heuristic guidelines have been proposed for the usability of ATM interfaces, but no specific guidelines for other relevant aspect such as the security of those interfaces. The main objective of this work is to provide a proposal of security guidelines for the design of ATM interfaces, which complement existing guidelines on other facets of the User Experience, such as, Usability and Accessibility, which seeks to strengthen the User Experience of the product. To obtain the mentioned guidelines, a compilation of good practices, recommendations and guidelines found in Peruvian and international literature and regulations was made. For the validation of this proposal, these guidelines were validated through expert judgment by three ATM interface design experts and four domain experts working in 3 of the most important banks in Peru. As a result, we proposed seven ATM interface security guidelines and their respective definitions. From this work, we can conclude the importance of not just evaluating Usability but also complementing security issues when it comes to a channel as sensitive as ATMs, and in that sense, for this domain, consider security as an important part of the User Experience.

Fiorella Falconi, Claudia Zapata, Arturo Moquillaza, Freddy Paz

The Analysis of Influence Factors of User Experience in Bullet Screen

The research examines the factors that influence bullet screen user interaction behavior among young users. The analytic hierarchy process is used as a method for statistical analysis of user quantitative data and qualitative views. Our results show that bullet screen offers a more engaging viewing experience than traditional online video. Our results also show that bullet screen user experience can be influenced by the video atmosphere and bullet screen culture. These results are important to promote user research and product service for social video sites.

Zhizheng Zhang, Li Zhang, Yajun Li

Ergonomic Assessment of a Parking Ticket Payment Machine for Filipino Use

Over the last few years, establishments in the Philippines have slowly moved towards full utilization of automated car parking ticket machines that have been employed all over the world. However, because this is new to the Philippine setting, there have been issues and complaints from users in operating the current machines, resulting to establishments reverting to hiring personnel to manually manage parking fee payments. A physical and cognitive usability study was conducted on a parking ticket machine in a shopping mall in the National Capital Region through observing users as they performed the process of paying through the machine. Task completion rates and errors were recorded for 100 users of the machine, who also answered a System Usability Scale (SUS) questionnaire. Three key metrics were measured: (1) the average time spent by new and experienced users, (2) the relative efficiency of manual and automated payment modes, and (3) overall user satisfaction. Results of the study showed a significant difference between average completion times of new and experienced users. SUS survey results showed that users found the machine to be fairly easy to learn, and that transactions through the machine can be faster than that of a cashier. However, a wide range in task completion times was observed for the automated process. This can be attributed to several errors and issues encountered during the payment process of some customers, primarily with the cash inlet rejecting certain bills and new users having difficulty identifying the appropriate slots of the machine. It was also observed that users encountered problems due to a mismatch between machine dimensions and their anthropometric measurements, particularly height. The study proved that poor parking ticket machine utilization was due to problems in human-machine interaction as well as mismatches between physical dimensions and user population anthropometry. Recommendations were provided in order to improve machine dimensions, layout and overall usability.

Baron C. Guerrero, Joshua C. Juinio, Joshua R. Castro, Michael Angelo Patrick C. Cohen, Benette P. Custodio

Usability Assessment of a Philippine Commuting Navigation Application

Commuting in Metro Manila, Philippines, is always a challenge. In 2013, a public transportation navigation application, Sakay.ph, which provides commuters with different routes to their destinations was launched. To ensure a user-centered design application and identify issues in the current design, a usability analysis was conducted. Ten participants were asked to perform task scenarios and answer Single Ease Questionnaire and System Usability Scale Questionnaire. Metrics of the study include: (1) number of clicks per task, (2) completion rate of tasks, and (3) SEQ and SUS score. Eight out of the nineteen task scenarios have actual number of clicks more than twice the minimum number clicks to accomplish the task. Only 42% of the task scenarios were completed by all the participants and SUS score was calculated at 67.75. Recommendations were provided to resolve the issues encountered by the participants during the test aiming to improve the usability of the navigation application.

Jason Toledo, Alessa Camryn Salgado, Carmina Claire Gozum, Benette Custodio

Creative Design of Kitchenware Products Based on the Concept of Affordance

This article aims to explore the creative expressions of kitchenware product semantics in the context of a new era from the perspective of affordance. We summarize the concept of affordance and its application in design field. We study the relationship and application of affordance and product semantics in the process of human-computer interaction. Based on the changes in the interactive relationship in the development of kitchenware, we specifically analyze the characteristic and trend of affordance and semantics. Finally, we provide four creative design methods for kitchenware products. This not only enriches the meaning of human-computer interaction, creates a more glamorous user experience, but also helps us to explore design methods to build a more suitable lifestyle today.

Yuhan Shi, Honghai Zhang

Evaluating User-Elicited Gestures for Physical Peripheral Interaction with Smart Devices

We evaluated the user-defined gestures for interacting with personal devices which are positioned in the periphery of attention. The evaluation process includes two phases: selecting user-elicited gestures and assessing their learnability and intuitiveness in a dual-task test. We first made use of image schemas to interpret user gestures and then group them into several cross-cultural mental models of defining gestures. Through this step we selected the most usable gesture for each mental model. A user test was then conducted to evaluate the performances of selected gestures when participants were concentrating on a concurrent typing task on the PC. These gestures were at the same level of distracting users from main task and the ease of use, in doing so the feasibility of the evaluation method were partly verified.

Yiqi Xiao, Renke He

A Study on the Effect of Artificial Light Environment on Consumers’ Purchase Intention for Fruits

In order to verify the influence of environmental light on consumers’ purchase intention for the fresh agricultural products such as fruits, a series of experiments were designed in the study. two groups of experiments were carried out. By experiment 1, we found that the most important factors when consumers buy fruit are freshness, price and maturity and their evaluations of the fruits’ freshness and maturity are related to the environmental light around the fruits. In experiment 2, five fruits with different color are selected and the luminance, hue and purity of the environmental light around the fruits are adjusted to five uniformly levels respectively based on the normal sunlight (5500 K, 800 lx) as stimuli. 140 college students were recruited to score according to their purchase intention when they saw the fruits under different lights. Then the three groups of data were tested for homogeneity of variance and one-way ANOVA. The results shows: The consumers’ purchase intentions show an inverted “U” curve under the change of luminance and hue. Under the condition of medium brightness and slightly warm color light, the consumers’ purchase intention is stronger and the effect is affected by the diffuse color of fruit.

Sha Liu, Lin Li, Yu Tan, Jiao Li Xie, Qi Xiu Lu

User-Defined Gestures for Taking Self-portraits with Smartphone Based on Consistency

Contrary to most general studies focusing on applicable methods of gesture recognition and system actualization, this paper is aimed at obtaining gestures for taking self-portraits from a distance, which should be consistent with user intuition, to enhance user experience. The study was conducted through two experiments: 1) Gesture set acquisition: Participants were encouraged to propose five different gestures to trigger the gesture shot function, which would be collected as an original gesture set; 2) Consistency verification and evaluation: Participants subjectively evaluated the level of consistent experience of the representative gestures selected from the first experiment. Three user characteristics were presented in results, that was, a preference for dynamic gestures, a preference for one-hand gestures, and a preference for gestures with definite meanings. The results also showed two optimal gestures that met participants’ preferences and were verified to have the best consistency with high significance levels. This study can be a reference for the researches on gestural interaction behaviors and also a reference for the exploration of user-centered research methods.

Zhuochao Peng, Jiaxin Xu

Study on Influencing Factors of User Experience of In-Vehicle Infotainment System Based on DEMATEL Method

With the development of the global economy, users put forward higher requirements for vehicles, especially the user experience. Automobile manufacturers are beginning to focus on new ways to enhance the user experience, especially the user experience of the In-Vehicle Infotainment Systems (IVIS). This paper introduced the current situation and development trend of the IVIS and surveyed the user experience of the IVIS. DEMATEL was used to analyze the factors affecting the user experience, the importance, and the relationship between the elements. This paper put forward some suggestions for the design of the in-vehicle infotainment system, which could provide some reference value and helped designers and researchers of the IVIS.

Zishan Song

Design Principles and Strategies of Interface in Extra Vehicular Activity Spacesuit

The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the design method and process of extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit interface design, which is mainly dominated by engineering. Studies in the literature focus on “physical device,” but research on “interactive behavior” is insufficient. This study also proposes a change in the design strategy of an EVA spacesuit’s interface from the design of “things” to the design of “behavior”. Interaction design takes people’s “interaction behavior” as its design object, and the interface itself are the intermediary of the interaction process. This paper analyzes the influencing factors and principles of the design of the interface of the spacesuit through case studies and analogy analysis. Results of this study can help designers comprehensively research the relationship among humans, actions, intermediary (tools), goals, and scenes involving the interactive design of a spacesuit.

Jianping Luo, Jun Cai, Tanqiu Li, Yi Su

Research on Improved Design of Distance Measuring Wheel for Measuring Traffic Accidents

When a traffic accident occurs, the scene of the accident must be quickly ruled out, The most time it takes for a traffic police to handle a traffic accident is to measure the scene of the accident. The main tool for measuring traffic accidents is distance measuring wheel. The plan takes the distance measuring wheel as the research object, and intends to improve its design through research and investigation to improve the work efficiency and reduce the danger of traffic police. This research is divided into 5 stages including the first stage of observation method, the second stage of user experience interviews, the third stage of Kanano mode and satisfaction factor survey, the fourth stage of the improved design of the ranging wheel, and the fifth stage of product usability. The improved design obtained through research and investigation results is (1) telescopic storage of the measuring wheel and a spherical shaft; (2) the addition of night-time reflectivity and night-time lighting functions; (3) the use of liquid crystal optical ranging; (4) direct upload to the cloud for measurement report. The results of this study can be used as a reference for the design of R & D ranging wheels, and can improve the efficiency, convenience and reduce the danger of traffic police work.

Zhi Jun Wu, Peng Jyun Liu

Research on Availability of Intelligent Express Cabinet Service System

With the rise of e-commerce and the rapid development of Express business, express cabinets have become a basic facility to solve the asymmetry of time between consignees and courier. In 2018, Qingdao, China has included express cabinets in social public service facilities. But the standard of express cabinet facilities is not uniform. This article investigates the existing intelligent express cabinet brands in the market, establish the usability evaluation indicators of the intelligent express cabinet service system; then build a System Usability Scale, analysis the data of the SUS to establish a preliminary standard for the availability of the intelligent express cabinet service system. Finally, starting from the service design concept, optimize the intelligent express cabinet service system, which is mainly used for the “last mile” delivery service.

Zhong Wang, Yingying Tang

Usability and User Experience Applications

Frontmatter

An Application of Bayesian Regression in Ergonomics

Statistics plays an important part in almost all disciplines, including applied ergonomics and human factors. Majority of applied ergonomics literature uses the classical or frequentist statistical methods, and the applications of Bayesian statistical methods in applied ergonomics has been quite limited. This is possibly due to two reasons: (i) the discipline of applied ergonomics is relatively new, dating back to WWI, and (ii) computationally intensive nature of Bayesian solutions. In other disciplines, Bayesian statistical methods have become quite popular. The purpose of this article is to introduce Bayesian regression modeling to the research area of applied ergonomics, via a dataset from ergonomics research.

Ashok K. Singh, Rohan J. Dalpatadu

The Effect of Touch Screen Size on Pattern Experiments

Given that computers, tablets and smartphones have become popular devices in daily life in the era of advanced computer technology, this study focused on computer mouse products that best fit product patterns and experimental display sizes. Firstly, this study used the psychological testing method with five patterns to investigate and compare the preferences of patterns of computer mouse products in terms of psychological preferences and preferences on commercial technology products, in the aim to analyze semantic differences, as well as to conduct statistical research for obtaining the best results. Secondly, this study focuses on finding the best practices by design patterns and display sizes. Finally, this study used the Likert scale for statistics and analysis. For the experimental results, it indicates that the patterns of the computer mouse are based on a simple design that satisfies preferences of most users, while the iPad Pro with the largest screen shows data with the optimum size for viewing, and iPhone 7 Plus has the smallest touch screen which is not easy to use. In terms of data display, colors and patterns are seen more clearly with larger touch screens.

Ming-Chi Hsieh, Lung-Wen Kuo, Chih-Chun Lai

The Digital Divide: How Low-Literate Freshman Search for Information

Prior research with low literate internet users has shown a tendency to perform fewer searches and do not ‘fact check’ the information they found, often being satisfied with their initial findings. Research was conducted to understand how degree seeking low literate and medium to high literate adults search for information online. Ten low literate and ten medium to high literate degree seeking freshman and five non-degree seeking low literate participants were recruited to conduct three search tasks designed to mimic a low-level college science task. Low literate degree seeking participants were found to have search habits similar to the degree seeking medium to high literate participants. Degree seeking participants performed more searches and accessed more sites for each task than the non-degree seeking participants. Non-degree seeking participants showed signs of task fatigue, while degree seeking participants did not show a similar fatigue. Results indicate degree seeking adults have higher levels of digital literacy than non-degree seeking adults.

Noël T. Alton

Editorial Design of Interactive Picture Book with Mobile Application Based on Uxd User Experience Design

This research presents an interactive human-computer learning system model applying adaptive editorial design. The proposal aims to generate an interactive picture book and a mobile application based on user experience design (UxD). The results will be obtained using UX metrics and will have the particularity of working with the technique of participatory design and reticular deconstruction. This book includes its presentation as an audiobook and an editorial composition with pop-ups and pages to paint.

Carlos Borja-Galeas, Cesar Guevara, Mirian Amagua

An Improvement on the Progress Bar: Make It a Story, Make It a Game

Progress bars provide progress information for users while waiting. Given that users dislike waiting, shortening users’ time perception and improving their tolerance for waiting are essential for the design of progress bars. This study investigated the impact of progress bar decorations on users’ time perception and tolerance for waiting. Within the context of loading articles, the results from experiment one showed that unpredictable decorations above progress bars significantly increased participants’ tolerance for waiting. Experiment two provided a context for software installation and revealed that participants perceived significantly shorter waiting time and maintained a higher tolerance for waiting while playing games, compared to watching game videos. These findings provide an innovative idea for the design of the progress bar - make it a story, make it a game, which can be used in various situations to greatly improve user experience.

Wenmin Li, Manhua Wang, Wei Li, Beibei Cai, Yaoxi Shi

Factors Affecting Low Response Effort in Online Survey Tasks for Passive Stakeholders: Insights from a Design Ethnography Research

The success of survey activities depends on respondents’ effort. In survey for business and campus management purpose, the respondents are generally ‘passive stakeholders’, of whom the mean level of effort in the surveys are low. For enhancing the responding effort of such user group, we adopted the design ethnography research to find out related human factors and design strategies. In the ethnography study, semi-structural interview was adopted for data collection, along with thematic coding and card sorting for analysis. From this study, we proposed six types of reasons for low engagement, including: Negative expectation, Perceived flaw, Investigation itself as an obstacle, Social pressure, Task burden, Bad experiences. We also found that lack of motivation is the main reason for low engagement in surveys conducted under the specific initiator-respondent relationship.

Qishen Duan, Zhengyu Tan

A Framework to Improve Evaluation of Novel Decision Support Tools

Organizations that introduce new technology into an operational environment seek to improve some aspect of task conduct through technology use. Many organizations rely on user acceptance measures to gauge technology viability, though misinterpretation of user feedback can lead organizations to accept non-beneficial technology or reject potentially beneficial technology. Additionally, teams that misinterpret user feedback can spend time and effort on tasks that do not improve either user acceptance or operational task conduct. This paper presents a framework developed through efforts to transition technology to the U.S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM). The framework formalizes aspects of user experience with technology to guide organization and development team research and assessments. The case study is examined through the lens of the framework to illustrate how user-focused methodologies can be employed by development teams to systematically improve development of new technology, user acceptance of new technology, and assessments of technology viability.

Jesslyn Alekseyev

A MATLAB-Based Tool Usability Evaluation for 3D Reconstruction Environments

The way in which a graphical interface interacts with the user is a factor that could generate a high learning curve and affects its management and operation. In this sense, it is necessary to evaluate the user’s interaction in order to apply some technics that let improve the interface functionalities. In this work, is described the usability evaluation of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for 3D reconstruction in order to improve the user experience. To perform this reconstruction, the GUI developed in MATLAB allow the user to choose among three depth sensors: Kinect V1, V2 and Zed Stereo camera. The data acquired is shown as a point cloud and can be manipulated using several options. The results of the usability evaluation enable the implementation of changes to the graphic interface to improve the user interaction.

David Pozo-Espin, David Ponce, Kevin Jaramillo, Jorge-Luis Pérez-Medina

User Experience Design Trend of Mobile E-Commerce Vlog Application on Information Product

As a new type of information product, the application is formed by the combination of vlog and e-commerce. It tends to be the characteristics of combination with consumers, media and information in the process of consumers’ requirements analysis and product experience design. The e-commerce vlog application is a new mode of mobile Internet marketing, and the value of user experience should be paid attention to in the design of information and product service. The construction of “vlog+” ecosphere is mainly in the aspects of human-computer interaction and vlog generation, user experience upgrading with media convergence, the value promotion of e-commerce vlog.

Zishun Su, Jianxin Cheng, Xinying Wu, Qiaoling Zou

Duolun Road Cultural Street: Research on Cultural and Creative Products Using User Portraits

In recent years, Duolun Road Cultural Street, as the former residence of celebrities, has attracted the attention of Chinese and foreign tourists. But it can be seen that Duolun Road has become more and more uncultural, and the number of tourists is not as large as before. Some buildings or designs with a sense of time have become social places that are not related to each other, which greatly affects the mood of tourists, which has also led to the low economic benefits of this attraction. This study draws a user journey map using service design techniques, explores the gap in service experience during the tour of Duolun Road Cultural Street, and develops a design plan for cultural and creative products to enhance the backward visual image of tourism on Duolun Road Cultural Street. According to the interview method, the pain points in the tourist process are found out, and user surveys are used to classify the surveyed users using user portraits, interviews and case studies, and the appropriate cultural and creative product design direction is formulated for the target user group.

Dian Zhu, Zishan Song, Jingran He

Research on Customer Relationship Management System Based on Cognitive Psychology Theory: Analysis and Research of the World Business Website

The vigorous development of information technology has had a far-reaching impact on China’s tourism industry. Due to the lack of the concept of customer relationship management, many domestic tourism professional websites are unable to meet the diverse needs of people. This study takes cognitive psychology as the starting point, based on the theory of customer relationship management, through literature learning, website empirical analysis and interface design and other methods to study the tourism website customer relationship management design strategy. An example is given to analyze the “Looking at the world” website, which adheres to the purpose of “quality first, service first”, and establishes an interaction model with customers based on cognitive psychology, so as to lay a foundation for exploring new ideas of customer relationship management.

Catherine Huang, Tao Xi

Applying DEMATEL to Identify Critical Factors of Chinese Urban Residents’ Participation in Domestic Garbage Classification

Domestic garbage is the main source of urban waste, but the Chinese urban residents are lacking enthusiasm when participating in garbage classification. And this affects the effectiveness of urban waste classification. And this affects the effectiveness of urban waste classification. This study revealed the causal interrelationship among influencing factors behind urban residents’ participation in garbage classification by decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL). The findings show that three factors including’ Culture atmosphere’, ‘Garbage classification and disposal technology’ and ‘Garbage classification service design’, are key factors influencing the participation of the residents’ domestic garbage classification, while other factors such as ‘Attributes of garbage’ and ‘External environmental crisis’, have great impact on other main factors respectively. It can be summarized that the degree of participation of residents’ garbage classification is highly related to the urban cultural atmosphere, the design of related services and classification technology.

Minghua Zhang, Qing Xu

Factor Analysis of Jewelry Design Based on Consumer Behavior Research and DEMATEL Method

This study analyzes factors influencing jewelry design from the perspective of consumer behavior. Through deep interviews and questionnaires, nine factors which influence young women’s consumption of jewelries is identified. DEMATEL method is conducted to point out the determinant factors and picture the relations and interrelationships among these nine factors. Results show that consumers’ personal self-awareness, jewelry aesthetic value and jewelry price are the top three important factors. Meanwhile, factor “value preservation and value-added potential of jewelry”, has the greatest impact on the other factors.

Ting Liu, Jian Shi

Design and Research on the Parent-Child Indoor Environment of Chinese Middle-and-Upper Income Families

Under the background of the significant increase in the number of new-born population and the arrival of the experience economy, the consumption demand of middle-and-upper income families in China have increased rapidly. This paper summarizes 8 interior design attributes through literature retrieval, ethnography field survey and expert interviews. According to the hierarchical theory of user experience design, the hypothesis of the parent-child indoor environment evaluation model of Chinese middle-and-upper income families is put forward. Finally, the hypothesis is verified and revised by questionnaire and factor analysis.

Hongjun Qiu, Linong Dai

Research on the User Experience of Educational App in the Context of “Intangible Cultural Heritage”

In the new era, education as an important way to inherit intangible cultural heritage needs to be combined with APPs. In this context, this article studies the user experience of the handicraft education app by experiment. Experimental results show that user experience and user willingness affect learning outcomes. And through TAM model and user experience knowledge, the factors affecting user will and experience are discussed. It also puts forward design suggestions for a craft education app in the context of intangible cultural heritage.

Huai Cao, Jingmiao Guo

Research on the Design and Application of Persuasive Game in Calligraphy Learning

Gamification design has been developed in many fields and has been applied in the field of education. Numerous studies have shown that games can be an effective persuasion tool. Non-native speakers of Chinese generally learn Chinese calligraphy in the form of teaching, to improve the enthusiasm and fun of learning, this paper puts forward the way of persuasion games to practice Chinese calligraphy. We analyzed the main views and behavioral needs of international students on Chinese calligraphy learning. Based on the results of our interview, we discussed how we designed a persuasion game for learning Chinese calligraphy that is suitable for non-native Chinese speakers.

Ren Long, Chenyue Sun, Hongzhi Pan

Factors Affecting the Purchase Decision of Sneakers in Post-90s Consumer Groups

The national fitness craze led to the growth of sneakers consumption. This study took the post-90s young consumers in China as the research object, and used decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) to explore the causal relationship and importance between the factors of sneakers consumption decision-making evaluation. Study summarized eleven factors from three dimensions that influence young consumers’ sneakers consumption decisions. According to the calculation results, the important factors are found and the relationship between them is drawn. Result shows that the three most important factors are “price”, “brand” and “product design and style”. Therefore, the research gives two suggestions on the design and marketing of sneakers. First, the high-value transactions in the secondary market of sneakers need to be taken seriously. Secondly, the post-90s young consumers attach great importance to the expression of design innovation.

Jiayue Chu

Wearable Technologies

Frontmatter

Smart Digital Assistance Devices for the Support of Machine Operation Processes at Future Production Workplaces

Digitalization of production changes the scope of human-machine interaction, frequently leading to increasing informational load. The present article describes a study which investigated smart digital assistance (SDA) devices regarding usability, subjective strain, performance and reaction time while conducting a simultaneous machine monitoring and assembly task. Results reveal that subjective mental strain and reaction times were positively affected by means of SDA usage and showed significant differences independent from SDA type. Performance significantly increased when data glasses were used. Significant differences were further shown in usability when using smartwatch compared to data glasses. Findings show that SDA device implementation in industrial practice potentially has a positive benefit for productivity.

Julia N. Czerniak, Nikolas Schierhorst, Christopher Brandl, Alexander Mertens, Verena Nitsch

A Way of Motivating Patient in Rehabilitation – Case Study of a Motion Tracking Wearable Device

Stiffness in body joints is one of the most challenging and disabling complications after a traumatic injury. Early mobilization is the essential component in helping to regain full mobility but also aids in decreasing edema and inflammation. Active gentle stretching is one of the safest methods of treating joint stiffness as the aim of treatment is to regain full pain-free mobility with stability. SENS is a motion-tracking wearable device that promotes a gentle active range of motion with audio feedback. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the SENS device in terms of its’ functional performance and usability during the clients’ rehabilitation process. The test showed SENS provides instantaneous feedback regarding how much “active stretch” the subjects were able to obtain. The study was performed on 60 uninjured/typically developing adults and 3 injured patients. Results showed that the SENS device activated 100% of the time with active stretch. Two of the three patients showed a clear improvement in range of motion while using the device for treatment. All subjects showed a positive attitude in performing exercises on their own while wearing SENS.

Jeff Feng, Rajeshree Jaiswal

Technology as an Interface of Wear: Wearables and the Irreversible Human-Computer Interaction

Consumers of the 21st century experiences daily the pervasive effect of being updated in the face of new technologies. The transformation of frequency of consumption, new forms of communication, and financial availability in the purchasing decision process, is evident, turning these increasingly demanding consumers into prossumers, demanding from the market the convergence which combines diverse functionalities and aesthetic appeal. In this universe are inserted the wearable technologies, where the technological vestment becomes an ally in the lifestyle and communication. The aim of this article is to record and reflect about the convergence between technology and the clothing segment, and the notorious extension of human capabilities through the manipulation of bodies in the given technological evolution.

Dib Karam, Andressa Gonçalves

SWear: Sensing Using WEARables. Generalized Human Crowdsensing on Smartwatches

In this work, we present SWear, a generalized human crowdsensing platform to collect human behavior data on smartwatches. It uses the stand-alone capabilities of smartwatches to collect data without being connected to smartphones. SWear collects both sensor data (e.g. GPS and audio) and self-reported survey data through micro surveys administered on the watch. SWear has been validated in multiple studies to understand the relationship between humans and their context.

Mehdi Boukhechba, Laura E. Barnes

Is That What I Think It Is? Impact of Screen Size on User Ability to Identify Human Activities

Soldiers on the modern battlefield are taking advantage of aerial surveillance systems to provide better situation awareness while limiting their exposure to the enemy. The efficacy of this technology is a function of the human factors considerations inherent in the design. This study investigated the impact of display size on Soldiers’ situation awareness in a target detection and identification task using a 2 (screen sizes) × 3 (# of personnel in scenario) × 5 (activity types) full factorial design. Accuracy, response time, and confidence data were collected from 56 participants who observed 30 scenarios. No significant difference was found for display size but certain activities were more difficult to identify. Implications of the results and recommendations for additional research are discussed.

Ronnie Bush, Sheiloh Carlos, Earl Dean, Eric Kim, Amy Miranda, Rob Semmens, Lawrence Shattuck, John Dillard, Alejandro Hernandez

The Impact of Eye Tracking Technology

Eye tracking is a way to measure human eye movements. By using eye tracking technology, the information related to how human eyes are moving from one location to another location and where the person is looking at any given moment can be understood by researchers. For that reason, many cognitive scientists and engineers have already used the eye tracking technology in their studies. The purpose of this is to address how eye tracking technology has been employed in different fields of study and what eye movements measures have been analyzed to develop applications of the eye tracking technology. In this paper, a systematic review of eye tracking studies has been conducted to support other researchers for selecting appropriate eye tracking devices and methods for their studies. Also, the study highlighted the analysis of eye tracking data in various applications.

Roland Paul Nazareth, Jung Hyup Kim

Why Would You? Looking into Applicable Motives to Use Life-Logging

Maintaining good health gains importance, especially with increased life-expectancy. However, digitalization leads to more and more jobs that happen sitting down. So-called life-logging technologies, apps and specialized devices meant to record, e.g., steps and heart rate, can support people in staying active and, by extension, healthy. The possible motives behind their use are manifold, ranging from relinquishing responsibility to receiving ready-made visualizations for the recorded data. To understand which are the most important to both users and non-users, a MaxDiff study was conducted (N = 409). It was found that visualization was indeed the highest rated reason for using life-logging technologies. Interestingly, gamification aspects such as badges or competition were rejected as applicable motives. The results provide further insights into user requirements for the design and development of life-logging technologies.

Chantal Lidynia, Philipp Brauner, Laura Burbach, Martina Ziefle

Interactive Indoor Localization on Helmet

We present a human-sensor interaction approach for indoor navigation, where we incorporate inertial motion unit sensors, human knowledge and human-computer interaction into the navigation process. The algorithm uses semantic representations of navigational constraints such as walls, stairs, and elevators, to correct the trajectory. The objective is to reduce the IMU drifting errors. The navigation prototype is implemented on a helmet with a holographic screen that can mix the actual visible image with mapping and visualization information, voice command and tactile interface. The helmet is to assist first responders in emergency environments of fire, flood, shooting, cyberattack, and medical distress, where GSP, cellular and regular WiFi is not available. The results show that the interactive navigation reduces drifting errors and it is an affordable alternative to existing technologies such as ultrasound, RFID, UWB radios, WiFi signatures, and camera-based SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) algorithms where matching features are not sufficient, especially in a dark or smoking environment.

Yang Cai, Sean Hackett, Florian Alber

Wearable Real-Time Monitoring System Based on Fiber Bragg Grating Pressure Sensor for Compression Therapy Applications

Compression therapy is a simple physical approach to effectively increase blood flow activity of a target part of human body by strengthening vein support. However, there is few research study clearly elucidate a dynamic relationship between the excepted setting pressure and the received pressure while taking human factors account. This paper aims to adopt optical fiber pressure sensor in a pneumatic compression therapy device to detect the dynamic pressure applied on target tissues and to explore the relationship with pneumatic output. The preliminary results verify the feasibility of the research and provide theoretical basis for further work. This real time monitoring system would greatly improve the development of the compression treatment and highly support the personalized home care for health management and functional maintenance to improve the life quality of the relevant patients.

Ziyang Xiang, Jianxun Liu, Zhuxin Zhou, Zhengyi Ma, Zidan Gong, Jie Zhang, Chi Chiu Chan

Human-Centered Design for the Spacesuit Development: A Case Study of the “Feitian” EVA Spacesuit

The aim of this study is to advance the current understanding of human-centred design (HCD) and its toolkits effectively applied in designing and developing spacesuits for extravehicular activity (EVA). This study intends to address how HCD supports the design and development of the EVA Spacesuit through an in-depth case study on the ‘Feitian’ EVA Spacesuit. Data were primarily collected through a series of in-depth interviews with senior staff of the Astronaut Center of China. This study mainly contributes two aspects of knowledge: (1) knowledge of aerospace product design process based on HCD principle, including design strategy and design process knowledge; (2) user knowledge: user needs and ergonomic factors involved in the design of EVA Spacesuit products were comprehensively summarised. The results of this study can contribute towards promoting a humanised design of the EVA Spacesuit.

Jianping Luo, Wei Liu, Songhe Ye

The Development of an Audible Warning System for Parachute Landing at Night

Currently no system exists to assist military parachutists navigating to the drop zone and landing at night. Night jumping creates extra danger because many times the jumper will not be able to see the ground. The purpose of this research is to develop and test audible warnings as well as delivery systems to alert parachutists of critical altitudes in their descent. This will decrease injuries obtained from ground impact. A novel audible display was developed and preliminary testing has been accomplished to assess the human response to the warnings, the intuitiveness of the warnings, and the method of displaying this warning to the user (bone conduction and earphone microphones). Preliminary results show that a combination of tonal and verbal audio displays is most effective to communicate critical altitudes to parachutists and that bone conduction microphones are promising as an effective technology to display the warnings to the parachutists.

Jeffrey C. Parr, Cameron E. Cates, Nathan C. Courtaney, Mathew R. Lovetri, Nicholas F. Wesolek

A Study on the Size of Head and Face of Chinese Minors

In this study, a small sample of head and face item sizes was measured for 278 boys and 256 girls aged from 12 to 17 years old in China. Through the analysis of relevant data, regression equations were established between the main head and face parameters and the head and face item sizes. The results of this study could be used as amendments and supplements to the original national standards, and can also be used for ergonomic design and evaluation of head and face protective products for minors.

Linghua Ran, Chaoyi Zhao, Hong Luo, Xin Zhang, Taijie Liu

The Effects of Vagus Nerve Stimulation on Insomnia Persons for Stress Reduction and Sleep Induction

In recent years, the stress level increases and sleep quality decreases in the day-to-day life among the people. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) plays a vital role in stress reduction. This study aims to assess the stress reduction and the sleep induction effects on insomnia persons using non-invasive wearable AMO+ VNS device. The physiological signals such as Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Electroencephalogram (EEG) are measured during resting condition before and after the use of fake and the real device, respectively. The statistical t-test is performed. After the use of real AMO+ device the HF ratio increases significantly, although no significant changes in HR, α power ratio increases in the prefrontal (Fp1, Fp2) and frontal (F3, F4) areas of the brain. The significant increase in the melatonin level is noticed during 10.00 pm to 12 midnight after the use of the real AMO+ device.

Kalaivani Rathakrishnan, Min Kyu Kim, Se Jin Park

Human Factors in Game Design

Frontmatter

Stratagems: Embedding Cognitive Training in Game-Based Environments

Combat Rescue Helicopter aircrew are tasked with challenging missions, usually under conditions of time pressure, dynamic conditions, and a high degree of uncertainty. The complex cognitive skills required to be effective are primarily acquired and maintained through on-the-job experiences. One strategy for supporting cognitive skill-acquisition is to develop scenario-based training that increases exposure to challenging missions in a safe environment. This paper describes a research project to develop a pedagogically effective game-based trainer for cognitive skills required for Combat Rescue Helicopter aircrew. Training was developed using a decision-centered framework to promote cognitive authenticity. The Stratagems trainer poses critical decisions and provide expert feedback utilizing ShadowBox®, a coaching technique that enables trainees to obtain insight into the decision-making processes and reasoning of experts.

Emily Newsome, Laura Militello, Sowmya Ramachandran

Linkage Between Gamification and Moral Organisational Climate

Moral organisational climate is directly related to employee motivation, retention and efficiency of work because it has a common goal and reveals the main moral values of an organisation, relations among employees, and formal recognition and enhances what is so important for Y and Z generations, tech lovers, who usually are defined as very dynamic individuals seeking interesting work, good atmosphere and interpersonal relations. In this context, gamification as one of modern methods has become an increasingly more popular human resource management instrument in practice. Gamification tends to increase engagement in an organisation and motivation and improve teamwork, interpersonal relations and work efficiency. Despite that, it is still a relatively new phenomenon and science lacks the empirical evidence of the usefulness of this concept in human resources management, and especially of the linkage between gamification and moral organisational climate. The aim of the paper is to identify the linkage between gamification and moral organisational climate. Mixed research methods were applied for this research: content analysis was used to identify gamification elements applied and their nature; and quantitative study was chosen for the evaluation of the linkage between gamification and moral organisational climate.

Lina Girdauskiene, Asta Savaneviciene, Olga Denisova

Designing a Serious Game for Labor Inclusion of People with Intellectual Disabilities Using iPlus Methodology

Labor market insertion of persons with disabilities is a great challenge. It is a societal imperative of ensuring that all citizens can take part in society seeking social equity. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to contribute to the labor insertion processes of persons with intellectual disabilities through the implementation of a mobile application for the development of cognitive skills through the resolution of time sequences and the revision of vocabulary that represent specific work scenarios. For the development of the application, the user centered design approach of iPlus methodology is followed. This article illustrates the development of the application using iPlus.

Mayra Carrión, Marco Santórum, Carlos Sampredro, Andrés Paredes, Yolanda Ortiz, Pilar Samaniego-Santillán, Jorge-Luis Pérez-Medina, Patricia Acosta-Vargas, Carlos Corrales-Gaitero, Verónica Maldonado-Garcés

Brain Reality Gaming: Concepts, Advances and Current Challenges

In general, virtual reality and digital games use physical devices so that the user can act on the stimuli on the screen. The innovation, known as neuroreality, is characterized by the alteration of the user’s perception through an interface with the human brain. Based on the biology of the user, these interfaces adapt themselves as well as capture the physiological signals that interfere with the way the game’s narrative is presents. Here, then, emerges a new field for game designers: the brain reality gaming, which is characterized by the programming of alternative realities that trigger brain circuits and, consequently, trigger emotions and sensations in users, so that, what was thought as if it was something, be perceived as real by the human brain. This paper seeks to explore the main concepts concerned to hedonic design and game design to be able to add the concept and techniques of biofeedback to game mechanics in order to develop even more positive, immersive and challenging experiences.

Ana Carol Pontes de França, Vilma Villarouco

Serious-Games-Based Exercises for Arthroplasty Rehabilitation

A usability study between a simple and a gamified serious game environment is presented to supports therapeutic exercises for patients with hip replacement. The first one was developed in JavaScript and the second one in Unity 3D. The level of realism of the games is higher in the latter than in the former implementation. Both use a motion detection device to capture the flexion points of each body articulation. 30 subjects tested the usability of the environments while patients perform the hip abduction exercise through the System Usability Scale. Results showed a good appreciation for the first environment and an excellent appreciation for the second environment. It suggests that a realistic game-based implementation of therapeutic exercises increases the engagement of the patients.

Jorge-Luis Pérez-Medina, Patricio-David Espinosa-Alvarez, Karina Jimenes-Vargas, Patricia Acosta-Vargas, Yves Rybarczyk

Engagement in the Cinematography of Videogames: Proposal of an Algorithm for Colors and Foci of Attention Analysis

This work compares two perspectives related to the production and imaging of a videogame called Shovel Knight, which was released in 2014. The purpose is to produce a greater impact on the user through the audiovisual pro- duction of the videogame. An analysis of attention foci and colors based on a perception algorithm are studied and compared for this videogame and two versions of it. We study the visual impact of videogames according to characteristics such as: color focuses, types of color with the intention of creating the videogame, player’s emotional state in front of the images, and so on, obtaining a resembling to the reality of the software of 5%. Finally, as a case of study, we make a videogame done with real environment landscapes and characters and we contrast the same videogame made digitally in its original version. We obtained that the first version has a greater acceptance and enjoyment regarding the second one, with 95% of higher impact of attention for 35 people. This case analyzed the visual impact according to the criteria that videogames can generate in players.

Jesus GomezRomero-Borquez, Carolina Del-Valle-Soto

The Research on Critical Factors Affecting the Game Experience of Daily Quests System in Mobile Game

With the popularization and development of mobile communication technology and equipment, online mobile games have become an important part of the game market. Improving game experience is an effective means to improve retention. Therefore, this study takes the daily quests system from numerical growth games as the object and extract 13 factors that related to the game experience, then analyze them by Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL). The results indicate that players’ behavioral rhythm during the time the players perform the daily quests should be planned to gain a better experience. And a mechanism to match the difficulty of the tasks according to the player’s level can be added. Besides, in the new era, the difference of social contact between acquaintances and that between strangers will be more ambiguous to distinguish and becoming an opportunity to improve the present game experience.

Qing Xu, Minghua Zhang

Research on the Application Trend of Immersive Game Interactive Experience Space in Museum

In view of technology application trends in immersive game interactive experience, this study starts from human-medium interactive language and sums up museum space creation methods, creation ideas and development trends in immersive game experience design. To enhance the audience’s perception in museum experience, designers and participants are guided to a new perspective of the interactive language and form of presentation of museum technology application integrating with modern art. The study is divided into three discussion sections. The first section expounds on the impact of technology development trends in immersive game interactive experience on design, including the change in design methods. The second section points out that the introduction of immersive game interaction technology provides more creation guidance for information presentation of museum design language and space theme. The third section, through the analysis of the latest development trend in the technology language of immersive game interactive experience as a unique medium, concludes how museum information utilizes this latest technology for spatial experience and information dissemination as well as what role and function immersive game interactive experience technology performs in such information dissemination.

Jian Yu, Yongbin Wang

Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Realities Applications

Frontmatter

An Augmented Reality Command and Control Sand Table Visualization on Top of an Advanced User Interface Display on Large Touch Table Interface

A prototyping user interface toolkit constitutes a software application for the design and development of futuristic stylized user interfaces for collaborative exploration and validation with regards to decision making and situational awareness. The initial hardware device were large screen touch tables for collaboration. In this work, Augmented Reality (AR) is examined to determine if this technology is useful for future development efforts. This work examines the development and evaluation of an AR-based virtual sand table presentation overlaid over a large touch table display with its own interface. This new way to present the same information allows for a unique collaborative setting to be evaluated as a potential future user interface. This is applied in the context of a group setting where users gather in the collaborative virtual space for decision making and situational awareness.

Bryan Croft, Jeffrey D. Clarkson, Eric Voncolln, Alex Campos, Scott Patten, Richard Roots

The Use of Immersive Technologies for Design Reviews

Analysing and manipulating 3D objects are key competences for product designers. Although there is a substantial amount of research on review tools based on immersive technologies related to industrial practices, a comparison with traditional design reviews on an educational level is less prominent in scientific literature. This paper consists of a comparison between reviewing a CAD model on a 2D laptop screen and a more immersive method, using an augmented reality (AR) headset. The participants are twelve industrial design students. They were asked to review two products and look for ergonomic and technical design errors. Based on the evaluation of different parameters, the presented AR method scored high on spatial insight and contextual readability. Also, it was uncovered that the AR method was more demanding both physically and mentally. The findings state that immersive technologies can positively influence the industrial design process, anticipating that future AR technology becomes mature enough.

Sander Van Goethem, Jouke Verlinden, Ian Garcia, Rune Degryse, Siebe Perdieus, Regan Watts, Stijn Verwulgen

VRMouse: Mouse Emulation with the VR Controller for 2D Selection in VR

Selection is one of the fundamental tasks of user interaction in VR. Currently, the most popular selection technique is ray-casting, but whether ray-casting is the most appropriate selection method for 2D selection in VR is questionable due to its inherent limitations. To address the issues associated with ray-casting, we proposed the VRMouse, a new technique that emulates the mouse with the VR controller. VRMouse transforms the VR controller into a mouse by restricting its six degrees of freedom to two and simulating 2D desktop-like cursor control. We evaluated the technique against ray-casting in an experiment based on ISO 9241-9. Results indicated that VRMouse excelled over the ray-casting, in terms of accuracy, comfort, and satisfaction. The findings of this preliminary study imply that the proposed VRMouse technique could enhance 2D selection performance in VR.

Woojoo Kim, Junyoung Jung, Shuping Xiong

The Effect of Ocular Dominance on Decision Making in a Virtual Environment

Human laterality is the preference of an individual to use one side of their body rather than the other. Ocular dominance, also known as eye dominance, is one type of laterality in that eye dominance affects human visual perception. This study explores how ocular human laterality is associated with decision making in determining one choice from the left or right and top or bottom. Two simple tasks are developed running in a virtual environment in which a user wears a head-mounted display and observes two 3D ball shape objects that one moves to the left and the other moves to the right side of their eyes. The user performs the same task as the direction of the ball movement is changed to up and down. An eye-tracking device is used to measure the users’ decision on the two tasks by tracking down their eye movements. A user study conducted with a total of 20 college students, ages ranged from 18 to 30 years old, revealed that there was a significant relationship between eye dominance and their decision making.

Hae Jung Suk, S. J. Kim

Exploring Attention in VR: Effects of Visual and Auditory Modalities

Attention requires the ability to stay concentrated and alert to stimuli over prolonged periods of time. Virtual reality (VR) can be used in various training situations where attention plays a major role (e.g. system operators). Here, we investigate the effects of visual and auditory stimuli on attention performance in a VR aquarium (Nesplora Aquarium). Participants pay attention to the main fish tank and respond by pressing a button. The stimuli are different species of fish that are delivered either via visual or auditory channels. Thirty-seven participants completed the VR test and paper questionnaires. We found that attention is influenced differently by sensory modalities. Attention performance measured by the reaction time to correct targets and the number of errors of omission were better in the visual condition, while the number of errors of commission were lower in the auditory condition. The human factors’ role in attention tasks is also discussed.

Alexandra Voinescu, Liviu Andrei Fodor, Danaë Stanton Fraser, Daniel David

The Impact of Interactive AR on Learning Ability of Children’s Chinese Characters Self-learning

Augmented reality has become an effective teaching and learning tool to improve children’s engagement and experience during. This study presented 2 kinds of Chinese characters learning method (traditional picture learning and AR-assisted learning), and compared the impact of traditional learning and AR-assisted learning methods on children’s learning ability in the process of learning by applying AR technology to traditional Chinese pictographs learning method. It involves the impact on children’s concentrated ability, cognitive ability and learning initiative. These finds enriches the application and research of AR technology in Chinese language teaching, and provides reference for applied research in other related fields.

Hui Yan, Xin He

AR-Based Assembly Assistance System with Efficient Evaluation of Misalignment Between Virtual and Real Objects

Good assembly instructions improve the effectiveness of assembly operations and training. The development of augmented reality (AR) has enhanced the experience of assembly operations by showing computer-aided design (CAD) models at installation locations to an operator wearing an AR head-mounted display (HMD). In such operations, it is important to detect whether misassembly occurs. This research proposes two methods to construct an AR assembly assistance system using only an HMD of Microsoft HoloLens. One method is coordinate calibration to make the CAD models display correctly at desired locations by aligning a reference CAD model to the corresponding real object’s position. The other evaluates in real time whether misalignment has occurred by comparing the depth images of the CAD model and the real object for efficiency. With the preliminary development, we can use only an HMD to achieve the AR-based assembly instruction and verification to some extent.

Ting-Hao Li, Hiromasa Suzuki, Yutaka Ohtake, Tatsuya Yatagawa, Shinji Matsuda

The Use of Immersive Technologies for Concept Design

In this paper, a method is proposed for using virtual reality for concept design with the Gravity Sketch VR application and a virtual reality headset. The method for augmented concept design is then tested against traditional sketching on paper. The participants were thirteen product development master students, challenged to design backpacks in VR and on paper. Different parameters like efficiency, ease of use and enjoyment were measured through observation, a survey and a laddering interview. Even though the master students had no experience with virtual reality, the VR method scored surprisingly high on efficiency, effectiveness and ease of use. The participants specified that they enjoyed working with VR more, however none of them were likely to completely replace their traditional sketching methods. Nevertheless, this study supports the claim that virtual reality technology is ready for product design.

Sander Van Goethem, Regan Watts, Arno Dethoor, Rik Van Boxem, Kaz van Zegveld, Jouke Verlinden, Stijn Verwulgen

Bringing Virtual Reality into Military Mental Health Education: A Pilot Study on Stress Management Course

Improving soldiers’ resilience and recovery has always been the core of military training for all countries. Current research tends to consider stress negative, which leads to unhealthiness or unhappiness; as a result, some scholars believe that stress should be avoided or reduced as much as possible. Frankly speaking, the existence of stress is inevitable in military environments. For example, turning into a soldier from a civilian in military academy exerts great pressure on freshmen, which is necessary. In practical, the implementation of stress management courses is fragmentary and discontinuous. Such lectures focus more on theories, which could not make students truly comprehend the nature of stress. In this study, stress theory and virtual reality technology design are adopted to overcome the difficulties of current curriculum. For the stress mindset theory, some scholars believe having a stress-is-enhancing mindset will enhance physical and mental health as well as raise the happiness, while having a stress-is-debilitating mindset may cause negative effects on physical and mental health as well as decrease the happiness. Therefore, the theory of curriculum design in this study will adopt the theory of stress-is-enhancing mindset. This viewpoint emphasizes that stress mindset is a belief, and that strengthening an individual’s mentality will enhance their ability to face challenges. Through learning stress-is-enhancing mindset, military academy students can well deal with stress in the future. The course adopts a Mindset Training Program proposed by Crum [2], which includes a three-step, two-hour teaching course. In the first part, “The Paradox of Stress” introduces the possibility to make people weak or strong through the stress. In the second part, “The Power of Mindset”, the stress is specified and defined through films and examples to explain how attitudes influence individual’s psychology and physiology. In the third part, three steps to strengthen mentality are adopted. The steps aim to help new cadets adopt a positive and conscious way to strengthen mentality. The third part will include virtual reality technology, a kind of computer technology that enables participants to interact with computer-generated three-dimensional scenes. Participants can produce the same behavior and emotions as in real situations, and it takes less time. Finally, the results of this study are expected to give educators a new model for stress management, and further enhance the resilience and recovery of the military.

Shih-Ting Chen, Pao-Lung Chiu, Chia-Chi Mao

Evaluation of Vehicles’ Best Route in Virtual Tactical Teaching Environment Based on Machine-Learning Techniques

Machine learning techniques to assess teaching military tactics when the route traveled by the vehicle, in order to sum up the program operation of the route, can be a more objective measure. At the same time, a 3D virtual battlefield and information visualization are combined to assist the determination of decisions and judgment of tactical actions. This technology helps military personnel to maintain the training model deduced by war and at the same time enhances the concept of situation awareness. In the semi-structured interview, we can see that the tactical actions and thinking methods learned base on machine learning to virtual applications are more realistic and interesting and can help them understand and analyze for battlefield situations. Besides, the study also discussed the significance of artificial intelligence and virtual environments for military education tactics and suggestions for further research

Chia-Chi Mao, Shuo-Ting Hung

Augmented Reality Assisted Sensory Integration Therapy for Improving Attention of Children with Autism

Autism has a lot to do with deficits in attention management, information processing, and memory. In the past few years, augmented reality technology (AR) has gradually been embedded in teaching tools for children with autism because of its unique advantages, such as engagement, interaction and providing a richer user experience. This study designs a game for children with Autism, aims to explore the effects of combination of AR and sensory integration therapy. We designed a scooter tracking and positioning game with augmented reality technology (AR) for children with autism. This game aims to concentrate their attention and improve their coordination, vestibular balance and proprioception.

Xin He, Xin Song

Handedness Effect and Its Implication for Designing Two-Handed Interactive Applications in Virtual Reality

This research studied how the handedness characteristic or the motor ability differences between the preferred hand and the non-preferred hand affected natural hand interaction result in VR. An experiment was conducted with 30 participants (8 left-handedness, 22 right-handedness) recruited. The participants were required to complete a series of target acquisition tasks in a specifically designed VR application. The experiment results showed that (1) the preferred hand had a higher efficiency in selecting targets than the non-preferred one; but (2) the non-preferred hand achieved a more satisfying accuracy than the preferred one; (3) the preferred hand resulted in a more persistent operation, but the non-preferred hand was pointed out to perceive fatigue more easily. Given above findings, implication and guidelines were discussed for developing more efficient and user-friendly interactive applications in VR.

Xiaolong Lou, Zhipeng Feng, Yan Shi

Design and Evaluation of a Virtual Reality Serious Game

Serious Games (SGs) are computer-based games designed for training, advertising, health fields and communications. In this paper, we propose a reference methodology for the design of SG that incorporates a participatory, flexible and user-centered approach, adaptable to users with non-standard cognitive abilities. iPlus allows the conception of educational SGs, here we illustrate the construction of a virtual reality SG for recreation therapy of people with mental illness.

Mayra Carrión, Marco Santórum, Juan Benavides, José Aguilar, Yolanda Ortiz, María Pérez

Application of Virtual Reality Combined with Eye Tracking Technology for Design and Its Assessment by Fuzzy Evaluation Method

In this paper, a combination of virtual reality (VR) and eye tracking technology applied in art and design process is presented. The efficacy evaluation of the proposed application is further discussed. The main research contents and innovative points of this study include: 1) an innovative art and design process combined with VR immersion technology is put forward, 2) VR combined with evaluation technology of human factors engineering is introduced into the design process and the physiological feedback data of the audience involved in the process are collected, 3) the design efficacy is assessed using a Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method that combines the ARCS and IMMS models. Furthermore, traditional design process is researched and optimized, which not only helps to enhance the design efficacy, but is also suitable for improving the efficiency of the whole design industry. This interdisciplinary research provides theoretical and technical bases for the application and evaluation of immersive design in different disciplines, showing high academic and practical significance.

Yan Wang, Jirawat Vongphantuset

Ergonomics Study on Taking and Putting Objects Based on Subjective Evaluation and Virtual Simulation

Eighteen subjects (ten females/eight males) were recruited to participate in the experiment of taking and putting objects in two drawers with different heights, leading to the evaluation of the physical strengths required for taking and putting items in two drawers. Using the motion capture system (Qualisys track manager), the movement postures of taking and putting objects in two drawers were recorded and compared. These virtual models of taking and putting at two heights were built via Jack software. The strength required for the main segments and joints of the body was analyzed and predicted, in order to verify the subjective evaluation results. The research methods and results of this paper have certain reference value for the design and improvement of man-machine system.

Hui-min Hu, Ai-ping Yang, Xin Zhang, Cao Zixiong

Evaluation of Virtual Reality Concepts for Rapid Prototyping of Gears Using Additive Layer Technology

Virtual Reality methods have seamlessly accelerated rapid prototyping of new product designs in various industries due to its flexibility in design modification, re-configurability, and non-destructive testing potential. There are various studies on the application of VR for 3D and 4D visualization of conceptual environment. However, limited research exists on its application in rapid prototyping of gears. The study seeks to evaluate various VR simulation methods applied within the product research and development industry for the design of gears that are manufactured using additive layer manufacturing processes, through a research based fact-finding approach. Based on the findings, the paper seeks to share these outcomes as a means of providing information that will guide both institution based researchers and product development specialist in rightly selecting proven Virtual Reality techniques that will guarantee optimal ramp up time for rapid prototyping unique gear designs, putting into consideration human factors.

Opeyeolu Timothy Laseinde, Rosine Mouchou, Olawole Kuti

Virtual Reality as a Factor to Improve Productivity in Learning Processes

A 3D virtual interactive environment can follow the steps of those old second world war flying simulators and be used as a tool to train people in learning a practical process. This will result in an increase of productivity because people will be able of performing that practical process in less time thanks to the use of Virtual Reality as a technological learning tool. This work presents and statistical analysis of 100 students of the first semester of engineering trying to learn a simple and practical task using a 3D virtual interactive environment and the time that it took them to perform the same activity in real life. The results of this investigation prove statistically that there is nearly a 20% gain in the time that it took for the group that used virtual reality over those who did not use it.

Jorge A. González-Mendívil, Miguel X. Rodríguez-Paz, Gabriela G. Reyes-Zárate

The Effect of Augmented Reality on the Memorization in History and Humanities Education

With the advent of the 5G era, the development of AR in education has great potential, and this technology can bring more diverse forms to education. Although there are many cases in which AR has been used to develop “science” education, there is relatively fewer applications of AR in the field of humanities education. We still don’t know whether AR can always provide positive guidance to students in the history and humanities education, and how does this technology affect students’ learning and memory effects? We developed an AR-assisted book for historical story education. The book combines virtual information with real-world information from both visual and auditory dimensions. In this paper, we used a control experiment to compare the difference of memory effects between AR-assisted book and traditional 2D book. We set up test questions to compare the memorization results of the two experimental groups, and analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the two books. This paper aims to lay the foundation for how to stimulate students’ interest in learning and improve their memories ability of learning, and to provide advice on how to apply augmented reality technology in the history and humanities educational environment.

Xin He, Yeyi Hong

Usability and Gaming Experience Assessment of the Nintendo Switch User Interface by Filipino Users

The Nintendo Switch is a popular hybrid portable gaming console that employs a novel modular design, enabling it to be played in multiple controller configurations: Handheld mode, left and right JoyCon Sticks, and the JoyCon Grip. However, there are notes of user complaints about the complexity of performing basic tasks as a result of the unintuitiveness of its user interface. This can result to poor gaming experience and may potentially affect customer buying decisions. To assess the affordance of the user interface design of the Nintendo Switch, a total of 16 Filipino participants, classified as either novice or expert users, based on familiarity with the Switch or other gaming consoles and their functionalities, were made to perform a predetermined set of tasks on navigating through the Nintendo Switch’s basic menus, and playing a racing game across different controller orientations. Affordance, overall usability, and gaming experience satisfaction were measured through 5-point Likert scales (5 being the highest) for affordance surveys, system usability scale (SUS) surveys, and in-task and post-task surveys, respectively. Separate sets of surveys were done for general navigation and gaming tasks. Additionally, quantitative measures of effectiveness (task completion success rates) and efficiency (time to successfully complete tasks) were taken for general navigation tasks, and compared between novice and expert users. Task efficiency rates were also compared to baseline values obtained from experienced Nintendo Switch users. Results show a significant difference between expert and novice users’ effectiveness rates, with expert users all successfully performing 73% of navigation tasks, compared to novice rates of 18%. Efficiency rates for both expert and novice participant groups consistently fell significantly behind baseline task completion times. Affordance survey results showed consistent ratings across different controller configurations for expert users, and high preference for JoyCon Grip and Handheld mode configurations for novice participants. Of all SUS scores, only Game Navigation for expert users scored above the 68-point threshold. Recommendations to improve the Nintendo Switch user interface affordance and overall user satisfaction were made.

Cyrus Alexander R. Ting, Juneliza M. Mondragon, Julia Isabel F. Almirante, Gabriel Isaac L. Ramolete, Michael Angelo Patrick C. Cohen, Benette P. Custodio

Human Factors and Assistive Technology

Frontmatter

Reflections on an Interdisciplinary Approach: Integrating Assistive Technologies and Experience-Based Knowledge in Maintenance

The interdisciplinary research project StahlAssist focuses on the processing and application of experience-based knowledge in maintenance. Hence, the authors address the linkage between a technological solution and an experience-based approach in knowledge management. The article reflects on the significance of experience-based knowledge in industrial processes, its integration to assistive technologies, and evaluates the use cases of the project. In the first use case, we designed a technology-based infrastructure to provide expert knowledge immediately in the work process; the second use case introduces technology-assisted handover talks.

Mareike Gerhardt, Tina Haase, Michael Dick

Assistive Device Design for Animal Needs in Human Society

This paper introduces the design and development of a new assistive wheeled product for handicapped dogs. The device is specifically targeted for a 5-year-old mastiff who lost one of his front legs due to a gunshot accident in California, U.S. This study involves research, design, and usability testing with a series of working prototypes on the dog. The significant challenges in collecting accurate data from the testing and process of the new product development will be illustrated through demonstrating the mobility, durability, safety, stability and comfortability of the device. After the efforts of diverse approaches and different product directions, a wheeled assistive device, similar to dog wheelchairs, has been invented by the industrial design team from The Design School at Arizona State University in the U.S.

Dosun Shin

Intelligent Homecare Systems: An Exploration of System Requirements from a User’s Perspective

Recent technical developments have paved the way for various types of intelligent homecare services, yet, the needs and wants of potential users who have to live in such environments are still largely unexplored today. Therefore, this paper aims at analyzing (1) the requirements that future homecare systems have to meet as well as (2) the influences of personal user factors of the perceived importance of these requirements. In a pre-study with N = 31 participants, discretion, data security, control and avoidance of stigmatization have been identified as fundamental system requirements. The four requirements were explored in more detail in a main study with N = 461 participants. The results show that all aspects were regarded as rather important, however, the differences in the perception of the various aspects were quite distinctive.

Carsten Röcker

MagicContact Web: A Multiplatform Application for Augmentative and Alternative Communication

MagicContact Web is an accessibility application intended to aid communication with and by users with speech difficulties, especially those without fine motor skills or with severe motor impairments. It was conceived considering the adaptation to various devices, the integration of adaptable communication boards, with speech synthesis functionality in different languages, and allowing different modes to select the available options, thus enabling their users to express themselves and to communicate autonomously. In an effort to improve and meet market expectations, suggestions from professional therapists and usability testing with patients in real contexts were addressed.

Cristiano Patrício, Tiago Lucas, Celestino Goncalves, Nuno Pinto, Daniel Freitas, Luís Figueiredo

Determination of the Perception Threshold Between Conscious and Subconscious Sitting Discomfort

Static sitting is a cause of musculo-skeletal disorders. In order to reduce the stress on muscles and intervertebral discs, seated workplaces should therefore be designed to promote the user’s movement of body and limbs at regular intervals [1]. One approach to achieve a frequent change of sitting posture is the generation of subconscious sitting discomfort within the seat using the ‘princess on the pea’ effect [2]. In order to determine the requirements an office chair is modified as a test bench and equipped with actuators and sensors. A test program is designed to ensure automatic test execution and data evaluation. The participant indicates the threshold value between conscious and subconscious strain and sitting discomfort. In addition, the participants are asked to identify the position of occurrence. This is to confirm the whether or not the sitting discomfort can be localized exactly.

Peter Gust, Sebastian Kampa, Frank Mersch, Marco Kuhlmeier

Drivers for Change: Initial Insights from Mapping Half a Century of Inclusive Paediatric Mobility Design

Inclusive Paediatric Mobility (IPM) design is the application of an inclusive design process to create mobility interventions such as wheelchairs, walking aids and exoskeletons, with the fundamental goal of optimising the experience of childhood. The field of IPM has experienced growing attention from a wide range of disciplines and stakeholders, resulting in increased knowledge and the development of new interventions. However, there remains a myriad of issues around the viability, feasibility, and desirability of paediatric mobility products and services, as well as poor documentation of the successes, failures, and approaches used within the field. This paper maps out the history of the field across four categories of contributions i.e. Interventional, Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical. Key drivers for change identified through the mapping review include Documentation and Representation, Design Approach, Interdisciplinarity, Regionality, and Operational and Market characteristics. These findings offer a starting point for reimagining the future of IPM design.

Cara O’Sullivan, Farnaz Nickpour

A Research About Personalized Tickets’ Pattern and Color Design Based on Computer-Aided Technology

As a traditional form of visual communication, ticket has become more and more unpopular recently. This paper discusses the causes of tickets’ decline from 3 functions of tickets: publicity, collection and commemoration, and proposes personalized solutions. The semantic difference scale of Kansei is used to verify the hypothesis of personalization and obtain the tourists’ perceptual evaluation. Combined with this above information, the process framework of personalized tickets is proposed, then it will be tested by CorelDRAW software. Despite several shortcomings of the practice results, it is of great practical significance to the personalization of tickets and the personalization of visual packaging. Furthermore, the research method can provide thinking and reference for the personalization of products in the future.

Miao Liu, Xinye Xu

Molecular Production System - Flexible and Attractive Manufacturing Systems of the Future

The demand for more flexible manufacturing systems is increasing because of higher volatilities and shortened product life cycles. Manufacturers today define their assembly layout once regarding the actual market situation. To perform changes according market demands are usually associated with high costs. Factories needs flexible manufacturing systems which can change the layout overnight. At the same time the job profiles of manufacturing employee changes. More and more knowledge work tasks are part of their daily work. Combined with an increasing demand regarding attractive and individualized workplaces also in factories leads to new design approaches of manufacturing workplaces. This paper presents a new design approach to get more flexibility and productivity and on the other hand more attractive manufacturing workplaces.

Bastian Pokorni, Jan Zwerina

Applying Facial Expression of Augmented Reality for Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Facial expressions are often difficult identification for children with autism spectrum disorders. Many studies have examined teaching responding to the facial expression to children with autism spectrum disorders. We apply the augmented reality as a tool for teaching students with autism spectrum disorders to respond the six facial expressions, which include anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness and surprise. The participants with autism spectrum disorders have attended augmented reality teaching process. The participants experience three phases in this study, which include baseline, intervention, and follow-up phases. The result indicates that using augmented reality is a useful tool for teaching students with autism spectrum disorder. It can make students focus on a situation. Future researchers should use the way to teach and test responding to facial expressions by applying augmented reality.

Lai-Chung Lee, Kuo-Chen Kao

Integrated Learning and Assistive Systems for Manual Work in Production - Proposal for a Systematic Approach to Technology Selection and Design

Digital assistive systems are becoming increasingly common for production work, e.g., in the fields of assembly and maintenance [1, 2]. Experience with the use of assistive technologies in those various fields of application [3] indicates that their successful use is influenced by different parameters, e.g., the individual prerequisites of the employee, the task to be supported and organizational frameworks [4]. These parameters are to be taken into account when designing human-centered, conducive to learning and work-integrated learning and assistive systems.

Tina Haase, Justina Radde, Alinde Keller, Dirk Berndt, Michael Dick

Evaluation of Cognitive Load and Its Relationship with Physical Ability on Walking Support Using Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) Driver

In rehabilitation, emotional aspect is one key factor to motivate patients to reach their full recovery. Our previous study developed wireless PAM driver as walking-support device and experimentally evaluated its effectiveness in physical ability, but has not performed evaluation on emotional aspect yet. Therefore, this study experimentally evaluates cognitive load and its relationship with physical ability (i.e. performance and joint motion) on walking support using our PAM driver with variations of walking conditions. We obtained tendency of double-blink rate as rapid serial blinks to evaluate cognitive load during walking. In addition, we obtained correlations between gait velocity and blink rates, indicating that cognitive load was affected by walking speed (performance) more than joint motion (swing support).

Tipporn Laohakangvalvit, Haruki Toda, Tsubasa Maruyama, Yuichi Kurita, Mitsunori Tada

The Significance of Space Organisation in the Realisation of Movement and Mobility for People with Visual Disability

Architects often present their designed buildings from the angle with the highest potential. But it is the confrontation of that image with the reality, that confirms the true accessibility of the space in question. The priority of the visual experience, which drives the designs, often diminishes the perception of the architecture with other senses. This impacts people with visual disabilities, leading to a deficiency in their spatial orientation. Difficulties in motion lead to the spatial disorientation, the awareness of helplessness in mobility, and the hardship of recognizing the elements of the urban space. This results in the deprivation of the blind and visually impaired from the full usage of the space. The problem is particularly severe, since it pushes the people with visual disabilities into the role of people with movement disorders. The paper presents the object-like borders that appear independently from the design-related activities. The influence of the borders on the sensory and motor deficit will be the main differentiating factor.

Malgorzata Telesinska

Experimental Evaluation of an Interactive Workspace for Helping the Visually Impaired in Learning Linear Algebra

A framework and a workspace were designed to allow visually impaired students to practice linear algebra in an independent, convenient, interactive and accessible way. This improved the students’ self-assurance and motivated them to learn more linear algebra topics compared to traditional methods. In this paper, the workspace is evaluated experimentally. Experiments with increasing level of complexity were performed by six visually impaired participants to evaluate the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfiability of the workspace. The time taken by the student to complete the exercise was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the workspace, the number of errors of the participant was used to evaluate the efficiency, whereas a level from 1 to 5 was used to evaluate satisfiability. The results, analyzed using T-test, showed that the proposed system is more effective, efficient and satisfactory than conventional systems especially when it comes to more complex experiments.

Rached Zantout, Islam Elkabani, Lama Hamandi, Bassam Al Masri

Remote Home Healthcare Services and Tools for Supporting Aging in Place

The population of the developed world is aging, and building digital technologies that meet the needs of an aging population is critical. This paper presents a review of the literature in the area of HCI and human factors related to assistive technologies to support aging in place. The paper highlights research and development efforts related to remote home healthcare services, focusing on tools and technologies to help older adults live independently at home for longer. Future research directions are also presented which focus on user friendly and secure technologies for home healthcare.

Helene Fournier, Heather Molyneaux, Irina Kondratova

The Effect of Tactile Biofeedback on the Wrist to Suppress Hand Tremors

Tremor is characterized by involuntary muscle contractions that can result in shaking in one or more body parts. Currently, there is no cure for tremor, which affects millions of people across the world. Conventional treatments include invasive surgery or medication that can cause severe side-effects. Another option is biofeedback therapy, which may be used to help patients better control normally involuntary bodily processes and may provide relief to patients of tremor. However, its effectiveness is uncertain. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of tactile biofeedback on the wrist to suppress hand tremors. The frequency of the patients’ hand tremor is first characterized using an accelerometer. Then, the frequency is applied to the patients’ wrist as tactile biofeedback while holding an accelerometer to quantify changes in the tremor. Presented are the details of the user study plan towards the application of tactile biofeedback for tremor mitigation.

Yuki Gorospe

Virtual Rehabilitation Platform for Left-Handed People Working in Industrial Environments

The left-handed people represent approximately 15% of the world’s population, being a minority group, which has had to adapt to the use of objects designed for right-handed people. This phenomenon is also extrapolated to the industrial sector, where these persons is forced to make movements of force and coordination when using machinery not designed for them. This work proposes the implementation of a platform consisting of two sections: the first one uses the Edinburgh handedness inventory to determine the laterality degree of a person and the level of risk of physical injury. The second section implements a virtual rehabilitation routine, through a mini-game implemented in Unity and uses the Kinect game controller for motion capture. The platform aims to improve the quality of life of left-handed people working in the industrial sector, implementing an easy-to-use solution, which can be used at the business or personal level.

Matheo Chantera, Paulina Morillo, Diego Vallejo-Huanga

Acceptance Model of an Innovative Assistive Technology by Neurological Patients with a Motor Disability of Their Upper Limb

This study develops a novel theoretical model that clarifies the main determinants of the acceptance of an innovative Assistive Technology by neurological/neuromuscular patients with upper limb motor disability. The model has been developed through a three stage method: Literature Review, Expert Judgement Elicitation and a pilot test of the model involving fourteen patients. The theoretical model organizes the most relevant determinants of patient acceptance along two dimensions, that reflect different perspectives. On the one hand, there is vertical dimension that is characterized by the distinction between functional vs. emotional perspectives. On the other hand, there is a horizontal dimension that is characterized by the distinction between individual vs. relational perspectives. This study has both theoretical and practical implications towards design and diffusion of rehabilitation/assistive devices with the intent to improve patients’ independence and quality of life.

Rossella Onofrio, Marta Gandolla, Emanuele Lettieri, Alessandra Giulia Pedrocchi

Comparative Studies of the Behavior of Sensory Mechanisms in a Weak-visual Person and a Normal-vision Person with an Object of the New Media

It has been detected through dynamic networks that the activation of a dominant sensory mechanism generates variations in the processes of interaction with a Mass Distribution Object such as the YouTube Object. Likewise, the studies showed that the user’s behavior patterns and the sensitive characteristics of the object of the new media were not the only factors that determined the orientation of the attentional processes. This orientation was also determined by the dominant use of some sensory mechanism, either voluntarily or for existing damage. Therefore, it is hoped to promote reflections on the design and use of the objects of the new media and their work systems based on the processes of interaction generated in users with functional diversity.

Jorge Gil Tejeda, Lorena Olmos Pineda

Effects of Tire Pressure on Wheelchairs When Riding on Uneven Ground

Wheelchairs for the elderly and people with disabilities are very convenient, but vibration generated during movement may cause user discomfort and even motion sickness. Tire pressure is one factor affecting wheelchair ride quality. The commonly used English-style valve for wheelchairs allows air to be filled into the tire but cannot be used to adjust tire air pressure. Therefore, it is unclear how wheelchair tire pressure affects the vibration of the wheelchair. Additionally, it is necessary to consider the burden on the assistant. Wheelchairs are often used indoors on hard floors and relatively flexible carpets. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between vibrations generated in a wheelchair, the surface on which a wheelchair travels, tire pressure, and the influence of these vibrations on the human body. By using an air pressure indicator suitable for use with the English-style valve to measure tire air pressure, vibration measurements were conducted under controlled conditions by rolling a manual wheelchair at constant speed. The vibration test revealed that the vibration tends to increase as tire pressure increases. Additionally, it was found that ride comfort decreases as tire pressure increases.

Shoichiro Fujisawa, Katsuya Sato, Shin-ichi Ito, Jyunji Kawata, Jiro Morimoto, Mineo Higuchi, Masayuki Booka

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