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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Advances in Visual Informatics, IVIC 2017, held in Bangi, Malaysia, in November 2017.

The keynote and 72 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 130 submissions. The papers are organized in the following topics: Visualization and Data Driven Technology; Engineering and Data Driven Innovation; Data Driven Societal Well-being and Applications; and Data Driven Cyber Security.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Keynote

Frontmatter

Vehicle Detection Using Alex Net and Faster R-CNN Deep Learning Models: A Comparative Study

This paper presents a comparative study of two deep learning models used here for vehicle detection. Alex Net and Faster R-CNN are compared with the analysis of an urban video sequence. Several tests were carried to evaluate the quality of detections, failure rates and times employed to complete the detection task. The results allow to obtain important conclusions regarding the architectures and strategies used for implementing such network for the task of video detection, encouraging future research in this topic.

Jorge E. Espinosa, Sergio A. Velastin, John W. Branch

Visualisation and Data Driven Technology

Frontmatter

Improvement on the Efficiency of Technology Companies in Malaysia with Data Envelopment Analysis Model

Efficiency evaluation is vital as it is able to determine the financial performance of the companies. Efficiency describes how well the companies in utilizing their inputs to generate outputs. The objective of this study is to propose a financial ratio based Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to evaluate and compare the efficiency of listed technology companies in Malaysia for the period of 2011–2015. In DEA model, the efficiency is defined as the ratio of sum-weighted outputs to sum-weighted inputs. In this study, LINGO software is used to solve the DEA model. The results of this study indicate that ELSOFT, GTRONIC, KESM, MPI and VITROX are ranked as efficient technology companies in Malaysia. Besides that, the potential improvement for each inefficient company can be identified based on the benchmark efficient companies. This study is significant because it helps to identify the efficient technology companies which can serve as benchmarks to other inefficient companies for further improvement. Moreover, it is a pioneer study of proposing DEA model with financial ratio to evaluate and compare the efficiency of technology companies in Malaysia.

Lam Weng Hoe, Lam Weng Siew, Liew Kah Fai

Visualization Principles for Facilitating Strategy Development Process in the Organization

Visualization is essential to facilitate human cognitive activities especially to handle information complexities. There is a huge effort to develop various kind of visualization tools in order to facilitate human cognitive activities in the organization. One of the major activity in the organization is the strategy development process (SDP). This activity often involves complex cognitive activities (CCA) and always happen in the collaborative settings in the organization. Therefore, it is essential for visualization to facilitate SDP from Collaborative-CCA perspectives. In order to do that, this paper intend to highlight three visualization principles that able to facilitate SDP in the organization. Using the systemic view as a fundamental, the visualization principles are; (i) higher level visual structure, (ii) lower level visual structure, and (iii) the interconnection between higher and lower level visual structure. Consequently, by applying focus group observation, this paper demonstrates the usefulness of the visualization principles in facilitating SDP. Finally, this research will further evaluate and consult current visualization techniques, methods and tools in facilitating SDP.

Suraya Ya’acob, Nazlena Mohamad Ali, Hai-Ning Liang, Norziha Megat Zainuddin, Nor Shita Mat Nayan

Analysis of Visually Impaired Users’ Navigation Techniques in Complex and Non-complex Layout by Using Spectrum

Visually Impaired (VI) users who assist by screen reader use various navigation techniques during their web navigation activities. This paper analyzed the usage of various navigation techniques in complex and non-complex layout. This study also examines the navigation behavior of VI users based on navigation techniques employed by VI users. This paper emphases on method called Spectrum which used to represent their navigation techniques in complex and non-complex layout. This effort provided a new frontier in analysing qualitative data in more efficiently. This study proven that VI users’ navigation techniques in complex layout is differ from non-complex layout and it strongly influenced by information scent.

Bavani Ramayah, Azizah Jaafar

DengueViz: A Knowledge-Based Expert System Integrated with Parallel Coordinates Visualization in the Dengue Diagnosis

The DengueViz is a knowledge-based expert system integrated with parallel coordinates as its visualization technique to diagnose dengue. The dengue diagnosis results includes the dengue classifications and their probability according to the interactions of users with the system. The knowledge base of this system consists of 140 rules for the classification of dengue. The integration of parallel coordinates visually presents the large amount of dengue information into a single visualization, where data interactions such as the selection of axes, filtering and highlighting reduces the clutter for it to be more comprehensible and enhances the correlation between the attributes of the information.

Jodene Yen Ling Ooi, J. Joshua Thomas

Intake and Preparation of Malay Confinement Dietary Ontology Framework

In the rapid development of science and technology, indigenous knowledge needs to be preserved to avoid the extinction of knowledge. Indigenous knowledge can be defined as the knowledge that is being used by the local people in a certain community to live. The indigenous knowledge that is widely used in Malaysia is the Malay Confinement Dietary (MCD). Confinement is the restrictions that are placed on the diets and practices for the mothers during the month right after the delivery of their baby. Mothers in confinement needs to consume confinement dishes to restore back their health. However, mothers in confinement might not get the correct nutrients due to the intake and preparation of the confinement dish. The knowledge of the intake and preparation of the confinement dish are based on the knowledge and experiences of the midwives which will lead to data extinction if it is not being preserved. Therefore, ontology framework to preserve the knowledge of the intake and preparation of MCD is proposed in this paper. By preserving this kind of knowledge, it can be valuable and useful for the future generation to get to know previous generation’s practice regarding MCD.

Nur Liyana Lazim, Muhammad Hamiz Mohd Radzi, Haryani Haron, Mohammad Bakri Che Haron

Hybrid Improved Bacterial Swarm (HIBS) Optimization Algorithm

This paper proposed a hybrid improved bacterial swarm optimization (HIBS) algorithm by combining bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFO) with particle swarm optimization (PSO) to improve the performance of the classical BFO algorithm. Adaptive step size is introduced instead of fixed step size by random walk of the Fire Fly Algorithm (FFA) in the tumble move of the bacterium at the chemo-taxis stage of BFO. So that, the slow convergence of the BFO algorithm is mitigated. PSO algorithm is acted as mutation operator to attain the global best. So, the trapping out in the local optima by PSO is being avoided. BFO algorithm is used to attain the local best optimality. The new algorithm is tested on a set of benchmark functions. The proposed hybrid algorithm is compared with the original BFO and PSO algorithm. It has been proved that the proposed algorithm shows the significance than the classical BFO and PSO algorithms.

K. Shanmugasundaram, A. S. A. Mohamed, N. I. R. Ruhaiyem

Towards Big Data Quality Framework for Malaysia’s Public Sector Open Data Initiative

This paper is about the conceptual development of the Big Data Quality Framework for Malaysia’s Public Sector Open Data Initiative (My-PSODI). At the moment, there is a lack of Big Data Quality Framework in existence particularly that is focusing on the specific context and needs of Malaysia’s Public Sector Open Data initiative. Most of existing data quality frameworks are catering the needs of traditional data types (i.e., structured data) and are very generic in nature. Due to the explosion of big data which consists mostly of unstructured data and structured data, and Malaysia’s vision of leveraging data in modernizing its service delivery, a new framework addressing the needs of Big Data for Malaysia is needed. Based on an extensive literature review, we develop a conceptual framework and systematic methodologies of how to construct the said framework to its fruition.

Mohamad Taha Ijab, Azlina Ahmad, Rabiah Abdul Kadir, Suraya Hamid

Bridging the Gap in Personalised Medicine Through Data Driven Genomics

Personalised medicine has been visualised as the ultimate healthcare practise, as the treatment will be customised to the patient’s need. This will eliminate the “one-for-all” approach, thus reducing the potential drug’s side effects, ineffective drug doses and severe complications due to unsuitable drugs prescribed. As the cost for genomics sequencing started to plummet, this condition has driven extensive studies on many disease genomics, generating genomics big data. However, without an in-depth analysis and management of the data, it will be difficult to reveal and relate the link between the genomics with the diseases in order to accomplish personalised medicine. The main reason behind this is that genomics data has never been straightforward and is poorly understood. Therefore, this paper purposely discusses how the advances in technology have aid the understanding of genomics big data, thus a proposed framework is highlighted to help change the landscape of personalised medicine.

Ummul Hanan Mohamad, Mohamad Taha Ijab, Rabiah Abdul Kadir

Using Data Mining Strategy in Qualitative Research

Analyzing qualitative data can be tedious if it is done manually. There are several techniques available to conduct qualitative research such as thematic analysis, grounded theory and content analysis amongst other techniques. The data collected from these techniques are usually huge in amount. Little has been done to apply data mining strategy to analyzes data gathered using qualitative methodology. In this paper, we present a work done to apply text mining technique to analyzes data gathered from interviews – unstructured data. The aim of this study is to develop patterns of pediatric cancer patient’s activities in the ward. The result shows a pattern that suggests patients are mostly playing video games while receiving treatment and when they feel bored in the ward. This proposes that data mining techniques can be used to provide an initial insight of the information gathered qualitatively.

Nadhirah Rasid, Puteri N. E. Nohuddin, Hamidah Alias, Irna Hamzah, A. Imran Nordin

An Integrated Social Media Trading Platform for B40 Social Media Entrepreneurship

Statistically, there are 2.7 million Malaysian households categorized under the Bottom 40 (B40) category with 56% of them are living in urban areas and the remaining 44% live in rural areas. Malaysia’s Eleventh Malaysia Plan refers B40 as household with a mean monthly income of RM3,860. For the betterment of the B40 community in the country, the Government of Malaysia aims to double the B40 household incomes by Year 2020 and this is facilitated via various multisector initiatives, especially those championed by Malaysia Digital Economy Corporation [1]. It is observed by some studies that the younger generations in the B40 community are very exposed to the Internet and social technologies in general. They use social media application as a medium for many activities including interacting with family and friends, organizing events, for learning purposes, purchasing and selling products online, and thus becoming B40 social entrepreneurs themselves. Leveraging on this phenomenon, this paper proposes the development of an integrated social media trading platform which combines many popular social media such as Facebook and Instagram into a single platform that will be offered to the B40 social entrepreneur community in Malaysia to conduct their businesses on this platform. The integrated trading platform will cover a broad set of features such as storefront, payment, shipping, after sales service, customer management, and advisory from mentor. The integrated platform is also designed to enable the B40 social entrepreneurs to understand their customers better through sentiment analysis and social media analytics to boost their social entrepreneurship.

Johnlee Jumin, Mohamad Taha Ijab, Halimah Badioze Zaman

Association Rule Mining Using Time Series Data for Malaysia Climate Variability Prediction

Many studies have been conducted to determine how data mining can be used in predicting climate change. Previous studies showed many data mining methods have been used in related to climate prediction, however classification and clustering methods are widely used to generate the climate prediction model. In this study, Association Rule Mining (ARM) is used to discover hidden rules in time series climate data from previous years and to analyze the relationship between the discovered rules. The dataset used in this study is a set of weather data from the Petaling Jaya observation station in Selangor for the year 2013 to 2015. This paper aims to utilize ARM for extracting behavioural patterns within the climate data that can be used to develop the prediction model for climate variability. The proposed framework is developed to provide a better approach in understanding how ARM can be used to find meaningful patterns in the climate data and generate rules that can be used to build a prediction model.

Rabiatul A. A. Rashid, Puteri N. E. Nohuddin, Zuraini Zainol

An Ontology-Based Hybrid Recommender System for Internet Protocol Television

Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) has gained popularity in providing TV channels and program choices to broad range of user. The service providers are attempting ways to attract more users’ subscription and as from user point of view, they would like to have channel or program recommendations based on their preferences as well as public suggestions. This motivates us to propose an ontology-based hybrid recommender system. This system applies content-based and collaborative filtering in IPTV domain to increase users’ satisfaction. The preliminary experimental results show that our proposed system works more effectively by eliminating the cold-start problem, over specialization, data sparsity and new item problems and efficiently by using the ontological user profile for computation of recommendations.

Mohammad Wahiduzzaman Khan, Gaik-Yee Chan, Fang-Fang Chua, Su-Cheng Haw

Self-Regulated Learning and Online Learning: A Systematic Review

Self-regulated learning (SRL) is an academically effective form of learning, which learners must set their goals and make plans before starting to learn. As an ongoing process, learners need to monitor and regulate their cognition, motivation, and behavior as well as reflect on their learning process. These processes will be repeated as a cyclic process. The emerging technologies have changed the learning environments. Technology delivers teaching to learners via online. In online learning, information of education and learners do not share the same physical setting. Online learning should provide opportunities for learners to master necessary tasks. Online learners may use SRL strategies. In this research, we have collected, synthesized, and analyzed 130 articles on various topics related to SRL that published from 1986 to 2017, focusing on online learning and mathematics. We noted several models, phases, and few other topics discussed under SRL.

Noor Latiffah Adam, Fatin Balkis Alzahri, Shaharuddin Cik Soh, Nordin Abu Bakar, Nor Ashikin Mohamad Kamal

A Hybrid Model of Differential Evolution with Neural Network on Lag Time Selection for Agricultural Price Time Series Forecasting

The contribution of time series forecasting (TSF) on various aspects from economic to engineering has yielded its importance. Lot of recent studies concentrated on applying and modifying artificial neural network (ANN) to improve forecasting accuracy and achieved promising results. However, the selection of proper set from historical data for forecasting still has limited consideration. In addition, the selection of network structure as well as initial weights in ANN has been proved to have significant impact on the performance. This paper aims to propose a hybrid model that takes advantages of optimization algorithm: differential evolution (DE) in combine with ANN. The DE operates as features selection process that evaluates useful historical data known as lag to involve in learning process. Besides, DE will perform pre-calculation to determine the set of weight use for ANN. This proposed model is examined on agricultural commodity’s price to evaluate its accuracy. The experimental results is compared and surpassed the popular TSF technique autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and traditional multilayer perceptron (MLP).

Chen ZhiYuan, Le Dinh Van Khoa, Lee Soon Boon

Identifying the Qur’anic Segment from Video Recording

This paper describes a system to identify Quran recitation (referred as Qur’anic) segment from speech video recording using the extracted acoustic signal. Identifying the Qur’anic sequence pattern from mixed-combination of speech and Qur’anic signal will contribute to more efficient segmentation of video segments. The random forest classifier algorithm is employed to classify the dynamic pattern of the extracted audio. Two feature sets which are pitch and intensity are extracted from the audio, and constructed into sequence of speech patterns which then classified as Qur’anic or non-Quranic segments. A collection of 40 segmented videos were trained and compared with the segmented videos which have been segmented manually. This project achieves classification accuracy of 57% using pitch and 85% using intensity. While using pitch feature only, 85% of the identified segments match the manually segmented collection while using intensity feature gives 95% match accordingly).

Haslizatul Mohamed Hanum, Norizan Mat Diah, Zainab Abu Bakar

Document Clustering in Military Explicit Knowledge: A Study on Peacekeeping Documents

In Military domain, knowledge can also be categorized into explicit knowledge and tacit knowledge, where the explicit military knowledge can be any form of knowledge that can easily articulated, codified, accessed and stored into various media forms. Further, advanced computer technologies give a convenient platform for digitizing documents, producing web documents and electronic documents, including this explicit military knowledge (e.g. military peacekeeping documents). The main goal here is to discover useful knowledge from military peacekeeping documents. Yet, text mining is a powerful technique that is widely used for discovering useful patterns and knowledge specially in unstructured text documents. This paper describes Text Analytics of Unstructured Data (TAUD) framework for analyzing and discovering significant text patterns exist in the military text documents. The framework consists of three (3) components: (i) data collection (ii) document preprocessing and (iii) text analytics and visualization which are word cloud and document clustering using K-Means algorithm. The findings of this study allow the military commanders and training officers to understand and access the military knowledge which they had learnt and gathered during the training programs before they can be deployed into a peacekeeping mission.

Zuraini Zainol, Syahaneim Marzukhi, Puteri N. E. Nohuddin, Wan M. U. Noormaanshah, Omar Zakaria

Analysis of Learning Analytics in Higher Educational Institutions: A Review

Learning analytics is relatively new in the field of research models, assessment/evaluation, and business intelligence. The critical analysis of literature explains that, as a consequence of more and better data, learning analytics gained significant attention in education. This paper emphasized integration of three major components: educational data mining, learning analytics, and academic analytics. It gives the comprehensive background for increasing understanding of the positive aspects of implementing the framework of learning analytics (LA) in higher educational institutions in Malaysia. Besides emphasizing LA, the role of educational data mining (EDM) in adaptive learning is also discussed. It gives an empirical-based overview with the key objectives of adopting the proposed model of LA in generic educational strategic planning by Malaysian HEIs. It examined the literature on experimental case studies, conducted during the last six years (2012–2017) for extracting recently updated information on increasing HEIs performance in Malaysia. The results have highlighted some major directions of LA, EDM, and academic analytics in driving techniques for achieving student retention and enhancing employability.

Sarraf Rajesh Kumar, Suraya Hamid

Data-Driven Iterative-Evolution-Participatory Design Model on Motion-Based Science Educational Application for ADHD Learners

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) learners are identified as having problems in learning due to their distinctive characteristics of hyperactivity and inability to give attention to learning. Gamification technology, especially motion-based gamification application, specifically designed for ADHD learners can have significant promise for individuals with ADHD. This paper focuses on the data-driven iterative design adopted on the development of the motion-based science educational application for ADHD learners (Sains-4SL) and its evaluation based on the effectiveness construct of this motion-based science educational application. The effectiveness of this motion-based science educational application was measured based various indicators such as: its learnability, students’ attitude towards the application; and the science literacy aspects of the students after experiencing using the application. The data-driven iterative-participatory design approach which underwent many rounds of iterations, was found to be effective in the design and development of the application as these iterations, contributed to a more accurate specification requirements for the ADHD learners. The evaluation conducted found that the motion-based science educational application (Sains-4SL) was positively effective in supporting ADHD learners learn science.

Ahmad Fazil Zainal, Halimah Badioze Zaman

Food Category Recognition Using SURF and MSER Local Feature Representation

Food object recognition has gained popularity in recent years. This can perhaps be attributed to its potential applications in fields such as nutrition and fitness. Recognizing food images however is a challenging task since various foods come in many shapes and sizes. Besides having unexpected deformities and texture, food images are also captured in differing lighting conditions and camera viewpoints. From a computer vision perspective, using global image features to train a supervised classifier might be unsuitable due to the complex nature of the food images. Local features on the other hand seem the better alternative since they are able to capture minute intricacies such as interest points and other intricate information. In this paper, two local features namely SURF (Speeded- Up Robust Feature) and MSER (Maximally Stable Extremal Regions) are investigated for food object recognition. Both features are computationally inexpensive and have shown to be effective local descriptors for complex images. Specifically, each feature is firstly evaluated separately. This is followed by feature fusion to observe whether a combined representation could better represent food images. Experimental evaluations using a Support Vector Machine classifier shows that feature fusion generates better recognition accuracy at 86.6%.

Mohd Norhisham Razali, Noridayu Manshor, Alfian Abdul Halin, Razali Yaakob, Norwati Mustapha

Motivation Design Methodology for Online Knowledge Sharing Interface

Online knowledge sharing interface have been used in many higher learning institutions for online learning. Unfortunately, the students tend to lose their attention quickly and no motivation to participate in the online knowledge sharing activities. Efforts have already been taken by higher learning institutions to encourage student participation for knowledge sharing in the online discussion interface. But still the students were unable to participate fully in the online discussion interface. The current interface design is lacking of motivation factor to sustain students’ participation in online knowledge sharing activities. It was found that motivation can be designed in user interface for online knowledge sharing activities. However, there are very few methodology proposals for designing motivation in user interface. Therefore, this study presents a methodology for designing motivation for online knowledge sharing interface. This Motivation Design Methodology is applied in development of online knowledge sharing interface called as i-Discuss and serves to illustrate the proposal.

Prasanna Ramakrisnan, Azizah Jaafar

Review on Data Driven Preliminary Study Pertaining to Assistive Digital Learning Technologies to Support Dyscalculia Learners

Dyscalculia is a specific learning disability amongst learners in underachievement of learning Mathematics, which begins in childhood and is persistent through adulthood. The population of dyscalculia is estimated to range between 3% and 6% of the world population, including Malaysia. In this preliminary study, we highlight a data driven approach, through literature content analysis and interviews conducted upon teachers, to analyse the different terms used on dyscalculia, and the effectiveness of computer-based technologies or assistive learning technologies, which are developed and used for learners with learning problems in mathematics for the past two decades. Current studies show an increasing interest in adopting Augmented Reality (AR) technology in education, and in optimisming to create unique educational setting for special education learners, specifically Dyscalculia learners, to enable them to undergo experiential learning by experiencing learning through the real world, mixed with virtual objects without losing their sense of reality.

Kohilah Miundy, Halimah Badioze Zaman, Aliimran Nordin

Engineering and Data Driven Innovation

Frontmatter

Image Enhancement Based on Fractional Poisson for Segmentation of Skin Lesions Using the Watershed Transform

Image segmentation is considered as a necessary step towards accurate medical analysis by extracting the crucial medical information in identifying abnormalities. This study proposes a new technique for segmentation a malignant melanoma in images. A new filter is proposed for smoothing input images and more accurate segmentation based on fractional Poisson. In the pre-processing step, eight masks of size n × n are created to eliminate noise and obtain a smooth image. The watershed algorithm is used for segmentation with morphological operation to better segment the skin lesion area. The proposed method was capable of improving the accuracy of the segmentation up to 96.47%.

Alaa Ahmed Abbas Al-abayechi, Hamid A. Jalab, Rabha W. Ibrahim, Ali M. Hasan

A Simulation Study of Micro-Drone Chemical Plume Tracking Performance in Tree Farm Environments

Chemical plume tracking (CPT) technology is the mean of tracking the flow of specific chemical plume in the air, to locate the source. Nowadays, CPT technology, for instance, a micro-drone based chemical plume tracking robot, has great potential in identifying hidden explosives, illegal drugs and blood for police and military purposes. However, environmental factors such as obstacles on site can change the wind vectors will cause inconsistent odor plume propagation. With most of the previous work conducted from numerous researchers carried out in empty open space, this paper studies the influence of obstacles on site towards CPT’s performance, which the simulation focus in one specific environment, a tree farm, with different density of trees or trees’ spacing. For this paper, we developed a 3D gas dispersion simulator with mobile robot olfaction (MRO) capability. Through the simulation, correlation between the impacts of tree farm density factor to CPT’s performance is found out, where higher tree density (or smaller tree spacing distance) can significantly reduce the performance of CPT. This study is an important fundamental contribution for drone’s CPT operation in agriculture application beneficial to future use, such as smell tracking of mature fruits in tree farm.

Kok Seng Eu, Kian Meng Yap, Wan Chew Tan

Similarity Assessment of UML Sequence Diagrams Using Dynamic Programming

Unified Modeling Language is a modelling language used to visualize software system during requirement engineering phase. It was accepted as a standard modeling language for visualizing, specifying and documenting software systems by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as a standard specification. It contained different type of diagrams for specifying software system, among these diagrams is sequence diagrams which is used to specify the functional behavior of software system. The growing complexity of software systems is one of the motivation behind matching of UML diagrams in order to pave the way of reusing existing software to developed new software systems. Previous works on sequence diagrams matching are based on Graph representation in which there is node whenever there is message sending or received. However, the search space for these approach is very large due to the number of nodes in the graph which makes the matching computationally expensive. This paper employed the use of Dynamic Programming approach in order to improve the efficiency of matching between two or more sequence diagrams.

Alhassan Adamu, Wan Mohd Nazmee Wan Zainon

An Automated Image-Based Approach for Tracking Pedestrian Movements from Top-View Video

In order to gain better and more understanding of pedestrian safety video, better tracking of pedestrian movements is necessary. However, existing works on video tracking of pedestrian movements focus in some specific places or situations, extracted limited data from the video and in some cases, a lot of human interventions are required in handling the data extraction. This paper presents an automated image-based approach for tracking pedestrian movements that takes advantage of the top-view video. The proposed approach consists of several steps namely detection, tracking, image calibration and extracting characteristics of a pedestrian from a video. The methods used in these steps are adapted or enhanced from some of the existing work in this area. These steps also allow automated video monitoring and require less human efforts. Besides, it is also used to estimate the speed of a pedestrian. The results of the experiment for the proposed approach using five videos with different scenario are presented. The pedestrian movement was plotted accurately and the numbers of pedestrians detected in the video were recorded correctly whereas the speed of the pedestrians from the framework was very close to the actual speed. The proposed approach can be used to monitor pedestrians in a sparse environment such as at the entrance of a hall or building or along a corridor.

Halimatul Saadiah Md. Yatim, Abdullah Zawawi Talib, Fazilah Haron

Exploratory Research on Application of Different Vision System on Warehouse Robot Using Selective Algorithm

Warehouse robots rely on navigation algorithm to maneuver in the warehouse. One of the available navigation algorithm includes the use of vision technology. Yet, the technology requires depth cameras to act as “eyes” of the robot. It is known that cameras depend on lighting factor to operate. A sole example includes failure of vision-powered warehouse robots in extreme lighting conditions. Thus, this paper discusses the approach to enable warehouse robot in in-tense lighting conditions with implementation of two vision technology. In this paper, two depth cameras that function on different technology were used. The cameras chosen are stereoscopic camera and infrared based time-of-flight camera. This paper first studies the lighting factor that affects the performance of both cameras. Next, both camera were simulated in extreme lighting condition. The results obtained are further analyzed and constructed into a selective algorithm. This exploratory study is an important fundamental contribution to complete robot functioning warehouse in future.

Wan Chew Tan, Kian Meng Yap

Travel Route Recommendation Based on Geotagged Photo Metadata

Travellers usually look for two kinds of information when they are planning a trip to a new destination: the points of interest (POI) and the interesting travel sequences given the POI in the destination. In recent years, due to the spread of the photo-taking gadgets with the global positioning system (GPS) functionality and the act of the travellers sharing and contributing photos on websites, such as Flickr and Panoramio, there are plenty of geotagged photos available on the Web. Through assembling diverse sets of geotagged photos shared by the travellers from the Web, the POI and the travel sequences given the POI in a destination can be mined if the travellers visit several POI in a day and take photos at each of the visited POI. In this paper, a web-based travel route recommendation system, namely Travel Route Recommendation System (TRRS), is presented. The purpose of this system is to generate and recommend travel route to the travellers who are visiting a destination for the first time and only for one day based on geotagged photo metadata.

Ching May Lee, J. Joshua Thomas

Predicting Traffic Flow Based on Average Speed of Neighbouring Road Using Multiple Regression

The prediction of traffic flow is a challenge. There are many factors that can affect traffic flow. One of the factors is an inter path relationship between neighbouring roads. For example, an individual incidents (such as accidents) may cause ripple effects (a cascading failure) which then spreads and creates a sustained traffic jam the neighbouring area. To know the relationship between road segments we propose multiple regression method to predict the traffic based on the nearby surrounding roads. The prediction factor is chosen from a high-relation road with the path to be searched. To know the relationship between roads we calculate their correlation among neighbouring roads. The results are then displayed on the map for further observation. From this study, we demonstrate that multiple regression method can be used to predict impact of speed of vehicles on neighbouring roads on traffic flows.

Bagus Priambodo, Azlina Ahmad

People Detection and Pose Classification Inside a Moving Train Using Computer Vision

The use of surveillance video cameras in public transport is increasingly regarded as a solution to control vandalism and emergency situations. The widespread use of cameras brings in the problem of managing high volumes of data, resulting in pressure on people and resources. We illustrate a possible step to automate the monitoring task in the context of a moving train (where popular background removal algorithms will struggle with rapidly changing illumination). We looked at the detection of people in three possible postures: Sat down (on a train seat), Standing and Sitting (half way between sat down and standing). We then use the popular Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) descriptor to train Support Vector Machines to detect people in any of the predefined postures. As a case study, we use the public BOSS dataset. We show different ways of training and combining the classifiers obtaining a sensitivity performance improvement of about 12% when using a combination of three SVM classifiers instead of a global (all classes) classifier, at the expense of an increase of 6% in false positive rate. We believe this is the first set of public results on people detection using the BOSS dataset so that future researchers can use our results as a baseline to improve upon.

Sergio A. Velastin, Diego A. Gómez-Lira

A Conceptual Design of Spatial Calibration for Optical See-Through Head Mounted Display Using Electroencephalographic Signal Processing on Eye Tracking

One of vital issue in Optical See-Through Head Mounted Display (OST HMD) used in Augmented Reality (AR) systems is frequent (re)calibrations. OST HMD calibration that involved user interaction is time consuming. It will distract users from their application, which will reduce AR experience. Additionally, (re)calibration procedure will be prone to user errors. Nowadays, there are several approaches toward interaction-free calibration on OST HMD. In this proposed work, we propose a novel approach that uses EEG signal processing on eye movement into OST HMD calibration. By simultaneously recording eye movements through EEG during a guided eye movement paradigm, a few properties of eye movement artifacts can be useful for eye localization algorithm which can be used in interaction-free calibration for OST HMD. The proposed work is expected to enhance OST HMD calibration focusing on spatial calibration formulation in term reducing 2D projection error.

Azfar Tomi, Dayang Rohaya Awang Rambli

Review of Spatial and Non-spatial Data Transformation to 3D Geovisualization for Natural Disaster

Climate change is a pressing issue that has taken many countries to task in addressing this global concern. The public need an effective information channel in enhancing their awareness pertaining to the impacts of climate change. One of the most appropriate ways to convey such information is through the optimisation of 3D visualization media. This paper reviews extant work on the use of 3D visualization media with regards to severe floods, argued here as one of the immediate and observable impacts of climate change. The analysis of literature shows that 3D geovisualization is often used to transform spatial and non-spatial data into a 3D visual using software data transformation tools such as ArcGIS, Feature Manipulation Engine (FME) or Google Sketchup. The data transformation process is often followed by the process of creating 3D visuals using Google Sketchup, thus producing a complete 3D visualization project. This is done through a process called the Building Information Modeling (BIM). This process is able to calculate number of elements, can determine the size (magnitude and scale) of an element, check or prove the accuracy of information, and also to create a realistic visualization. With the many advantages of the BIM process, it can be also used to calculate the amount of material losses caused by the flood. However this process is new and quite complicated to use resulting in its limited use by the practitioners. From the study, 3D visualization using BIM process will improve visualization outcomes compared to the deployment of conventional multimedia design process.

Muhammad Yudhi Rezaldi, Rabiah Abdul Kadir, Mohamad Taha Ijab, Azlina Ahmad

Face Recognition with Real Time Eye Lid Movement Detection

The enhancement of current face recognition system used in attendance system is proposed to fulfill the motivations for this project which are to encounter the shortcomings from the existing systems, to put an innovation into the existing system and to make the system smarter by using real-time functionality. There are three objectives in this project which are to make the system able to differentiate between real face and a photo, to make the system works on desired speed and important key is to make a user-friendly system in term of its interface and functions. Techniques that will be used to achieve the objectives are by using average standard deviation of depth or pulse magnification, using JAVA programming language and develop using simple and standard user interface components and functions. At the end, this system is expected to fulfill the objectives stated and can encounter the problem arise in existing system. As the conclusion, there is no perfect system and still need to be enhanced from time to time.

Syazwan Syafiqah Sukri, Nur Intan Raihana Ruhaiyem, Ahmad Sufril Azlan Mohamed

Action Key Frames Extraction Using L1-Norm and Accumulative Optical Flow for Compact Video Shot Summarisation

Key frame extraction is an important algorithm for video summarisation, video retrieval, and generating video fingerprint. The extracted key frames should represent a video sequence in a compact way and brief the main actions to achieve meaningful key frames. Therefore, we present a key frames extraction algorithm based on the L1-norm by accumulating action frames via optical flow method. We then evaluate our proposed algorithm using the action accuracy rate and action error rate of the extracted action frames in comparison to user extraction. The video shot summarisation evaluation shows that our proposed algorithm outperforms the-state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of compression ratio. Our proposed algorithm also achieves approximately 100% and 0.91% for best and worst case in terms of action appearance accuracy in human action dataset KTH in the extracted key frames.

Manar Abduljabbar Ahmad Mizher, Mei Choo Ang, Siti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah, Kok Weng Ng

Mandarin Language Learning System for Nasal Voice User

Since the technology is growing rapidly, a lot of people nowadays start to learn the foreign language by using computer or mobile phone where they can simply download the language learning software into their phone or computer, and learn it without attending the traditional class room. However, most of the language learning software on the market does not support the nasal recognition. If a user contains nasal voice, the system may not able to recognize and determine his/her voice. Thus, nasal user may find it difficult in using this kind of language learning system. In this research, a new Mandarin Language Learning System is developed for nasal voice user. This Mandarin Language Learning System able to understand the nasal pronunciation which allows the nasal voice user to learn Mandarin without facing any problems. Once the system able to recognize the nasal pronunciation, it will increase the accuracy of recognition and also the efficiency of the system. In this research, Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) features are extracted from nasal speech signal and normal voice signal. Later extracted signals are studied the difference and matching using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) techniques. Results obtain are compared with Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The accuracy of Nasal Voice is much higher by Combining MFCC features and DTW.

Thagirarani Muniandy, Thamilvaani Arvaree Alvar, Chong Jiang Boon

Data Driven Societal Well-being and Applications

Frontmatter

User Experience of Autism Social-Aid Among Autistic Children: AUTISM Social Aid Application

Autism is a developmental disability that influences a significant number of daily skills, which includes social, communication and behavioural challenges. Technology has proven as one of the prompt intermediation and efficient educational method that leads to infinite improvement especially for children. Autistic children seem to have difficulties in communication and social skills and as a result of this need their teachers and parents’ support with their social interaction. Numerous educational practices and approaches have been carried out in order to assist as well as develop these children. This paper presents the results of user experience testing of Autism Social-Aid mobile application to children with autism. The session was conducted to children with medium functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder, from two different age groups that include 5–14 years old and 14–18 years old. The children’s reactions were observed and scored by a moderator. Results have shown that majority of the children with autism are more confident and satisfied when using the application. The application does need to be improved in ways that could capture the child’s attention towards the mobile activities.

Iman Nur Nabila Ahmad Azahari, Wan Fatimah Wan Ahmad, Ahmad Sobri Hashim, Zulikha Jamaludin

Guideline for the Development of Instructional Media with DST Concept on Touch Screen Tablet

The aim of this study is to create a standard guideline for the development of instructional media (apps) with digital story telling (DST) concept for touch screen tablet. High demand for apps with mobile interaction has boosted the need to create tablet-based teaching products. Nevertheless, guidance to create such products is lacking. Content and comparative analyses were employed based on the previous studies on digital media guidelines to formulate the components of the guidelines. A total of 13 experts, representing the Institute of Teacher Education (ITE) and the Institute of Higher Education (IPTA), were appointed as panel of experts to validate the guideline. Expert review checklist and interviews were used as data collection methods. The guideline should ease novice designers cum teachers to develop apps with mobile technology. Besides, students too can benefit from the new teaching strategy with DST concept.

Hashiroh Hussain, Norshuhada Shiratuddin

Preliminary Investigations on Augmented Reality for the Literacy Development of Deaf Children

This paper reports on ongoing research on the development of an Augmented Reality (AR) application for the literacy development of hard of hearing children, particularly deaf children that rely on Arabic Sign Language (ArSL). This research is intended to help deaf children learn how to read by enhancing current elementary courseware with visual augmentation. Elicitation from literature reveals the profound value AR can provide for deaf learners, i.e. visual learners. Nevertheless, this approach is rarely undertaken for ArSL. Preliminary studies were conducted to determine the visual needs of deaf Arabic learners using three different instruments and targets: interviews with teachers and interpreters, observation of deaf children, and questionnaire for parents of deaf children. The results from teachers and parents of deaf children indicate a preference for multiple resources, primarily ArSL, photos, and videos. Students, in the other hands, performed better with finger-spelling and poorly in SL. This disconnect highlights the importance of considering various perspectives in the development of applications that target literacy in younger children.

Aziza Almutairi, Shiroq Al-Megren

Understanding the Atmospheric Cues Effects on Consumer Emotions: A Case Study on Lazada Malaysia

The effectiveness of atmospheric cues on consumer’s emotion has a significant impact on online businesses. The usability issues with regards to atmospheric cues especially while browsing electronic commerce (e-commerce) websites are very important. This paper aims to identify the common atmospheric cues, usability issues and their effects on consumer emotions while browsing e-commerce websites. Usability testing techniques was conducted to five (5) participants from different backgrounds by using qualitative methods. The outcome of this preliminary study will help e-commerce websites specifically Lazada Malaysia to reduce usability gap of online shopping experience. The result highlights the atmospheric cues and their influence on the website. These initial findings motivated the current study, which extends our previous work by proposing other key variables and several new recommendations for improvement to generate more effective usability issues.

Saliza Aksah, Jamaliah Taslim, Maslina Abdul Aziz, Paezah Hamzah, Norehan Abdul Manaf, Zan Azma Nasruddin

Integrating Learning Techniques into iCAL4LA-Bijak Matematik Courseware to Motivate Low Achieving Children in Learning

Children with learning difficulties require support during teaching and learning process. This study looks into the solution of learning difficulties confronted by the low achieving (LA) children who particularly have problems in literacy (reading) and numeracy (calculating). This study proposed the suitable learning techniques integrated into a learning courseware in order to ensure the children are engaged during the learning process as well as able to accomplish the whole learning content. The main objective is achieved through three research activities, which are (i) learning techniques selection, (ii) design and development of courseware, and (iii) user experience testing. As the result, this study initially found three learning techniques that are suitable for LA children. They are deployed into a courseware, iCAL4LA-Bijak Matematik in motivating the LA children to learn mathematics. The user experience testing revealed that it was motivating the LA children with percentage of mean, 97% as the ability in accomplishing overall sub-modules, as they can choose specific learning technique based on their preference.

Siti Zulaiha Ahmad, Ariffin Abdul Mutalib

MyRedList: Virtual Application for Threatened Plant Species

In this paper, we consider the use of a virtual forest environment to increase the awareness of conservation of the endangered plants by developing a web application. Tropical rainforest in Malaysia consists of unique ecosystems, however, the population of Dipterocarpaceae, the most numerous family of flora in the tropical forest in Peninsular Malaysia, is decreasing. Some of the species in this family are listed as endangered and threatened plant in Malaysia Plant Red List. We argue that increasing stakeholder awareness of conservation activities of these endangered species through experiencing an immersive virtual forest environment in the efforts to conserve the species.

Norul Maslissa Ahmad, Nazlena Mohamad Ali, Hanif Baharin

Reward Conditions Modify Children’s Drawing Behaviour

Children like to draw, but how do they draw on a touch-screen device and to motivational context for action? Despite the fact that many children choose to draw on tablets there have been few studies about their drawing behaviour. To answer this question, we conducted an empirical study to examine how children aged between 5 to 11 years old adjust their drawing actions on touch surfaces according to extrinsic rewards. The present study suggests that drawing with reward conditions modify drawing behaviour. In essence, we are proposing that children are more motivated to draw better when the reward is harder to achieve than when it is easier. This shows that traces and marks left on screen could be quantified more accurately to understand children’s behaviour better. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the benefit of rewarding effect as feedback to children’s performance when using touch-based tool.

Siti Rohkmah Mohd Shukri, Andrew Howes

Advances in Mobile Augmented Reality from User Experience Perspective: A Review of Studies

Augmented Reality (AR) is maturing with the evolution in fields of computer and interactive graphics. Rapid advancements and growth of the mobile industry have allowed AR experiences to be delivered on mobile devices as well. When camera fitted mobile devices point towards a digital object to deliver AR experiences it creates design challenges due to Unique interaction style and Information presentation on Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) applications. In order to overcome these design challenges, one needs to understand the User Experience (UX) of MAR. This paper reviews the advances in mobile augmented reality from UX perspective. This study aims to present a comprehensive and detailed review and will help in guiding the developers of MAR to focus on areas that need improvement.

Shafaq Irshad, Dayang Rohaya Awang Rambli

Exploring Malay Older User Motivation to Play Mobile Games

Recent studies show that playing games brings cognitive and psychological benefits to the older adults. In Malay culture, any older adults who play games will be perceived negatively. This is due to our belief that games are only meant for children and older adults should spend their time on spiritual or religious activities. There is evidence from our previous study that our older adults do play games, thus, we were motivated to find out why and how they played games. We tested a mobile game with five (5) older adults who are gamers aged between 56 and 63. From our study, we learned that gaming motivation among older adults can be described as intrinsic: psychological benefits and enjoyment. Like other young gamers, our older adults were seen immersed and enjoying themselves when playing with the game, however, unlike young gamers, they preferred to play alone and played it short but frequent. Aware of the negative perception towards them, some of the older adults have approached the game creatively: playing and chanting zikir (dzikr) at the same time. The findings from this study can provide opportunities for the game developers to innovate and create competitive advantage in gaming industry and consequently help older adults in improving their quality of life.

Fariza Hanis Abdul Razak, Nor Haizam Che Azhar, Wan Adilah Wan Adnan, Zan Azma Nasruddin

Utilizing Mobile Application for Reducing Stress Level

In these modern days, conflicts, negative revolution, suicides and other common crime had been occurred in the worldwide. After several studies and investigations, its have been found out the one of the root cause – stress. Although stress can make someone to improve work performance and awareness, the desperate situation would happen if someone unable to cope with it. To decrease this kind of unfavourable situation from continuing, several methods had been proposed such as listening to music, physical activities, doing desired activities, surfing, and others. In this study, music will be the main concern as distress purpose. Here, a product of this study will be a mobile application. It will be presented in health and fitness category of mood music based mobile application. The methodology used here are the quantitative method survey, in order to identify the music and mood categories. The expected outcome of this study would be features of music and mood categories for a mobile application. With this app, it might greatly help in decreasing and eliminating the tension, unsatisfaction, and others negative feelings of users in their daily life. Thus, this study hopes that mobile application based on music and mood can be one of the alternative ways to relief stress.

Aslina Baharum, Nurhafizah Moziyana Mohd Yusop, Ratna Zuarni Ramli, Noor Fazlinda Fabeil, Sharifah Milda Amirul, Suhaida Halamy

Game Interface Design: Measuring the Player’s Gameplay Experience

The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of user’s gameplay experience on the generated game interface design. This paper focuses only on the findings from a conducted questionnaire involving 94 users who utilized the game interface design of “A Garuda”. The seven factors observed from the gaming experience are immersion, flow, challenge, tension, competence, positive and negative affect adapted from the Game Experience Questionnaire (GEQ). The results showed that the game interface design produced has showed a lot of positive factor where the positive affect factor gave a higher mean value compared to the other factor of the gaming experience. The results from the t-test showed the effect of positive factors and the negative factors of the user’s game experience, where there is a significant impact towards both aforementioned factors. However, there is also a high impact on the negative factor resulting from the effect of user’s interaction on the related game interface design. This shows that the related interface design still needs to be improved in the future. The outcome of this study gives significance to game designers that they should take into account of the user’s affective effect towards any game interface designs that they produced.

Ibrahim Ahmad, Erman Hamid, Nazreen Abdullasim, Azizah Jaafar

Measuring the Variabilities in the Body Postures of the Children for Early Detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Presently, the number of children with autism appears to be growing at disturbing rate. Unfortunately, the awareness of early sign of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is still insufficiently provided to the public. Arm flapping is a good example of a stereotypical behavior of ASD early sign. Typically, a standard Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBSR) - set of questionnaire - used by clinicians for ASD diagnosis usually involved multiple and long sessions that apparently would delay and may have nonconformity. Thus, we aim to propose a computational framework to semi-automate the diagnosis process. We used human action recognition (HAR) algorithm. HAR involved in human body detection and the skeleton representation to show the arm asymmetrical in arm flapping movement which indicates the possibility of ASD signs by extracting the body pose into stickman model. The proposed framework has been tested against the video clips of children performing arm flapping behavior taken from public dataset. The outcome of this study is expected to detect early sign of ASD based on asymmetry measurement of arm flapping behavior.

Ahmed Danial Arif Yaakob, Nur Intan Raihana Ruhaiyem

EduNation Malaysia: Closing the Socio-Economic Educational Achievement Gap Through Free Online Tutoring Videos

Research shows that one of the major factors contributing to the educational achievement gap between the have and have-nots in Malaysia is the ability of parents to spend money on extra tuition outside school. EduNation is a platform that provides free online tutoring videos catering to Malaysian school syllabus. This paper reports a survey conducted to gather information on EduNation users. Data from YouTube Analytics supplements this survey. The results show that the users find EduNation’s videos useful because they are accessible, meaning that they are free and allows the students to learn at their own time and pace. However, internet usage trend in Malaysia shows that digital gap still hinders some students with socio-economic disadvantages from accessing EduNation’s videos. In the future, we will explore the use of rural telecentres as a mean to widen EduNation’s videos accessibility.

Jasbirizla Ilia Zainal Abidin, Hanif Baharin

Development of Questionnaire to Measure User Acceptance Towards User Interface Design

This study develops a questionnaire that can be used to measure user acceptance of web user interface (UI), particularly web object locations. It explored ASEAN users’ expectations based on constructs in Expectation-Confirmation Theory (ECT). There were eight constructs, namely Expectation (E), Perceived Usefulness (PU), Perceived Ease of Use (PEU), Perceived Performance (PP), Confirmation (C), Satisfaction (S), Continuance Intention (CI), and Interface Quality (IQ). A total of 160 respondents from the ASEAN community were surveyed for their acceptance of web-based prototype. The results provide an exploratory factor analysis of the model, demonstrate satisfactory reliable and valid scales of the model constructs, and suggest further analysis to confirm the model as a valuable tool to evaluate the user acceptance towards informational website. Hopefully, the results of the study will fulfill the need for developing a sustainable web design, particularly in user-centric website which is based on user expectation for web object locations.

Aslina Baharum, Sharifah Milda Amirul, Nurhafizah Moziyana Mohd Yusop, Suhaida Halamy, Noor Fazlinda Fabeil, Ratna Zuarni Ramli

The Effect of Time Manipulation on Immersion in Digital Games

Many empirical studies look into identifying factors that influence the quality of experience in video games. In this paper, we present research into the effect of playing time and players’ perception of the time on their immersion in the game. We invited 20 participants to play a puzzle game Bejeweled 2 for 7 min. They played the game in two conditions, namely, correct time (timer was programmed to be exactly 7 min) and wrong time (the countdown was set to be for 6 min, but was presented as a 7 min timer to the player). Players’ immersion scores were measured after the game using the IEQ. The results show no significant difference in immersion scores between the two conditions and participants’ comments also revealed that they perceived no difference in playing time between the conditions. This suggests that there is a dissociation between gaming time and subjective experience of gaming. Further research is required to investigate the relationship between playing time and positive gaming experiences.

Mohd Hafiz Abd Rahman, A. Imran Nordin, Alena Denisova

Understanding Hospitalized Pediatric Cancer Patients’ Activities for Digital Games Design Requirements

This research aims to understand activities performed by pediatric cancer patients at the pediatric oncology ward. The focus of this study is to identify activities performed by patients during their stay in the hospital. 10 parents/guardians of the patients were interviewed to collect the information and description of activities performed by patients under their care. A thematic analysis was conducted to analyze all collected and transcribed interviews. The result shows that pediatric cancer patients express either positive or negative feeling. This feeling is based on their actions in the ward. The consequences from this are alarming: pediatric cancer patients are in high stress and depressed which would not be good for their health. The understanding of their activities in the ward can be transformed into design requirements for designing patient support games. Moreover, designers and developers of games can refer to this finding to compare their current existing games for cancer patients to the actual of the activities performed by the patients.

Irna Hamzah, A. Imran Nordin, Nadhirah Rasid, Hamidah Alias

Designing Persuasive Stroke Rehabilitation Game: An Analysis of Persuasion Context

Stroke patients suffering limbs deformity or immobility require long and arduous rehabilitation as part of treatment. Many not able to adhere to it due to various reasons such as being depressed after stroke, uninteresting rehabilitation sessions, logistic problems, scarce rehabilitation sessions due to increasing stroke cases and many more. While there are many home based rehabilitation incorporating game technology available, they are still at a proof of concept level and developed in an ad hoc manner. The goal of this study is to develop a home based stroke rehabilitation game with persuasion technology based on Health Behavior Change Support System (HBCSS) concept and Persuasive System Design model (PSD) which will incorporate persuasive feature and targeted voluntary outcome (attitude change) from the patients towards rehabilitation process. This paper presents the persuasion context analysis produced from PSD model that can be used for system designer and developer.

Mohd Yusoff Omar, Dayang Rohaya Awang Rambli, Mohd Fairuz Shiratuddin

Designing an Interactive Mural for Cultural Reflections

While many cultural heritage projects currently exist, few explore how to record and transform intangible heritage into a publicly accessible collection. This paper presents an interactive system combining the Web and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies to create an internet-linked interactive mural that allows visitors to listen and interact with crowdsourced life stories. Our findings highlight positive user reactions and some evidence of the interactive system being able to support cultural reflections. While the life stories appeal to most of the adults, younger children were less patient and interested in listening to them. Instead they were attracted to visual projections and the unobtrusive technology. We propose a design framework, outlining three design aspects necessary to understand and design engaging and immersive user experience. The use of interactive mural enabled us to understand the challenges of preserving and sharing intangible heritage so that they are heard and can be reflected upon in greater depth. The paper also outlines recommendations for future work to include a long term longitudinal study and to introduce mechanism for reviewing crowdsourced content.

Wei Hong Lo, Kher Hui Ng

Visual Object Interface Signifier of Museum Application for Large Display

The use of signifiers, commonly known as affordances, in designing an interface should be given a careful attention since signifiers have been poorly applied especially for large multitouch display. The huge interactional space creates a challenge to the design process. This paper investigates visual object interface signifiers of museum application for a large display in order to support navigation. A user study was conducted with ten of participants interacting with the museum interface, running on a Microsoft SUR40 tabletop. The study findings revealed information on (i) suitable signifiers for a large display and, (ii) features of visible object interface signifiers. Among the suitable signifiers for navigation in the environment are arrow, text or numbers, menu button, and floor map. These findings could be useful for the development of museum interfaces on a large display.

Fasihah Mohammad Shuhaili, Suziah Sulaiman, Saipunidzam Mahamad, Aliza Sarlan

Mathematics Education and Accessible Technologies for Visually Impaired Students in Bangladesh

The learning process for the visually impaired students (VIS) is complicated because they are unable to get visual information. A lot of challenges and problems these VIS are facing to get education, especially in studying Mathematics. As a developing country, Bangladesh cannot afford for the costly Mathematics learning tools for VIS. The objective of this study is to analyze the current scenarios of learning Mathematics in different types of blind schools in Bangladesh. A survey is conducted in all three types of schools in order to achieve the objective. The survey was based on questionnaire comprising questions related to Mathematics learning, examination methods and learning difficulties. Survey results shows that they follow Braille system for reading and writing; however, they cannot write in Braille in the final examination. Taylor frame and abacus are the only options for counting numbers. This paper also tries to propose some key points to improve the current Mathematics learning process for the blind students.

Lutfun Nahar, Azizah Jaafar, Riza Sulaiman

Designing an Interactive Learning to Enrich Children’s Experience in Museum Visit

It has long been known that museum education has the ability to motivate and excite visitors whilst providing them with new insights and experiences. Nevertheless, activities that learning goal, for example, visiting a museum is found to disinterest, not appealing and give insignificant impact to children as compared to visiting the amusement park, playground, or even zoo. Thus, museums are increasingly being equipped with digital and mobile technologies. The main goal of using technologies is to improve the museum-going experience for visitors. In this research, we present a study of a museum interactive quest based on the proposed interaction design model. The study involves children in the age of 9 to 11 to visit a museum located in Malaysia. The findings from the study have highlighted the potential of the proposed interaction model that has affected the children enjoyment and engagement during the museum visit.

Zamratul Asyikin Amran, Novia Admodisastro

Natural User Interface for Children: From Requirement to Design

The emergence of natural user interface (NUI) provides children with more natural interaction. However, NUI developed are commonly inappropriate for their age, due to the lacking in understanding of their needs and the problems they face. This paper presents a research on natural user interface (NUI) for children where the understanding of the issues of usage and their requirement was gathered from literature review and analysis of a usability study. The identification of usability issues were gathered from an observation research of two types of NUI: free-form represented by Kinect; and touch-form represented by tablet iPad. Our observation from video recording analysis and interviews discovered that touch-form NUI is harder to recall, but its simple and straightforward gestures are easier to be performed as long as it does not involve finger-gestures. On the other hand, free-form NUI is more natural and easier to recall but unfortunately troubled by many unwanted gesture interpretations. By using analytical model, these findings were inter-related to input-system-output point of view that help us to propose recommendations to improve NUI interaction and proposes a NUI prototype design to aid children in learning.

Mohd Salihan Ab Rahman, Nazlena Mohamad Ali, Masnizah Mohd

Improving Usability with TRIZ: A Review

New innovations is unavoidable to persist in current world. Industries operate today, in a very challenging and complex environment with rapidly changing demanding and conditions. Thus, to play a significant role in the global market, it is essential to increase the impactful innovations, productivity and competitiveness in the development of new products. Therefore, collaboration between user and designer play important role in this situation. This perception brings innovative dimension for usability evaluations to accomplish the user’s needs. To meet current requirements, usability needs to be improved to strengthen its impact. To achieve this, usability needs to be improved with a very effective model. Deep analysis is carried out to identify suitable model. TRIZ model identified as most appropriate collaborator for impactful effects. This paper presents a suggestion that describes how Usability can improve their outcomes with TRIZ.

Vanisri Batemanazan, Azizah Jaafar, Rabiah Abdul Kadir, Norshita Mat Nayan

An Evaluation of Player Enjoyment in Game-Based Learning Arithmetic Drills via Racing Game

Arithmetic is the oldest branch of Mathematics which consists the study of numbers, specifically the properties of the basic traditional operations. According to a previous study, most of the users agree that Mathematics is considered as a difficult subject and there is a lack of enjoyment in practicing arithmetic drills. Therefore, this research has developed a racing game named Need for Speed Arithmetic for an enjoyable arithmetic drills experience. The racing game has implemented the Rapid Application Development (RAD) approach as it provided a stable and fast development process which is appropriate in developing the game. In this present study, the focus is on the evaluation of player enjoyment in game-based learning arithmetic drills. The evaluation scale adapted is based on EGameFlow Model which consists of seven dimensions: Immersion, challenge, goal clarity, feedback, concentration, control, and knowledge improvement. The social interaction dimension is excluded because the game is implemented on a standalone platform. The study findings indicate that the combination of gaming element with arithmetic drills in the Mathematics subject provide a sense of enjoyment to students in learning Mathematics through drill activities.

Nurul Hidayah Mat Zain, Razuan Harmy Johar, Azlan Abdul Aziz, Aslina Baharum, Azizah Jaafar, Anita Mohd Yasin

Technological Intervention for Moral Education Among Teenagers: A Review

A good child is a dream for every family. Good moral education will encourage children to think and understand about what is allowed or forbidden things. A child who has a good education will be able to manage the management of emotions and the formation of his character. The main purpose of this study is to provide an alternative moral education in children, especially adolescents. Today’s teenage morale is much damaged by juvenile delinquency as it happens and viral in social media, smoking behavior, dating, pre marital sex, piercing, taking drugs and things that violate the prevailing norms. Not all children get a good moral education from home or school. It requires effective moral education with technological intervention in improving and shaping the stage of moral development. Technology can not be separated from adolescents and greatly influence in adolescent moral formation. The positive actions they choose will help improve their attitude. Teens who have a good moral education in their social life will become more independent, and parents can give them the authority to choose more and act according to their choice. Moral education is the most important part in the stage of moral development of adolescents who are planted early on. The stage of moral development is divided into 3 levels: Conventional Level, Conventional Level and Post-Conventional Level. This research is more directed to developmental psychology and technological psychology. Interpersonal communication is the most important part in determining the outcome. The study concludes by suggesting a number of practical and theoretical recommendations for all related elements.

Sitti Hutari Mulyani, Billy Hendrik, Muhammad Reza Putra, Gushelmi, Emil Naf’an, Nazlena Mohamad Ali, Khaidzir Ismail

Data Driven Cyber Security

Frontmatter

IPv6 OS Fingerprinting Methods: Review

IPv6 is the new communication protocol which will eventually replace IPv4 is suffering from different security issues. As an initial step to understand IPv6 networks and their vulnerabilities it is of critical importance to identify the characteristics of the connected devices. Detecting the OS fingerprints of these devices is one of these characteristics that are essential to identifying the vulnerabilities of each of them. Currently, few OS detection methods have supported IPv6 protocol, as it did not fully replace IPv4 yet. This paper attempts to describe the existing methods of OS fingerprinting with IPv6, as well as their challenges and limitations. Moreover, this paper studies the available datasets that might be used for IPv6 OS fingerprinting. By understanding the existing methods and datasets, the reader can figure out the current needs for proposing new OS fingerprinting methods for IPv6 protocol.

Omar E. Elejla, Bahari Belaton, Mohammed Anbar, Basem O. Alijla

Body Matching Algorithm Using Normalize Dynamic Time Warping (NDTW) Skeleton Tracking for Traditional Dance Movement

Traditional dance in Malaysia is generating considerable amount of interest due to its unique elements of heritage which have contributed to its diverse music and dance forms. For example, Zapin, Kuda Kepang, Mak Yong, Joget, Ngajat and much more. Recent developments in technology and ever- growing online community, traditional dance are undergoing a revolution where these dance form can be studied and observed easily especially when there are dance software that can help guide users to learn by performing the dance steps in real-time. However, the use of gesture sensor for accurately mapping the dance movements of traditional dance is not yet explored, since only modern dances are normally available to the masses in the form of computer games. This paper outlines a new approach to implement Normalize Dynamic Time Warping (NDTW) algorithm using skeleton tracking techniques to imitate the intricate movements of traditional dance and to assess the robustness of the algorithm. For this study, the traditional dance of Zapin was chosen because it consists of simple body movements and data were acquired using Microsoft Kinect. The results showed that the proposed algorithm gave the overall matching rate of 99.21% with maximum mean success rate of dancers gave 99.68% and non-dancers gave the percentage of 98.76%. This technique may be considered as a relatively unexplored application area, and the proposed system is an attempt to address the problem with reasonable accuracy and scopes for further research.

A. S. A. Mohamed, P. S. Chingeng, N. A. Mat Isa, S. S. Surip

Data Driven Decision Analysis in Bank Financial Management with Goal Programming Model

Financial management is important to the companies such as banks and financial institutions in managing the assets and liabilities. In optimizing the financial management, different goals have to be achieved simultaneously such as asset accumulation, liability reduction, equity, earning, profitability and total goal achievement. Therefore, goal programming model is introduced to solve the multiple objectives decision making problem in financial management. The objective of this study is to develop a goal programming model to optimize and compare the financial management of the banks in Malaysia based on the benchmark target value for each goal. In this study, six goals such as total assets, total liability, equity, profitability, earnings and total goal achievements are investigated for the period from year 2012 until 2016. The results of this study show that all banks are able to achieve the goal for total asset and equity. Moreover, the target value of equity can be increased further for all banks in future. This study is significant because it helps to determine the potential improvement on total liability, profit, earnings and total goal achievement for each bank in order to achieve the benchmark target value for future development.

Lam Weng Siew, Chen Jia Wai, Lam Weng Hoe

Investigating Blind User Preference on Tactile Symbols for Landmarks on Audio-Tactile Map

Tactile symbols are important in facilitating blind people to understand maps. With audio-tactile maps, the use of tactile symbols needs to be designed appropriately since the symbols are associated with speech. Although there are tactile symbols proposed in the literature, the design of these symbols are mainly for conventional tactile maps. As the literature suggests that the design of these symbols is based on user preferences which are largely influenced by culture and environment. Since there is no guideline for designing tactile symbols for our culture, we therefore conducted a user study with blind participants at Malaysian Association for the Blind (MAB) to investigate their preference on tactile symbols that can be used with audio-tactile maps. From the study, we found that in order for our blind participants to easily recognize a landmark, the landmark symbols should be filled with texture. Landmark symbol with texture inside can help convey information instantly through touch. Although audio can be used to convey information about the landmark, the audio on the tactile map is only a tool for confirming their tactile information. Since audio helps enhance their user experience with the tactile map, the placement of an audio label on the tactile map becomes crucial. This paper concludes by discussing some recommendations on how to improve the available landmark symbols according to their preferences.

Nazatul Naquiah Ahba Abd Hamid, Fariza Hanis Abdul Razak, Wan Adilah Wan Adnan

An Improved Robust Image Watermarking Scheme Based on the Singular Value Decomposition and Genetic Algorithm

This paper propose a robust image watermarking scheme based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) and genetic algorithm (GA). SVD based watermarking techniques suffer with an issue of false positive problem. This leads to even authentication the wrong owner. Prevention of false positive errors is a major challenge for ownership identification and proof of ownership application using digital watermarking. We employed GA algorithm to optimize the watermarked image quality (robustness) of the extracted watermarks. The former can be overcome by embedding the owner’s components of the watermark into the host image, the latter is dependent on how much the quantity for the scaling factor of the principle components is embedded. To improve the quality of watermarking (robustness), GA is used for optimize the suitable scaling factor. Experimental result of the proposed technique proves the watermark image ownership and can be reliably identified even after severe attacks. The comparison of the proposed technique with the state of the art show the superiority of our proposed technique where it is outperforming the methods in comparison.

Atheer Bassel, Md Jan Nordin, Mohammed B. Abdulkareem

Methods of Evaluating the Usability of Human- Computer Interaction (HCI) Design in Mobile Devices for SAR Operation

The evaluation process happens when the products need to be evaluated and tested to figure out whether the design meets the needs of user and usability goals established. In this paper, usability testing (real user tests) is conducted to implement the concept of human-computer interaction (HCI) using mobile devices by performing several tasks using an application developed which is HCI Test. HCI Test is a prototype of client-server system using Android mobile device as clients and Windows Tablet or laptop as a server to test the efficiency and effectiveness of command and control (C2) based on the accuracy of response and response time of the clients towards the server. The experiments were carried out using twenty-five (25) test participants supervised by the evaluator that controlled the server. The results obtained also been discussed in this paper.

Nur Syafikin Shaheera Mat Zaini, Syed Nasir Alsagoff Syed Zakaria, Norshahriah Wahab

Knowledge Driven Interface to Determine Degree of Exposure of Young Adult to Pedophile Online

In the era of Internet of Thing (IoT) which a lot of devices are connected to the internet, children are spending more hours online interacting in cyber space that increase exposure to cyber security including pedophile activity. Increase of time spend online could increase the potential of online sexual grooming behaviours of child molesters. Since that the behaviour are not easily identified prior to the abuse, this study gathers and collect information about child sexual abuse by pedophile and propose a comprehensive decision support system to educate children base on knowledge-driven method about online grooming by molesters. An interactive system is built to provide knowledge to children regarding child sexual abuse and pedophile in terms of definition and each characteristics of it. The main purpose of the system is compiling database about child sexual abuse and pedophiles in order to determine the level of child’s exposure to pedophile in term of five attributes which is selection of victims, gaining access, grooming, trust and approach.

Mat Razali Noor Afiza, Nurjannatul Jannah Aqilah Md Saad, Nor Asiakin Hasbullah, Norulzahrah Mohd Zainudin, Suzaimah Ramli, Norshahriah Wahab, Mohd Nazri Ismail, Mohd Fahmi Mohamad Amran

Smart-Learning Networked Controllers for Centralized Air-Conditioning Systems Using Model-View-Controller Model

This paper presents a smart system iBeam which is a smart learning and networked air conditioning system designing by using a Model – View – Controller (MVC) model. This is a learning and networked Internet of Thing (IoT) system that can predict the thermal comfort of the occupants and regulate the air-conditioning temperature using Machine Learning algorithm in order to give an ideal thermal comfort and indoor air quality with the most minimal vitality cost. This system consists of an Android app to collect user’s input, a server to run Machine Learning algorithm and to associate with a database that stores values from sensors such as temperature or humidity level. The app and the server communicate to each other through a Representational State Transfer web-service.

Tran Trong Tin, Chen Zhi Yuan, K. R. Selvaraj

Analyzing and Detecting Network Intrusion Behavior Using Packet Capture

Network Intrusion is one of serious computer network security issues faced by almost all organizations or industries around the world. The big problem is that companies still have poor security to keep their network in good condition. Unfortunately, the management takes the simplest way by putting heavy responsibilities to network administrator rather than spending a high cost of computer security setup. In this paper describes a preliminary study for proposing a technique of analyzing network intrusion by using Packet Capture integrated with Network Intrusion Behavior Analysis Engine. This technique analyzes whether the flow of the network is healthy or malicious. The study consists of several components for implementing an effective and efficient network analyzing mechanism. Artificial Neural Network is selected as the main method for its behavior analysis engine. Then, it will illustrate the analysis result using an enhanced visualization method which gives more knowledge and understanding to the network administrators for effectively monitor network traffics.

Zahidan Zabri, Puteri N. E. Nohuddin

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