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Über dieses Buch

This book contains the papers presented at the International Joint Conference on Mechanics, Design Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing (JCM 2018), held on 20-22 June 2018 in Cartagena, Spain. It reports on cutting-edge topics in product design and manufacturing, such as industrial methods for integrated product and process design; innovative design; and computer-aided design. Further topics covered include virtual simulation and reverse engineering; additive manufacturing; product manufacturing; engineering methods in medicine and education; representation techniques; and nautical, aeronautics and aerospace design and modeling. The book is divided into six main sections, reflecting the focus and primary themes of the conference. The contributions presented here will not only provide researchers, engineers and experts in a range of industrial engineering subfields with extensive information to support their daily work; they are also intended to stimulate new research directions, advanced applications of the methods discussed, and future interdisciplinary collaborations.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Product Design and Development

Frontmatter

Efficiency and Reliability of Gravity Die Casting Models for Simulation Based Design

Simulation of Gravity Die Casting (GDC) requires coupling different models for fluid dynamics, heat transfer and solidification, together with material physics properties. Very long calculation times are required since several heating and production cycles have to be run. The simplification of the simulation models is critical to have results in times suitable for the design process. The present work discusses the solidification and heat transfer physics with simplification hypotheses. A simulation approach skipping the pouring model for the heating cycles is introduced. A realistic case study on an engine head GDC is presented to evaluate four possible simulation sequences. The results show that including the heating cycles in the simulation is advisable. The simplified sequences reproduce the temperature field of the die with sufficient accuracy. The proposed simulation approach results in considerable time saving with respect to the actual simulations and even in accuracy improvements.

A. Vergnano, E. Brambilla, G. Bonfiglioli

Integrating Sustainability in Product Development Projects

Sustainable initiatives are increasingly demanded in current production. Methods and tools to take into account environmental impacts in the design of products and services have been evolving in the last decades. In this work, a methodology based on the life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) approach is proposed to integrate all sustainability dimensions (environmental, economic and social) in projects of product development. The objective is to provide a practical scheme for companies, which could assist them in their shift towards sustainability. Methodology consists of three different phases: inventory analysis, sustainability assessment and redesign process. In addition, a number of engineering metrics and indicators are used to quantify sustainability issues and to compare different design alternatives. In order to put in practice this methodology the development project of a mobile orthopaedic crane is addressed in this work. Data associated to its manufacturing process are obtained and a product redesign with sustainable criteria is proposed.

L. Diago, E. Lacasa, L. Urmente, I. Millán, J. L. Santolaya

Methodology for a Sustainable Design of Product-Service Systems

Advances in sustainable product design have been carried out in the last decades both in the development of a suitable methodology and in the application of tools to assess and improve sustainability. Similar progresses for the design of sustainable product-service systems still have limited application and there is need for consistent and robust methods and indictors. This work aims at providing a practical scheme for service based organizations, which could assist them in their shift towards sustainability. A method that makes use of practical metrics and indicators to evaluate the environmental and socio-economic impacts and includes a redesign phase integrating initial specifications and sustainability strategies is proposed. The performance of a nursery school is analyzed. According to methods of sustainable product design, an approach based on the analysis of the flows exchanged throughout the service delivery was developed. Each of the sustainability dimensions were assessed using both, operational metrics and sustainability indicators. A stakeholders’ map was elaborated to identify redesign strategies focused on the social demands. In the end, a comparative presentation of both initial and redesigned service indicators is performed to detect if improvements were achieved.

I. Millán, E. Lacasa, A. Sánchez, L. Diago, J. L. Santolaya

Human Factors Assessment for Comfort and Safety in the XCAT Powerboats Rules

In the speed-based competition, with the use of fast vehicles, a fundamental aspect is the safety and comfort of the drivers. In each speed-based competition, the drivers are subjected to vibrations and stresses whose evaluation is fundamental in order to quantify the discomfort of them. The comfort conditions are guaranteed by a deep study of the correct size of the internal spaces, the right posture of the drivers and the right choice of the position of the elements inside the vehicles (damping elements, position of the steering wheel, position of instruments, etc.). Another important aspect is the assessment of the escape spaces in case of accident. To reach these goals, the Governing Body act with the definition and the verification of technical rules. In this work the field of interest is powerboats sport. During the powerboat race, the reached speed and the z-acceleration of the boat lead to several stresses on drivers. Two different approaches have been investigated, a traditional 2D approach and an innovative 3D approach. Results have been discussed.

S. Abrami, F. Cucinotta, E. Guglielmino, F. Sfravara

Development of a Low-Cost Wearable Prevention System for Musculoskeletal Disorders Using Inertial Measurement Unit Systems

The increasing relevance of occupational injuries and illness related to lean manufacturing strategies in automotive assembly lines brings an increasing interest in this industry by the research and development of new tools and methods for the evaluation and prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, few studies have focused on assessing the exposures to the hand region whereas disorder in this region remain at the primary tier of the prevalence ranking. Herein, this paper presents a low-cost, wearable inertial measurement unit (IMU) to measure workplace demands. This technology was selected after analysing an assessment scale composed of seven of the common ergonomic assessment tools and methods. After a brief verification through a laboratory goniometry experiment, eleven joint angles of a volunteer’s hand were measured. The results indicated that the mean difference between the values measured by participants and the values obtained directly from the wearable is 2.44°, which has the same accuracy level of the commercial products. The proposed device is scalable enough to be iterated by further improvements, including conductive fabric 3D printing technology.

C. Cao, M. I. Rodríguez-Ferradas, A. Cazón-Martín, Paz Morer

Fingers’ Biomechanical Analysis with Smartphone User Tests

With the increase in life expectancy, some new information and communication technologies become poorly adapted to elderly, especially with devices of small size as smartphones for example. In order to predict and improve the accessibility of people with limited forearm motor capacity the paper deals with the study of interaction modalities based on EMG (electromyography) for human-computer interaction, for a more tolerant interaction in the face of vagueness of the gesture. For this purpose series of tests for finger activity estimation were performed according to an appropriated bio-medical protocol (two cases: with and without a strap) while manipulating a smartphone. The EMG signals of the three most involved muscles of the thumb were recorded and analyzed. The results shown that the finger’s EMG signals for these muscles are interdependent. It was found that the relationships between positions of touch, for five orders dots disposed on the smart phone screen, and applied force were no linear. The quantitative relationships between force and fingers’ displacements have been extracted by using linear regression analysis. Based on the comparison of force-displacement relationships, it is observed that the thumb induces less activating force than the other fingers. It was also found that the relief of the finger muscles involved in the gripping of the smartphone allows to reduce the muscular activity of the thumb and thus to delay the appearance of musculoskeletal disorders.

P. Mitrouchev, J. Chen, F. Quaine

An Impact Testing Machine Development for Helmets According to Several Standards

The present work has as objective the design and whole mechanical development of an absorption and penetration impact machine. The innovation of this work lies behind the integration of the indispensable characteristics in a single equipment to meet the greatest number of possible tests for different types of helmets; which have to be tested under the greatest possible number of standards. At the beginning of the project, an in-depth study is made of the different types of helmets and their main characteristics, as well as, the tests that are carried out for their certification according to specific standards, contemplating more than 30 international standards. Protective helmets and their corresponding standards are studied in areas as diverse as sporting use, industry, firefighters, motorbikes and for the protection of impacts on children. The search for design smart solutions meeting most amount of studied standards was also addressed for additional requirements, such as a very tight budget and other related with risk prevention. These proposed solutions have been assessed by experimental and/or numerical methods until meet a final solution according to the multidisciplinary requirements. Finally, a testing machine that meets all the requirements for this type of equipment was developed, meeting with a low manufacturing cost and satisfying the extensive standards that regulate the absorption and penetration impact tests of different types of helmets.

D. Ranz, R. Miralbes, D. Sánchez

Well Planned Obsolescence and the Eco-Design

The planned obsolescence was born during the economical crisis that appears as a consequence of the “crack” of 1929. It was planned as a possible solution to the exit of that crisis allowing the increase of the manufacturing productions and the reduction of the unemployment. In the fifties of the twentieth century at the time of the booming of the US consumer society, a substantial part of the producers who provided it, put into practice this planning, supported by the low prices of raw materials and energy. This model was extended to the western world first, and later with the globalization of the economy it continues developing in the rest of the world. This profusely used methodology that has allowed the economic development of Western countries has to be coherent with the sustainability premises that are so necessary today, when the climate change and the overcrowding is a real problem. The successive crises: energy, supply of raw materials and a more sustainability and social consciousness motivated by the effects of the climate change, makes this design methodology inadequate; then, there are more conscious final product users that demand products and services that introduce environmental aspects and specially avoid some practices like the planned obsolescence. Some new design models have appeared and been developed based on the sustainability and the circular economy. The successive conventions and protocols of Vienna, Montreal, Rio, Kyoto and Paris have compromised the governments of the world with the need for control to mitigate the harmful effects. This is why a new model, the eco-design, plays the role of efficiency manager, allowing to weigh certain environmental benefits derived from the replacement of obsolete components, and optimizing product life cycles in a global way. With the use of eco-design and its associated tools, it is possible to integrate the complete life cycle planning with the appropriate model of reuse, including retrofitting, remanufacturing, recycling and if necessary discarding. The benefits derived from an adequate planning of the environmental costs of the product will in the long term also affect the producer, not only through compliance with rules and regulations or through “green” marketing, but also through the return of intangibles. In this paper, the objective is the analysis of how well planned design methodologies can be implemented in the design phases of a product and its final benefits, advantages and disadvantages.

J. M. Paricio, J. A. Peña, R. Miralbes

Experimental and Numerical Study of the Self-loosening of a Bolted Assembly

The self-loosening of bolted assembly is a phenomenon that has been studied several times in the past. Among the existing solicitations, it has been showed that transverse loading might cause the most severe loosening. Thus, different explanations have been proposed. In spite of their similarity, as they all consider sliding as the root cause, the sliding surface distinguish them one from another. This paper will aim at giving another point of view of the problematic in order to advantage a Zadoks’ theory, which highlights the transverse sliding of components. To do so, firstly a double-shear assembly will be modeled. Its specificities are the preload application by screwing the nut, and the use of a self-locking nut. Secondly, some tests will be done in order to valid the built model. Those experiments will also factor the thickness of the assembly in the self-loosening. Thirdly, the analysis of the numerical results and of the experiments, especially the interface surfaces will give us a clue in order to validate the sliding phenomena, which is according to Zadoks, the movement implying the self-loosening of the assembly.

V. Rafik, B. Combes, A. Daidié, C. Chirol

A New Approach for Machine-Tool Architecture Selection at Preliminary Design Stage

Productivity and quality requirements in the aerospace industry involve optimized machine-tools in terms of stiffness, precision, kinematics and dynamics. Many researches aiming at evaluating and optimizing machine-tool performances in the preliminary design stage have been carried-out. This paper presents a new approach for selecting the best appropriate machine-tool architecture, for a given application, based on optimizing conceptual design models. In fact, considered machine-tool structures are modeled with simplified shape parts. The dimensions of these parts are defined as design variables. Afterward, a parametric design optimization is performed for each considered architecture, in order to minimize its total mass under the constraint of a minimal attempted stiffness all over the workspace. After that, several architectures can be compared and classified according to performance indices computed from the mechanical behavior of their corresponding optimized structures. This approach allows restricting the total number of structural arrangements to be detailed further and analyzed more accurately. The paper includes an illustration of the proposed approach through a comparative study between an open-loop and a closed-loop machine-tool architectures.

M. Lajili, H. Chanal, C. Bouzgarrou, E. Duc

Measurement Device Design: Multipurpose Rain Gauge

The need to size large hydraulic infrastructures, exploit extensive agricultural areas or simply arrange water assets for human consumption makes the evaluation of the available water resources essential. Water is a scarce resource that is poorly distributed both, spatially and temporally. Therefore, a set of hydrological networks that allow the evaluation of water quantity and quality is required. In order to achieve this, the first step is to retrieve reliable data on rainfall. To carry out a correct evaluation of water resources, both in the small and large scale, disposing hydrological networks that involve a certain number of measuring devices becomes critical. Despite the great amount of studies that have been developed on measuring devices such as rain gauges, there are still many errors that remain in the measurements and that have not been ruled out yet, thus affecting the accuracy of the measurements. Accordingly, the design of a device that provides an accurate measurement of rainfall and also results affordable, could be the key to a product with great acceptance in the market. This work aims at presenting the design of a measurement device that provides accurate data and can be used in multiple ways: as an ordinary rain gauge, as a rain gauge recorder, or even allowing to carry on both functions simultaneously. Therefore, the design must bring together acceptable requirements regarding precision and economic aspects. As a result of the work developed, the proposed design has led, after a long process, to be patented with previous examination.

M. C. Ladrón-de-Guevara-Muñoz, A. J. Sánchez-Martos, O. D. de-Cózar-Macías, E. B. Bláquez-Parra, I. Ladrón-de-Guevara-López

Multifunctional Device for Bicycles

This paper aims at designing a “Multifunctional device composed of load support and anti-theft lock for standard bicycles”. A previous study has been developed in order to justify and validate the final design of the unmet needs of people in their daily lives, with an emphasis on satisfying those that imply specific savings, whether economic, energy or time. As a result, the use of bicycles as a means of transport in Spain is promoted taking as a frame of reference countries such as the Netherlands or France. This means economic and energy savings (by replacing the car) and an improvement in people’s health and quality of life. Following the steps of the design methodology, once the need was detected, an information search was carried out in order to identify and prioritize the design specifications that meet the demands of potential customers. For this reason, various sources were used, Cyclelogistics (2013), a European project; a report “Food in Spain” by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (2017), and the annual bicycle barometer developed by the DGT (Dirección General de Tráfico, 2017) where the opinion, habits and use that the Spanish people make of the bicycle and the needs and demands they have in relation to it, is known. In addition to meeting the needs of the client, the design must comply with a set of reference regulations both, at the level of security devices and the transport of merchandise at retail. The result of the work has given rise to patent application with prior examination at a national level, in a first phase, and subsequently, at an international level.

P. Lardón-Amat, O. D. de-Cózar-Macías, F. J. Castillo-Rueda, C. Ladrón-de-Guevara-Muñoz, L. Miravet-Garret

Modeling and Development of a Prosthesis Inspired by the Anthropometry of the Hand

The present article describes the design, modeling and development of a mechanical hand prosthesis driven by myocardial impulses. The design of the prosthesis is based on the anthropometry of the hand, taking into account the skeletal shape of the phalanges and metacarpals, the connection mechanisms between phalanges, the system of flexor tendons and extension, ligaments and muscles. Through the signals from the muscles, the control system performs the operations of grip, rotation, etc. The control system consists of nano wreck, a motor controller, DC motors and the muscle sensor system.

L. Dunai, I. Lengua, I. Capcanari, G. Peris-Fajarnés

Adaptation in the Design of a Weighing Lysimeter for Use in Potato Crops

Within the PROLISI research project, several transportable weighing lysimeters have been designed whose technology determines with high precision the water needs of crops. Until now, all the models were focused on a type of crop such as lettuce and brassica, with a root depth of up to 30 cm. Due to the excellent performance of these devices in horticultural crops, the need has developed to cover another type of larger plant, such as the potato, with root depth of up to 50 cm. For this reason, this communication shows the dimensional adaptation of a new portable weighing lysimeter model for this type of solanaceous crop. To ensure proper functioning, several analyses and simulations have been carried out to check the resistance of the main structures and the deformations they undergo. With this model, a prototype has been manufactured and it has already been installed in an agricultural holding, with excellent operating results.

J. A. Nicolás-Cuevas, D. Parras-Burgos, L. Ruíz-Peñalver, J. M. Molina-Martínez

Identification of the Main Contributors in the 3D Tolerances Assessment in Mechanical Transmissions

The management of spatial dimensional variations and 3D tolerance stacks is a key issue to achieve high performance and robust solutions. The state of the art in 3D tolerance analysis addresses two main difficulties: on the one hand, the issue about the dimensioning and tolerancing methods, and the related annotation transfer from 2D drawings to 3D parts. On the other hand, the lack of integration of design methods for 3D tolerance stacks calculation in the design process and, moreover, the restricted application fields in which tolerance methods are applied, as in aerospace or automotive fields. In this scenario, we propose a Computer-Aided Tolerancing (CAT)-based approach, integrated within the embodiment design of the product development and able to support the analysis and the design of 3D tolerance stacks in mechanical assembly, by simulating the 3D effects of both the dimensional and geometrical tolerances. Focusing on a gearbox assembly, the CAT-based approach aims to identify the main contributors (sources) of variation within the tolerance stacks, by means of a statistical and sensitivity analysis. After defining the design inputs (involved parts, tolerances definition, assembly sequence, and required measurements), we follow a bottom-up approach, starting from the part tolerances as set by the designers, up to the assembly tolerances. The CAT software simulates how the tolerances vary within their ranges. Finally, we are able to identify the main contributors to variation, which may require tightening their tolerance values, in order to improve the performance of the gearbox assembly.

F. Gherardini, D. Panari, F. Leali

Computer-Aided Design and Interactive Design

Frontmatter

A Virtual Kinematic Design of Dental Restorations Using Reverse Engineering

In terms of diagnosis, planning and treatment, when a dental patient needs a complex restoration or presents a temporomandibular disorder, it is necessary to reproduce the mandibular movements out from mouth. The best tool for this purpose is the virtual articulator. Virtual articulators enable a design that takes into account the kinematics necessary for the design process of dental restorations and at the same time, avoids possible collisions. The location of the hinge axis constitutes just one step in attempting to reproduce mandibular movement. However, the importance of this step arises from the fact that almost all movements start at the axis and return to it. Therefore, this study focuses on the virtual acquisition of the patient’s mandible rotation axis (kinematic axis) using reverse engineering devices.

M. Iturrate, R. Minguez, N. Toledo, H. Eguiraun, I. De Prado, E. Solaberrieta

Design of an Interactive Web Interface Using Graphics for Simulating and Assessing Visual Impact in Sustainable Building Projects

Since several decades ago, the technological enrichments and boosts in information organism areas are expended to counterpart various modeling in engineering and other disciplines. Because of its technological improvements, many programs and lineups such as Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), Geographic Information System (GIS), graphic modeling, etc. are required to syndicate and work on the basis of the web and/or internet platform services. These allow designers (engineers, architects, planners, policy authorities, academics, etc.) to simulating and assessing their projects into an interactive web atmosphere supplementary to improved comprehend the dissimilar designs, simulating different states of building process, and brining a new perspective of them. This paper presents the design of an interactive web interface modeling using graphics that, in a case study situation, consenting to gauge and envisage a building projects’ visual impact. Here, particularly, GIS and visual theme analysis were employed for that building project indicated. In visual elements theme, GIS model depicted can be graphically exemplified. Consequently, the results can be used to verify visual impact of sustainable and viable building projects in the asynchronous and/or synchronous decision-making progression distinguished space and spatial parts. Accordingly, the generation and authentication of an interactive web interface could be an empirical interface for judging visual impact, eventually accomplishing sustainable and viable design and elaboration of built circumstances.

J. S. Jeong, A. Ramírez-Gómez

Topology Optimization Additive Manufacturing-Oriented for a Biomedical Application

Topological optimization is a fairly innovative numerical technique that makes it possible to reduce the mass of mechanical components. It is an alternative to the optimizations of shape or geometry that allow to highly improve the efficiency of products. The recent development of metal additive manufacturing technologies allows the production of pieces that were not feasible before, permitting the use of topological optimization in many fields. In the biomedical field, for example, the reduction of prosthetic and orthotic materials allows to save weight, to the advantage of comfort, and to minimize the invasiveness of these systems. In this paper, an optimization of a system consisting of a femoral nail and two screws is carried out. The pieces were obtained by 3D scanning of prostheses, so as to obtain the true geometry. The femur is the standard one in literature. Following topological optimization, a new nail, with a mass of 60% of the previous one, was obtained, without limiting the functionality or the reliability of the product. Results and methodological problems are discussed.

F. Cucinotta, E. Guglielmino, G. Longo, G. Risitano, D. Santonocito, F. Sfravara

A Reverse-Engineering Approach for the Management of Product Geometrical Variations During Assembly

One of the major challenges for the aerospace industry is to manage a range of complex products during their manufacturing and assembly process. Digital Mock-Ups (DMU) are nowadays extensively used as supports of information during the aforementioned phases. In this paper we introduce the concept of updated DMU which actually reflects the product being assembled. For this purpose, the nominal product geometry needs to be updated in order to reflect the as-built geometry of the product’s components at a given step of its assembly. The geometry of the next components to be assembled, called interface components, are consequently updated in order to adapt to geometrical variations, while the rest of the DMU stays in its original as-designed configuration. A comprehensive method to update the DMU from its as-designed configuration to reflect the actual configuration of the product being assembled is thus proposed. To this end, a framework inspired from the Reverse-Engineering field is developed, then assessed thanks to a simple case study.

J. L. Gregorio, C. Lartigue, F. Thiébaut, H. Falgarone

Free-State Shape of Aeronautical Components for Assembly Simulation

This paper deals with a method to extract the free-state shape of aeronautical assembly components from part measurements independently of the assembly configuration of use. Knowledge of the free-state shapes enables to assess the geometrical conformity of an assembly through the assembly simulation using Finite Element Method (FEM). The component is measured, using optical means in a given configuration for which the set-up is well-known. A coarse cleaning is thus applied on the measured data to obtain manipulative data in the CAD model frame. Meanwhile, displacements due to the measuring set-up and to gravity are evaluated from the nominal geometry using FEM. Finally, the free-state shape, as a finite element mesh, is obtained by moving the nominal mesh nodes by a distance equal to the measured defect minus the evaluated displacement. The approach is applied to an aeronautical component.

F. Gringoz, F. Thiébaut, C. Lartigue, B. Soufflet

Analysis of the Virtual Facebow Transfer by Using a Facebow Fork. An In Vitro Study

In dentistry, for different reasons, several processes necessary to respond to different patient needs must be performed outside the mouth. This forces to have an “extra ore” model of the patient’s masticatory apparatus. For this purpose, the best alternative today is the virtual articulator. For an effective use of the virtual articulator, it is necessary to transfer the patient’s data to the virtual environment. This is the base of the virtual facebow technique. There are different virtual methods that meet the function of the facebow, all of which use reverse engineering software. However, the accuracy of these methods is not well-known, and it is therefore clear that this is a matter of analysis before putting it into practice in everyday life. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze, by means of in vitro tests, the accuracy of one of the virtual methods for transferring the digitized maxillary models to the virtual articulator: the virtual facebow transfer by using a facebow fork.

E. Solaberrieta, M. Iturrate, J. A. Oriozabala, X. Amezua, L. Barrenetxea, O. Etxaniz

Methodology for the 3D Reconstruction of Industrials Facilities Using Photogrammetry

There are some areas of project engineering where it is especially necessary to know the spatial distribution of the elements that make up an industrial installation to diverse aims: the planning of future actions in the installation, like expansions, reparations and modifications; the documentation of the current state of an installation; and the construction, supervision and control of execution. It is in these areas where photogrammetry has a high potential to develop. The aim of this article is to establish a methodology that defines the way in which photographs should be made, the main parameters of the camera, the use of markers and targets and so on, so that the 3D reconstruction of industrial facilities is possible, quantifying the error committed. On the other hand, the improvement of smartphone camera lenses and the popularity of their use, as well as the proliferation of fish-eye cameras and action cameras like the GoPro as the main reference, has generalized the use of this type of device, which can be used at a very low cost to make 3D reconstructions using photogrammetry. This article will study, in a comparative way, the following tools: a high-end mobile camera, a fish-eye camera and a high-end single lens reflex (SLR) camera. These methodology and configurations will be tested in diverse industrial areas: a computer room, a warehouse with fluid facilities, a mechanized workshop, a mechanical assembly workshop, a workshop for electrical assemblies and a warehouse with a plastic crusher.

R. Miralbes, H. Peña, J. A. Peña

Visual Impact Assessment for Offshore Wind Farms Along the Cantabrian Coast

This paper shows an introduction to a new proposal in the use of quantitative indicators for visual impact assessment over large areas. Implemented in a new software called MarRojo©. It is part of a project named AMBEMAR, which objective is to create a Multi Criteria Decision Support System (DSS) tool to find the optimal siting for offshore wind farms on the Cantabrian coast. The work consists in generating graphical information that allows introducing visual impact criteria in the design stage, and inside AMBEMAR and is essentially oriented to wind energy projects.

J. López-Uriarte, P. E. Lizcano, C. Manchado, V. Gómez-Jáuregui, C. Otero

Graphic Survey and 3D Virtual Restoration of a 16th Century Watch Tower: Navidad Tower (Cartagena, Spain)

In 1557, King Philip II started a project consisting in the creation of a network of watch and defence towers for the coast, which would be used to warn neighbouring towns of the frequent pirate attacks. After having examined the area and having planned the number and location of such towers, a great number of these defensive buildings were constructed all along the Mediterranean coastline. Unfortunately, this important historical and architectural heritage of the Mediterranean coastline has lost one of its main characteristics, unity, since many of these towers have disappeared and some of them are neglected. In the Region of Murcia, from the twelve coast towers that were built for watch and defence purposes, eight towers have disappeared. Three towers have been recently restored. From the old watch towers there is only one left, which is almost ruined, and no intervention is planned to guarantee its proper preservation and enhancement: Navidad Tower. That is why this tower has been chosen to be studied and graphically documented. Thus, the research project that is being developed is mainly aimed at depicting the common legacy of all watch and defence towers in the Murcian coastline and documenting the Navidad by laser scanner and photogrammetry in order to obtain the three-dimensional model. This graphic work shall be subsequently supplemented with the carrying out of works for the dissemination of documentation. Likewise, an analysis of towers through the use of Geographic Information Systems.

J. García-León, J. Ros-Torres, G. Vázquez Arenas, P. E. Collado Espejo, J. Pérez Navarro, M. Ramos Martínez

Design of a Two Arms Exoskeleton as Haptic Device for Virtual Reality Applications

The work investigates a solution of powered upper arms exoskeleton designed as haptic device for use in VR scenarios. The mechanical structure and the actuation system of the exoskeleton system are presented. To develop a powered upper limbs exoskeleton possessing, natural safety and transparency in the mutual “man-robot” interaction, the hybrid actuation approach is used. The latter includes in each joint parallel actuation of pair pneumatic actuators and a back drivable direct current (DC)-motor. An impedance controller with model feedforward compensations and an algorithm for joint torque control are designed, in order to provide accurate force response from the virtual environment to the operator. For this purpose, computer simulations are carried out to assess the developed exoskeleton capabilities to provide forceful effect on the operator, in the full range of arm joint motions. The experiments demonstrate that by proper selection of the additional DC actuation the desired power feedback can be achieved throughout the exoskeleton’s workspace.

D. Chakarov, I. Veneva, M. Tsveov, P. Mitrouchev, P. Venev

3D Organic Modeling Using Hybrid Techniques with Polygons

This work presents a methodology of 3D modeling suitable for the design and manufacture of components with complex forms of organic inspiration. It is applied to a real case of development of a sculptural element related to the corporate image of a company. In the introduction, the boundary conditions of the project and the product to be modeled with the starting specifications are presented. Next, the stages followed for the execution of the project that give justification to the methodology developed are described. The document shows the general flow of activities presenting in each one the particularities and resolved contingencies. The tangible results of the project that includes the variations of the model generated for 3D animation equipped with articulated bones are also exposed. It has been experimentally verified that the proposed modeling methodology allows the integration of components designed by CAD, generates topologies coherent with innovative criteria that they facilitate production through additive manufacturing with related surfaces free of errors. It is, therefore, a hybrid method based on the manipulation of mesh polygons with accessible tools that is suitable for the design and manufacture of bio-inspired products, paleontological reconstructions, prostheses or bio-engineering components. The UV coordinate maps and the designed textures make it possible for the same geometry or simplified versions of the manufactured model to be modified by means of 3D animation techniques with skeletons, to be used in virtual representations and in augmented reality environments, increasingly demanded in the field of Graphic Engineering.

C. López, J. A. Peña, R. Miralbés

Study of the Cylindrical Symmetry Materials Dependence with the Temperature in a Nonlinear Heat Transfer by Network Method

The hollow cylindrical geometry is frequently used in several heat transmission processes, such as: (i) columns in construction, (ii) cylindrical building, (iii) thermal insulation in cylindrical tanks, etc. In these constructions, several stratums usually form environments, one of them are usually the non-thermal conductor stratum (also called insulating stratum), placed in the central zone, while the others usually have other mechanical properties or chemical properties required by the design. Nowadays the insulating of cylindrical tanks is generally a great interest problem in chemical industry and energy industry because most tanks used in the industry enclose dangerous substances fluids, stored to different ranges of temperatures. The model of this cylindrical symmetry is represented by a system of coupled nonlinear equations where the material properties depend on its own temperature, such as density, specific heat and thermal conductivity, so they change when the temperature varies an therefore the behaviour of the material. In the same way, the boundary conditions also depend on the temperature, and it can differentiate between: (i) radiation, (ii) convection, (iii) constant temperature and finally (iv) radiation and convection. In this work, we study the behaviour of temperature in different cylindrical structures, solving the system of coupled nonlinear equations, and varying one of its design parameters, the kind of material, and their boundary conditions. In addition, the obtained solutions will be compared with the assumption of maintaining the material properties constant.

M. Fernández, J. F. Sanchez-Pérez, F. Del Cerro

Exploiting Augmented Reality to Display Technical Information on Industry 4.0 P&ID

In this work, we present an Augmented Reality framework for handheld devices that enhance users in the comprehension of plant information traditionally conveyed through printed Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&ID). The proposed framework augments on the P&ID of a plant some virtual interactive graphics (hotspots) referenced to specific components drawn on the P&ID. In this way, it is possible to easily find all the components belonging to the same category (e.g., all the pumps). By tapping, on the tablet screen, on a single hotspot further multimedia information can be displayed: technical data, 3D CAD model of the component, and 360° images of the plant section. The application is connected to the factory database where all the information associated with the plant components is stored. We used, as a case study, the cleaning section of a milling plant. With the tool presented in this work, technicians will be able to find information updated and in less time, so reducing the intervention time and increasing the accuracy of the operations. Furthermore, the cognitive load associated with the task of understanding the plant is highly reduced through the use of virtual information displayed using Augmented Reality.

A. Boccaccio, G. L. Cascella, M. Fiorentino, M. Gattullo, V. M. Manghisi, G. Monno, A. E. Uva

A Design Approach to Support BIM for Existing Structures

Nowadays, Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a common design approach to support the life cycle of projects in the field of Architecture Engineering Construction (AEC). New constructions’ projects require a BIM modeling to provide digital information within a 3D digital mockup. The main target is to reduce time and cost related to the elaboration of additional and not integrated documentation. This issue is also common in projects focused on the renovations of existing buildings. In fact, the BIM approach provides tools to improve interoperability between different software to integrate analysis and simulations within the architectural representation. The renovation projects require reverse engineering tools and methods for the 3D modeling of existing structures. One of the issues concerns the digital photogrammetric survey of glass surfaces. This paper proposes a design approach to support BIM phases for already existing structures with a test case focused on a hallway with a continuous glass wall.

P. Cicconi, R. Raffaeli, A. Borghi

A Procedure for Cutting Guides Design in Maxillofacial Surgery: A Case-Study

Surgical interventions for jaw reconstruction require the design and the production of surgical guides that allow the surgeon to operate quickly and accurately. In some cases, the reconstruction is performed by inserting a prothesis, thus operating exclusively on the jaw, while in other cases the reconstruction is performed by withdrawing and inserting part of the fibula in place of the original jaw bone. This project aims to develop a procedure that allows 3D modeling of the surgical guides necessary for surgical intervention. The idea is to find a surgical guide archetype, a starting shape for the surgeon so that the cutting planes can be oriented without the surgical guide having to be redesigned from scratch for every single patient. The first step of the procedure is the segmentation, performed applying the thresholding operation on the images provided by magnetic resonance MR in order to identify the region of interest (ROI). The second step is the reconstruction of the 3D model, so that a mesh is obtained from 2D images. Subsequently the mesh is post-processed and the cutting plans along which the surgeon will intervene are defined.

L. Ulrich, F. Baldassarre, F. Marcolin, S. Moos, S. Tornincasa, E. Vezzetti, D. Speranza, G. Ramieri, E. Zavattero

An Integrated Approach for Shape Optimization with Mesh-Morphing

Although the CAD parameters allow to update easily the geometrical model, the numerical models updating into Finite Elements (FE) software with different mesh result to be often heavy, due to the necessity both to create new mesh and to make usually time consuming and complex CAE calculations for updating the loading conditions. The aim of the present research is to devise a reliable methodology and at the same time to reduce computational burden in the shape optimization studies of mechanical components. In particular, an integrated Multibody (MB) and Mesh-Morphing (MM) approach was developed to perform shape optimization, in order to reduce maximum tensions. Using the RBF Morph ACT Extension plugin implemented in the commercial solver FEM ANSYS® Mechanical vers. 18.2 along with the commercial MB software MSC ADAMS® vers. 2017, shape optimizations can be obtained in a very short time, by acting directly at the mesh so updating node positions and mesh elements geometry without bringing different geometrical models of the component into the FE environment. To validate the methodology, a crankshaft for a high performance Internal Combustion Engine (I.C.E.) was chosen, as case study, to optimize the fillet zones between web and pin.

M. Calì, S. M. Oliveri, M. Evangelos Biancolini, G. Sequenzia

Posture Evaluation for Fragment Re-Alignment of Ancient Bronze Statues: The Case Study of the Principe Ellenistico

Interventions of ancient bronze statues restoration may last long periods, involving several activities from material and structural analysis to set-up of museum exhibitions, passing through reconstruction of fragments. In this paper, we describe procedures and methods used for evaluation of the current posture of “Principe Ellenistico”. In fact, the statue seems to present some inaccuracies, in the fragments assembly, made during the last restoration activity (one of this effect is clearly observed in the spear inclination). The final aims are: (1) evaluation of differences among the postures before and after the last restoration; (2) recognition of the original fragments embedded in a previous restoration; and (3) the study of a possible better positioning of them. Methods applied are related to feature recognition on acquired point clouds, image analysis through control points and algorithms to find centerline of the elements that could need to be repositioned. In the final part, a concept design for a new inner-support is presented, giving the possibility to avoid assembly inaccuracies. Future developments are presented as the prospect of additive manufacturing the support, firstly with a FDM prototype and then through SLM or similar technologies.

M. Bici, R. Guachi, O. Colacicchi, G. D’Ercoli, F. Campana

Review of Industrial Design Optimization by Genetic Algorithms

In engineering, genetic algorithms (GA) have been successfully applied to some cases. The current state of this technique has evolved to allow computer designs from a sketch. Thus, GA generate a solution by optimization. Here the final solution is restricted by the final specifications. While CAD systems employ basic useful parameters to allow users to build the final design, GA utilizes preliminary designs from the beginning. CAD systems use primitives (points, lines and splines), which are controlled by users to build the design. In an evolutionary design system, it is GA that must modify designs to reach the final solution. When GA reach the solution, the design meets the final specifications. For this reason, the representation of an evolutionary design system based on GA must have a good parameter definition. Compared to the configuration design, a preliminary design is more difficult to computerize given its more marked emphasis on creativity. Therefore, the first step is to identify the ways to computerize the process involved in design. A bibliographic review sets the basis of using GA in the industrial design process.

F. L. Sáez-Gutiérrez, F. J. F. Cañavate, A. Guerrero-González

Manufacturing and Industrial Process Design

Frontmatter

Defining Scanning Trajectory for on-Machine Inspection Using a Laser-Plane Scanner

Scan path planning for on-machine inspection in a 5-axis machine tool is still a challenge to measure part geometry in a minimum amount of time with a given scanning quality. Indeed, as the laser-plane scanner takes the place of the cutting tool, the time allocated to measurement must be reduced, but not at detrimental of the quality. In this direction, this paper proposes a method for scan path planning in a 5-axis machine tool with the control of scanning overlap. This method is an adaptation of a method dedicated to a robot that has proved its efficiency for part inspection.

D. M. P. Nguyen, Y. Quinsat, C. Lartigue

Use of Additive Manufacturing on Models for Sand Casting Process

Sand casting processes are simple and, generally, require a small initial investment in machines and tools. These characteristics make this manufacturing process very used in the metal industry for the manufacture of small series of any size and complexity, where the dimensional and surface quality requirements are not very demanding. Among the necessary tools, it is worth mentioning the flasks and the patterns as the most important elements. Patterns are usually reusable and manufactured with polymeric materials. However, any change in the design or development of a new product involves the manufacture of new patterns. In case of polymer patterns obtained by injection, these product changes lead to the need of manufacturing new matrix, which deduces into higher costs and time. In this regard, the use of Additive Manufacturing techniques may help to solve these problems. Thereby, a methodology for the design and manufacturing of different patterns by using Fused Deposition Modeling techniques is exposed in this work. The results have been compared with those obtained in injection processes, from a functional and economical point of view. These patterns will be used in the manufacturing of parts for educational purposes. Nevertheless, with the appropriate scale and higher 3D printing resolution, the methodology exposed could be implemented on industrial applications

C. Bermudo, S. Martín-Béjar, F. J. Trujillo, L. Sevilla

Approach to the Management Applied to the Periodical Technical Inspection (PTI) Stations in the Context of Industry 4.0

This work is a first approach to the management applied to the Periodical Technical Inspection (PTI) stations in the context of Industry 4.0. Since 1965, PTIs are mandatory in Spain, initially only for public transport and freight trucks, but since the 1980s they are compulsory for all types of vehicles, in order to control vehicles technical performance to avoid traffic accidents. Number of PTI stations and inspection lines have been increased from 1981 to 2017, from about 30 to more than 460 operative stations and from about 70 to more than 1200 inspection lines. This fact makes necessary to implement a new management model in the context of the Industry 4.0 that will lead to the PTI 4.0. The use of cyber physical systems, and the application of smart factory concepts in the inspection processes will allow to incorporate new benefits to the management of PTI stations, in addition to improving their effectiveness and efficiency. Regarding 2016 data, more than 19.5 million of vehicles were inspected in Spain and almost 24 million of defects were detected. Also, the total number of vehicles has increased about a 3.6%, but inspections have been increasing more than 5%. Taking into account the number of items to verify, the use of Industry 4.0 theologies, such as Big Data, is highly recommended. In addition, since 2013, Spanish DGT has launched Telematics’ Information Exchange with the objective to get telematics data recording of the PTI results. This make necessary to contemplate concepts based on Industry 4.0 for their management.

J. García-Cordonié, P. Izquierdo, J. A. Vilán, A. Segade, E. Casarejos, M. Lopez

Influential Parameters in Plunge Milling for Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V

Plunge milling is an interesting production mean for machining deep workpieces. It is identified as a process potentially able to afford significant gains in productivity during the roughing phases, especially in the case of workpieces made of hard materials. Within this paper, a study of cutting forces in plunge milling of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V is conducted. Several types of inserts provided by manufacturing tools suppliers with various cutting angles, type of chip breaker and nose radius, are exploited along with different cutting parameters. The results show the influence of the geometrical parameters and cutting parameters on the cutting forces, and give various information to establish next the optimal trajectories of the tool during plunge milling operations on titanium alloys, according to the type of workpieces.

M. Fredj, F. Monies, W. Rubio, J. Senatore

A Model-Based Approach to Support the Design of Mold Heating for Composites

Molding is one of the most widely used processing technologies in manufacturing. Among typical molding parameters, the mold temperature is a critical one for the quality of the molding process. A solution to this issue can be the employment of induction heating which, through a high-frequency electromagnetic field, produces eddy currents and a consequent rapid heating of the material into the cavity of the mold. The necessity to maintain the mold walls at the operative temperature makes the induction heating to be one of the most efficient non-contact means of heating. In fact, induction heating is characterized by quickness, efficiency, and energy saving; however, the design and the sizing of an induction heating system is complex due to different parameters involved in the electromagnetic and thermal phenomena. In this context, the paper aims to define a methodology to support engineers in the design and sizing of an induction heating system for molds, taking as case study a mold for composite parts. A model-based approach is proposed to analyze and simulate the mold heating, considering three different levels of modelling: Analytical (0D), Finite-Difference Methods (2D) and Finite Element Methods (3D). The Analytical approach investigates the solution of the physical equations applied to the volume of the material involved. Instead, the Finite-Difference approach (2D) solves the heat transfer problem by discretizing the domain and by solving for temperature at discrete points. Finally, the Finite Element method (3D) solves partial differential equations on a 3D discretized domain.

P. Cicconi, E. Pallotta, A. C. Russo, R. Raffaeli, M. Prist, A. Monteriù, S. Longhi, M. Germani

New Issues for Workers Safety in the Factory of the Future

Human in the factory is one of the main themes of the Factory of the Future; in this context the aim of this paper is to present the new issues for workers safety and integrated design concepts or methodologies which have to be taken into account. New paradigms come into being: the uncertainty of the demand in terms of products as well as production rate, product customization, product/service integration, variability in manufacturing processes and times, reconfiguration of manufacturing machine tools and systems, space organization, auto-organization and planning. Also, new technologies are implemented: robots, “plug and play” devices, virtual/augmented reality, sensors, OPC standards and connected objects. Several tasks are performed by the workers, the robots or both in collaboration. The workers are placed in the center of the Factory of the Future but this concept introduce hazardous events, problems of health and safety (physical or cognitive tasks, fatigue, stress, space and time organization, human-robot interfaces to take into account in the different working situations). So the aim of the paper is to present studies carrying out in order to propose to the machine or manufacturing systems designers as well as production managers structured methods, models and tools to get safe working situations in the frame of the Factory of the Future paradigm.

P. Martin, B. Daille-Lefèvre, J. Marsot, X. Godot, G. Abba, A. Siadat, M. Gomez-Echeverri

3D Model Representation and Data Exchange for Additive Manufacturing

The unique capabilities of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies highlight limits in commercial CAD tools. In this manuscript, after a synthetic description of the main AM technologies based on international standards classification, geometric modeling methods and data exchange file formats available in the literature are presented. Twelve geometric models have been studied to evaluate the effectiveness of the file format, noting the file dimension and the time to open and close the file. As a result, a roadmap in the development of new tools for design in AM is drawn, taking into account the new possibilities offered by AM technologies.

G. Savio, R. Meneghello, S. Rosso, G. Concheri

Applying High Speed Video to Optimize the Performance of Milling Tools

Design and optimization of innovative tools are key aspects for milling metal alloys with a hard machinability, being required for different industrial applications e.g., automobile or aeronautical manufacturing. For this purpose, a correct rupture and evacuation of the generated chips are two crucial aspects, being possible to improve them paying attention to the geometry and materials (particularly those used for coatings) of the milling tools. The influence of these two aspects can be barely registered with conventional video, during a real milling process, while high speed recordings can provide valuable information. In this research project, high speed video was applied to optimize de performance of milling tools, paying special attention to Ti6Al4V, due to its special requirements, as well as to its applicability to the aeronautical industry. The obtained results made possible to compare different versions of the tool geometries, facilitating the evacuation of the chips generated during the milling processes. Thanks to these improvements, the number of unexpected tool breaks, as well as their life were increased and the milled pieces obtained better quality surfaces, in parallel to the reduction of problems caused by chip pressures and collisions.

C. García-Hernández, A. Martínez-Angulo, N. Efkolidis, P. Ubieto-Artur, J. L. Huertas-Talón, P. Kyratsis

A Knowledge-Based Augmented Reality Tool for Managing Design Variations

In view of the wide scope of challenges concerning Industry 4.0, a variety of enabling digital industrial technologies can support the digitization of the manufacturing sector. Among them, Augmented Reality represents one of the most promising innovation accelerators that will support human workers and bring Smart Factories to a higher level of efficiency. To this end, the paper presents an Augmented Reality tool that provides support at the workplace to easily detect and collect design changes by augmenting virtual 3D models, as defined in the project plan, on the actual design. The proposed tool runs on a consumer smartphone and adopts hybrid tracking techniques to allow workers to formalize and make more efficient the knowledge management of the design changes within the overall design process.

L. Barbieri, E. Marino, F. Bruno

Investigation of Aluminum Alloy Properties During Helical Roller Burnishing Through Finite Element Simulations and Experiments

Industry is always looking for ways to increase the lifetime of assemblies, especially the fatigue lifetime, from the production phase of fastening holes onwards. Helical roller burnishing is presented here as an innovative mechanical surface treatment. Applied directly after orbital drilling, this technique induces superficial plastic strains that reduce surface roughness and increase hardening and compressive residual stresses. Several studies on 3D finite element models of burnishing have been carried out but they are very time-consuming. In this review, a comparative numerical study of helical burnishing (in terms of calculation time and results on residual stress) between one 3D and two 2D plane strain finite element simulations is performed on 2024-T351 aluminum alloy drilled parts. The impact of the process operating parameters is also investigated. This comparison shows fairly similar results regarding the residual stress profiles but levels are rather different. This could be explained by the complex kinematics of helical roller burnishing, which is strongly three-dimensional. The numerical results of one of the cases studied reveal compressive residual stresses of around −100 and −490 MPa in the radial and circumferential directions of the hole, respectively. Burnishing depth and spindle rotation speed have a great impact on the final residual stress profiles. These simulations are then confronted with experimental results obtained during tests carried out using an orbital drilling unit (ORBIBOT). This demonstrates the interest of the modeling implemented and also points out ways to improve the developed models.

L. Kamgaing Souop, A. Daidie, Y. Landon, J. Senatore, M. Ritou

Topological Optimization of a Structural Naval Component Manufactured in FDM

In this paper, a topological optimization procedure has been applied on a real component of the deck of a sailing multi-hull in order to find the internal shape that best save the material used in the manufacturing process without a relevant loss of structural rigidity. The multi-hull boat is a 16 feet length catamaran equipped with an asymmetric foil on both centerboards and with a symmetric foil on both rudders. The task of the analyzed object is to act as a cylindrical support for the screw that drives the rotation of the centerboard. The process adopted to manufacture this object is the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technique, because of its high versatility and its relative low-cost impact. The aim of this work is to verify the applicability of FDM to structural naval component subjected to demanding loads during navigation and, at the same time, to investigate on the robustness of a topology optimization strategy in creating new shapes that recent additive manufacturing are able to create.

A. Mancuso, G. Pitarresi, A. Saporito, D. Tumino

The Influence of Build Orientation on the Flatness Error in Artifact Produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) Process

Additive Manufacturing (AM) involves a set of production processes in which a layer-based material deposition approach to build parts is applied. These technologies are now extensively used in the industry in many cases as the main manufacturing process for making components with high shape complexity. The dimensional and geometric accuracy of the parts manufactured by means of AM are mostly determined by the specific type of additive process employed and the related process parameters. The part orientation in the build space is an important process parameter that has an influence on the stair-step effect and on the need of support structures and the subsequent post-processing refinements. In addition, the position of the part in the build volume may have an influence on the shape. These factors concur to the surface finish and to the dimensional and shape accuracy. In this paper, the flatness error on several surfaces, built on a test artefact ad hoc conceived, has been measured by means of a CMM-based setup in order to quantify the variation of the error in relation to: the orientation of the surfaces with respect to the platform, and the position of the part in the build volume of the AM machine. The test part has been produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) process using the EOS Stainless Steel GP1. The test artifact has been designed with five flat surfaces at different angles with respect to the building platform. Two specimens were built in the same DMLS session with different position and alignment. The influence of the surface slope on the flatness error has been investigated. Flatness, 3D Roughness and orientation errors (parallelism, inclination, perpendicularity) have been measured and compared between both specimens.

S. Rizzuti, L. De Napoli, S. Ventra

New Customized Elbow Orthosis Made by Additive Manufacturing

Orthoses are additional devices that help people with disabilities. The focus of this work is the design and manufacture of a new customized elbow orthosis completely made by Additive Manufacturing (AM). One of the innovative characteristic of the device is the use of torsion springs that simulate the action of physiotherapists during exercises for patient rehabilitation. Parametric modeling approach based on generative algorithms was used to design the device. Finally, FEM analyses have been performed to validate the design.

R. I. Campbell, T. Ingrassia, V. Nigrelli, V. Ricotta

Graphical Bioengineering

Frontmatter

Accuracy Assessment of CT-Based 3D Bone Surface Reconstruction

3D reconstruction of human anatomy from cross-sectional imaging has recently gained increasing importance in several medical fields thus designating the 3D bones reconstruction accuracy, critical for the success of the whole surgical intervention. The 3D anatomic model quality depends on the quality of the reconstructed image, on the quality of the images segmentation step and on the error introduced by the iso-surface triangulation algorithm. The influence of image processing procedures and relative parametrization has been largely studied in the scientific literature; however, the analysis of the direct impact of the quality of the reconstructed medical images is still lacking. In this paper, a comparative study on the influence of both image reconstruction algorithm (standard and iterative) and applied kernel is reported. Research was performed on the 3D reconstruction of a pig tibia, by using Philips Brilliance 64 CT scanner. At the stage of scanning and at the stage of 3D reconstruction, the same procedures were followed, while only image reconstruction algorithm and kernel were changed. The influence of such selection on the accuracy of bone geometry was assessed by comparing it against the 3D model obtained with a professional 3D scanner. Results show an average error in reconstructing the geometry of around 0.1 mm with a variance of 0.08 mm. The presented study highlights new opportunities to control the deviations on the geometry accuracy of the bones structures at the stage of cross sectional imaging generation.

L. Puggelli, F. Uccheddu, Y. Volpe, R. Furferi, D. Di Feo

Comparative Study of Mussel Shells Using 3D Scanning

Present work examines the feasibility of using light based 3D scanning as a tool to fulfil mussel shells’ morphological and dimensional analysis and establishes a scanning methodology for future studies. These analysis will serve as a first step to determine a methodology to scan, to build and to set paths for analysing the 3D objects (points clouds) in order to achieve comparative studies with large amount of individuals (>100). 2 mussels from 4 different species and locations were scanned: Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) from Norway, Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the estuary of Bilbao in the north of Spain, Baltic blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus) from Baltic sea and Black pygmy mussel (Xenostrobus securis) from a different spot in the estuary of Bilbao. Different scanning methodologies were tested: (i) with/without ambient light, (ii) with/without black plasticine inside the valve and (iii) different mussels’ positions. Results show that the best methodology in terms of time elapsed, post-processing cost and fidelity to reality was to scan both valves laid down with their outer part outwards filled up with black plasticine and with ambient light. These results will sever us to set a scanning methodology to use in studies that require the analysis of large amount on individuals, for example in toxicological, origin and/or species studies among others.

H. Eguiraun, E. Gil-Uriarte, L. Barrenetxea, E. Lizundia, I. Zuazo, M. Soto

VR Medical Treatments. A 15-Year Statistical Overview

Introduction: virtual reality technology- (VRT) based rehabilitation treatments have been developed for several diseases. A previous step consists of experimental studies with methodological qualities on the efficacy of these treatments. Frequency of trials, supported by a large enough number of patients, is an index that guarantees its reliability, which is proportional to its interest and its practical application possibilities. Methods: a search of articles in the scientific literature according to pathology that present VRT-based trials. To ensure quality parameters, diseases with at least one state of the art or one study including at least 10 analyzed articles between 2002 and 2017 were selected, and the rest were eliminated. Finally, the search for more articles after those collected has been completed to date using the same criteria. Results: six scoping reviews were chosen and corresponded to five diseases: Parkinson’s Disease (PD), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Schizophrenia (SCH), Cerebrovascular Accident and Stroke (CVAS), and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Finally, 107 articles, with a population of 3084 patients, were included. Authors’ institutional affiliation and medical experiments were analyzed. In this way, it was possible to identify the countries that investigate VRT the most, by distinguishing all five diseases. Conclusions: VRT-based therapy thus has the potential as a useful tool for these identified diseases, while others await further investigation. Countries with less medical infrastructure can benefit from the independent community outpatient system that it involves.

J. M. Salmerón Núñez, R. García Sánchez, J. Ordoñez García

Geometry Modelling of Regular Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: A Computational Mechanobiological Approach

Scaffolds are porous biomaterials that serve to replace missing portions of bone. Scaffolds must possess a proper geometry and hence have to be adequately designed to correctly undergo to the load and to favor the differentiation of the mesenchymal stem cells invading it, into osteoblasts. It is commonly known that scaffold geometry affects the quality of the regenerated bone creating within the scaffold pores. Scaffold properly designed trigger favorable values of biophysical stimuli that are responsible for the reactions cascade leading to the bone formation. In this paper an optimization algorithm is proposed that, based on mechano-regulation criteria, identifies the optimal geometry of scaffolds, i.e. the geometry that favors the formation of the largest amounts of bone in the shortest time. In detail, the algorithm, written in the Matlab environment, incorporates parametric finite element models of different scaffold types, a computational mechanobiological model and structural optimization routines. The scaffold geometry is iteratively perturbed by the algorithm until the optimal geometry is computed, i.e. the geometry that triggers the most favorable values of the biophysical stimulus which lead to the formation of mature bone. Mesenchymal stem cells were hypothesized to spread within the fracture domain and uniformly occupy the scaffold pores.

A. Boccaccio, M. Fiorentino, M. Gattullo, V. M. Manghisi, G. Monno, A. E. Uva

Parenthood Perception Enhancement Through Interaction with 3D Printed Fetal Face Models

This paper deals with parenthood perception (maternal and paternal) after the visualization and interaction (touch) with a 3D printed facial fetal model. The model is created using Additive Manufacturing techniques, starting from the image elaboration of routine ultrasound data. In this study, the method used for the elaboration and construction of 3D printable models of fetal faces starting from routine ultrasound images is briefly described. In addition, we present the results of a new survey conducted with future parents at the Altamedica clinic (Rome, Italy) to verify whether there are any benefits derived from the use of 3D printing models with future parents, both regarding the improvement of the parenthood experience, and the improvement of the understanding and collaboration with the physicians in case of fetal malformations, using 3D models coupled with the data of routine ultrasound examinations.

D. Speranza, F. Padula, B. Motyl, S. Tornincasa, F. Marcolin, E. Vezzetti, M. Martorelli

System of Precision Osteotomy in Bone Reconstruction Surgery: PUVACO

Within the framework of bone tumor reconstructive surgery, one of the treatment tools is the en bloc resection of the bone where the bone tumor is located. When performing this en bloc resection, a cut must be made in the bone, that is, an osteotomy, which should be precise since near the osteotomy area, in addition to the musculature, the vascular nervous structures and the injury of the same can cause serious consequences to the patient. With the aim of improving this surgical step, a system of surgical instruments has been created and patented that allows us to perform the osteotomy with precision (that is, a bone cut at 90° with respect to the major axis of bone, or with an obliquity that we can define intraoperatively).

C. M. Baño, P. Puertas, B. Abellán Rosique

3D Simulation of Hazelnut Chopping—A Geometrical Study Compared with Experimental Results

The present work deals with the best method and tool design for chopping hazelnut kernels. The requested final product must have a standard appearance both in size and shape. This is not easy to be achieved. A geometrical study using 3D models—both for kernel and cutting tools—simulates the industrial process and forecasts shape and size distribution of the final product. Final comparison between 3D simulation and experimental results shows an acceptable agreement. A simplified and symmetrical geometry is discussed in the present paper. Work is in progress and further and more complete results are expected, but the method of 3D simulation proved to be very useful.

C. Conigliaro, S. Tornincasa, V. Vicentini

Surgical Planning in Shoulder Prostheses with 3D Reconstruction and Customized 3D Guides

To date, all primary shoulder prostheses, as well as any other joint, were made with standard metallic instruments for all types of patients, said instruments have great deficiencies since they were developed to cover all types of surgeries, with the great variety of bone sizes of patients, types of approaches (method to get to the bone, separating and respecting skin, muscles, vascular and nervous package, facias), etc. In addition to all this, each surgeon has specific surgical techniques, and for all of them, the standard guides of the instruments have deficiencies in terms of the complexity of their application, sizes, etc. With the current diagnostic elements, surgeons are perfectly aware of the patient’s pathology, but new 3D planning techniques offer surgeons knowledge of the anatomy of each bone, as well as its disposition in space, due to the deformities that occur in joints due to osteoarthritis and different degenerative pathologies. This is of great help to be able to plan the placement of the surgical implant and in this way, the height and angulation of the osteotomy (cutting line perpendicular to the bone). With this technology we are raising the quality of prosthetic implant surgery to a higher level, since the surgeon knows in advance perfectly the state of each joint, the anatomical shape of each bone due to the deformities that it suffers, and knows in advance how the prosthesis is implanted, at your discretion. This has not happened to date, since before the existence of 3D reconstruction and surgical planning, the surgeon presented blindly to the surgeries. Another field of application very important for this technology, are the tumor prostheses. Thanks to PET-CT (positron emission tomography), which delimits the tumor three-dimensionally in space with respect to bone with different degrees of malignancy that are classified according to SUV value. Thanks to 3D reconstruction and surgical planning, we can perform more advanced tumor surgery.

C. M. Baño, J. F. Abellán, E. Melendreras, B. Abellán Rosique

Combined Urban Furniture Designed by a Bio-Inspired Approach

The design of a product is not an easy task; it must be a balanced combination of functionality, usability and aesthetics. The creative process of an industrial designer can be facilitated by the use of different sources during the search for ideas. Nature is full of geometries and movements that supply us with a great variety of forms and its use provides greater doses of empathy in the user-product relationship. This communication shows the process of designing urban furniture with bioinspired forms taken into account, in addition, other aspects such as ergonomics, sustainability, accessibility, etc., achieving an attractive, functional and ecological product.

D. Parras-Burgos, J. Hernández, J. S. Velázquez, F. Cavas-Martínez, F. J. F. Cañavate, D. G. Fernández-Pacheco

Tumor Reconstructive Surgery Assisted by Scale Models Using 3D Printing

A surgical planning of tumor reconstructive surgery requires a multidisciplinary collaboration between the surgeon, the radiologist, the nuclear medicine doctor and the pathologist. Nowadays, this team has been incorporating other profiles not related to the health field, such as engineers and researchers that favor the use of new technologies such as virtual modeling or 3D printing. In this study we describe the different phases of surgical planning of four cases of musculoskeletal tumors (knee, pelvis, femur and humerus), in which the latest technology such as virtual modeling of the anatomy of patients, the design of surgical guides and 3D printing of all models have been used. With this type of planning, surgeons are helped by being able to analyze in a millimetric way the tumor, the bone, the soft tissue, the cutting areas and to foresee the possible complications that could arise during this type of surgical intervention.

D. Parras-Burgos, P. Puertas García-Sandoval, C. Baño Pedreño, F. Cavas-Martínez, F. J. F. Cañavate, D. G. Fernández-Pacheco

Innovation

Frontmatter

Eco-Ideation Workshops: Definition and Requirements

To develop creative eco-ideation workshops it is necessary to structure a series of objectives and tasks, establishing the design of the workshop itself. In our work the theoretical process is presented, its justification and an example of preparation of a workshop is shown. The design process establishes design and manufacturing requirements, plays a key role in eco-innovation, and the eco-design phase must be integrated into the generation of ideas and concepts. Only a few creativity tools have been adapted for eco-innovation, so the ideation phase of eco-innovation is limited, this fact allows the definition of a proper process for the development of creative workshops in eco-innovation projects. Specificities for eco-ideation process are the definition of objectives, the expert profile selection and environmental parameters included in the metrics. The preliminary stages of preparation define the process, but also establish the criteria for selecting participants, creative techniques, and criteria for evaluating results. There is no described methodology to apply in these processes and this work aims to define a series of basic actions and reflect the experience of a real project.

I. López-Forniés, J. Sierra-Pérez

Modular Design: Product Design Opportunities and a Case Analysis

In recent decades, modular design has been fully developed due to its important role in the current industrial evolution. The numerous advantages offered by its application to product design has made companies from different sectors opt for its use to solve particular needs. Many authors have studied modular design from a theoretical viewpoint, but it is necessary to learn about its application by studying real cases that allow us to understand what the object of its application is, the different methods used to obtain modular products and the results obtained in each case. Accordingly, we can know modular design’s most characteristic features and benefits, the business of its application, what its evolution has been, and what path it is currently on as part of the current industrial evolution. To do this, a case study research is carried out, which is divided into two parts. The first consists of a bibliographic review that focused on the main authors who studied modular design and documented real cases of its application, especially at the beginning of modular design in industry. The second focused on investigating the current cases that have not been previously documented, which shows how modular design is currently applied and how it evolves.

L. Asión-Suñer, I. López-Forniés

Is the Design a Vector to be Considered in the Agri-food Industry? An Interprofessional Analysis in Andalusia (Spain)

We currently live in a globalized world where the imperative need to both generate added value and new products and services has been strengthened. Some of the problems pending to solve can be properly faced from the field of “Design”. However, and up to now, there is no design science serving as a knowledge pivot for developing and building the solutions required. On the other hand, design is cross-cuttingly present in the different activities of a country like Spain, where one of the most important sectors is agriculture. Starting from this context, a survey about the role of design in the agri-food industry has been developed through the well-known Delphi method, constituting a panel of experts from the private sector of Andalusia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which a forum of these characteristics has aimed to involve both CEOs and managers of agri-food businesses and design professionals to work together around this topic. The results obtained suggest that design component in the agri-food industry is mainly present in activities related to graphic design, showing less presence in the industrial-product design or, specially, in the environment design. They also point out that design is an important tool to explore in the agri-food sector since it might provide both tangible and intangible benefits. The findings of this work seem to be very valuable as a diagnostic to characterize the design component, also contributing to uncover and develop the design as an important factor of dynamization.

Ó. González-Yebra, M. A. Aguilar, F. J. Aguilar

Description of Moisture Thermal Patterns in Concrete for the Thermal Inspection Method by Infrared Thermography

The aim of this paper is to collect graphical information (with thermal images) on how moistures can appear in building materials such as concrete, and to develop a method that detects moisture using infrared thermography. This research work was prompted by the fact that moisture is one of the greatest building pathologies, along with the fact that there are insufficient standards and documentation for using this technology in specific applications such as moisture detection. Real specimens of concrete were built with the specific purpose of generating moisture. Infrared images (thermograms) were then taken to show their development, and were analysed with FLIR Tools+ and FLIR ThermaCAM Researcher software. The results of the experiments revealed important information for defining the thermal patterns to be detected. Using this information, the graphic characteristics of a typical qualitative (without measurement of temperatures) thermal pattern in a wet material are described, as well as the qualitative thermal pattern of the rise in capillarity, which is suffered by a part of the material. In addition, the humidity levels were checked with a thermo hygrometer to confirm the different areas shown by thermography in the previous thermal patterns. This research will be useful for professionals who have the suitable equipment for moisture detection and treatment, because once the visible moisture marks have been produced, they endure regardless of whether or not the material is damp.

P. Cárdenas-Del Campo, F. Soto-Lara, M. Marín-Granados

Joint Development of Video Mapping Contents on the Industrial and Cultural Heritage of Zaragoza (Spain)

Within the framework of the joint-project MIE (Mediation, Innovation and Entrepreneurship) led by the Zaragoza City Council and the University of Zaragoza, it has been carried out during the year 2017 a project of joint development of videomapping contents at the industrial & cultural heritage of Zaragoza (Spain) in order to rediscover the paths to strengthen the production and dissemination of artistic work related to technology, engineering and innovative development. Formative pills of Adobe Premiere, Adobe After Effects, Adobe Photoshop, Madmapper and the TacTool interface system were made in the content workshop. With the sufficient number of hours to grant autonomy to the creators of contents that later would project on the façade of building of the neighborhood of Rabal de Zaragoza known as “Casa del Director”, a house that was inside the industrial facilities of the Sugar Mill of Rabal. With this procedure it was possible to establish an exit route to disseminate digital content for videomapping, enhance local industrial heritage, generate means of production that maximize budgets and democratize an art and engineering environment normally reserved for those who can afford it.

F. J. Galán-Pérez, A. Biedermann

Service Design and Sound: A Chance for Exploration in Oncological Treatment Rooms

The value of sound design is increasing in the field of product development, and even more so in critical contexts such as healthcare. A well-designed sound can have an impact over job satisfaction, efficiency in work environment, user experience and well-being of healthcare staff and users as a whole. On the other hand, service design is a particular domain within design engineering focused on how the relationship between service providers and users can be improved. An emerging community highlights the utility of the tools and techniques to effectively include system stakeholders in the design and implementation of health technology and healthcare service design. Service design has been applied successfully in several projects to improve patient experience as well as in other areas of public sector. This paper states the potential contribution of service design to sound design, as another methodological approach in order to improve audible alarm design for product development in healthcare environment. Likewise, the paper offers designers and engineers possibilities to implement together both the tools and methods of service design and product sound design deriving from the review of existing literature and empirical conclusions compiled from observation and analysis of oncological treatment rooms at different hospitals.

R. Sanz-Segura, C. Romero-Piqueras, E. Manchado-Pérez, E. Özcan

Form and Function: Functional Optimization and Additive Manufacturing

In these last years, with the advent of Additive Manufacturing, a deep review of the design methodologies has occurred. This is mainly due to two reasons: the technological progress and the new manufacturing capabilities that offer designers much greater freedom for the creation of complex geometries; the modern engineering optimization tools that are spreading widely in the industrial design field, and offer new opportunities for searching a compromise between form and function. On the basis of these two reasons, the paper presents some reflections and exemplifications on the changes that new AM technologies, together with the optimization tools, are bringing in the design process.

L. Barbieri, F. Calzone, M. Muzzupappa

New Bottling Machine for Different Glass Jar Geometries in Continuous Processes

One of the main problems that exist nowadays in agri-food industries, is making more flexible production lines in continuous bottling processes, regarding different geometries and sizes of glass receptacles (cap/bottle). Present communication analyses different commercial solutions that exist nowadays in the market, and basing on one of them, proposes a bottling machine that allows modifying its electro-mechanical bottling capacity in continuous processes for different glass container formats. This innovative machine concept will allow working continuously with three types of glass jars, depending on customers’ demands, reducing delay ratio derived from this kind of machines, associated with manual accessory change needed to adapt machine to the size of the container.

F. Cateura, J. S. Velázquez-Blázquez, F. Cavas-Martínez, D. Parras-Burgos, F. J. F. Cañavate, J. Nieto

Moving Away from the Basic, Adopting a New Approach to the Creative Process

The role of creativity in Industrial Design Engineering’s design process is fundamental and indispensable. Without it, design loses its potential for innovation – the process through which ideas generated by the creative process may be implemented attaining commercial value. The impact a product has can often be attributed to creativity in the engineering design process. Design in the arts is often considered to be the creative process per se, whereas in engineering, it refers to a concise record or encapsulation of appropriate concepts and experiences. For this reason, creativity is now a key skill in the practice of engineering and an essential part of its training. The present article discusses theories of the creative process which have been proposed in the last century. The stage based model of the creative process is discussed and the evolution of these models is mapped out. Further perspectives are identified for upcoming research; bringing data science and creativity together in such a way will necessitate development in both design and models of creativity.

J. C. Quiñones-Gómez

Teaching—Learning

Frontmatter

Proposal About the Introduction of the Soft Skills in the Teaching of Product Development

Particularly in technical professions, many competences are greatly needed: those specific of the profession (Hard Skills) and transversal (Soft Skills), which are particularly important for Engineer 4.0. Soft Skills are relative to, e.g., behavior, interpersonal relationships, communication, deontology. One important aim of Soft Skills is to reach the “Personal Acumen”. In this way, someone can accomplish the role of “difference maker”: i.e., (s)he can confer his/her life a new very important aspect for the subject, for all other persons, and in all professional and personal fields. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the link between Soft Skills and the teaching process of product development. The link between Soft Skills and product development phases, with a specific reference made to design process teaching, is considered. Finally, some proposals about contents regarding Soft Skills in Engineering Design Education are made. Some examples of the considered Soft Skills from the bibliography are: Communication, Courtesy, Flexibility, Integrity, Relationship development, Positive attitude, Professionalism, Responsibility, Teamwork, Work ethics, etc. The authors propose, in line with their studies and experience, the following Soft Skills: Creativity, Awareness, Human aspects of technology, Talent development, IQ + EQ = IF, which means Intellectual Quotient plus Emotional Quotient results in Intellectual Fusion (a complete personality requires not only intellectual, but also emotional components). The conclusions of the paper are some proposals of including Soft Skills in teaching.

E. Rovida, G. Zafferri

Which Didactic Methodology Is the Most Appropriate for My Subject?

Which didactic methodology is the most appropriate considering the contents of my subject? What are the activities that suit my possibilities? What evaluation method is fair and formative for the competences of my subject? The teaching team of the subject of Graphic Expression in the Engineering of the Engineering School of Bilbao (UPV/EHU) decided to act in order to improve the teaching-learning process. For this purpose a restructuring of the entire subject that would be carried out by making a disruptive approach to redesign the subjetc was thought. The main objective was to capture the students’ interest in the subject and, as a result, improve the success rate. For this purpose, a restructuring of the whole subject was sought by applying educational methodologies and updated technologies according to the new requirements by the students and the teachers. The main idea is to give importance to the knowledge and ability of extracting the necessary data to represent graphically the reality, identifying the real problem posed with a method of theoretical resolution. At the same time, to minimize the importance of memorizing steps, data can be consulted in the bibliography. With the objective of implementing the main ideas above, the teaching team inquired about pedagogic models, and found that the Flipped Classroom suited the necessary characteristics, mainly the effective use of time in the classroom. Finally, it is important to notice that the creative process followed has allowed the teaching team to unify criteria and agree on results. This way, all members have felt involved in the project.

J. López, I. Herrero, P. Jimbert, M. Iturrondobeitia, N. Toledo

Integrated Approach to the Innovation of Technical Drawing Teaching Methods

Motivations for the research activity on teaching methods could be listed as: institutional duty; reduction of evaluation costs; establishing convenient relationships between teaching, research and publications; developing educational programs for non-academic learners; consolidating learning outcomes. Teaching is the most commonly recognized mission of university, and evaluation has a cost in terms of time and resources, both precious: at least a portion of the exam, the one concerning factual knowledge, may be done in economies of scale. The most of basic technical drawing teachers works with very large classes and faces the dilemma of choosing what to sacrifice among teaching quality, research projects, earning opportunities, personal interests, etc. A possible partial solution to such a dilemma is to work on projects aimed at teaching innovation, so to create convenient relationships between teaching, research and publications. A further consequence of lowering the cost of evaluation would be to make cost effective a more tests and, consequently, to achieve less temporary learning. Not just simple notions but also skills and abilities. In this paper the authors presents a structured synthesis of teaching innovation experiences of a ten-year span. Over time, they were divided into four integrated directions: definition of prerequisites, expected outcome evaluation grids; authentic assessment methods; teaching and learning tools.

G. Baronio, I. Bodini, A. Copeta, L. Dassa, B. Grassi, R. Metraglia, B. Motyl, D. Paderno, S. Uberti, V. Villa

Are We Training Our Novices Towards Quality 2D Profiles for 3D Models?

In the history-based, feature-based, parametric CAD approach, 2D profile sketches are the basis for 3D models. Fully-constraining profiles is mandatory to create robust profiles. At present, neither CAD applications nor Model Quality Testing Tools usually check whether 2D profiles contain redundant constraints. Besides, our experience shows that novices tend to introduce redundant constraints. We hypothesize that 2D profiles over-constrained with redundant relations are more difficult to edit than those that avoid redundancies. In the present work―and as a first step to demonstrate this hypothesis―an experiment was conducted. Students of the subject “Graphics engineering” were taught on the creation of constrained 2D profiles. Then, they were asked two questions. On the one hand, novices had to identify and reason whether a simple given profile was fully-constrained, over-constrained or under-constrained. On the other hand, they had to identify and point out the types of the constraints. The results showed that in spite that novices received a specific training, roughly half of them failed to say if the 2D profile sketch was fully-constrained and which type of constraints it contained. Furthermore, the results of the second question revealed that more than the half of students did not recognize perpendicularity as a geometric constraint. As future work, we will try to demonstrate whether a reinforced training through simple exercises and a quick and effective feedback, will allow novices to improve the identification and removal of redundant 2D constraints when drawing 2D profile sketches (thus helping to produce robust profiles).

C. González-Lluch, R. Plumed

An Analysis of Supervised Practical Work as a Didactic Methodology in the Subject of Graphic Expression in Engineering

The following text outlines 9 years of teaching experience in the use of a learning methodology based upon supervised practical work. This practical work formed part of a degree in Product Design and Engineering at the University of Zaragoza, concretely within the subject of Graphic Expression. The teaching methodologies used and the results obtained are described below, as well as the roles played by different participants within the process and the methodological strengths and weaknesses which were identified. The text concludes with proposals for an ongoing debate on how to improve the process.

L. Diago Ferrer

Content Management System for the Dissemination of Research Results on Agustín de Betancourt’s Historical Inventions

In this paper, a Content Management System (CMS) developed in WordPress for the teaching-learning process of the historical inventions by Agustín de Betancourt is shown. The exhibition is made from the point of view of engineering graphics, and also pursues the educational objective of disseminating the results obtained in a research project of excellence which focuses on the figure of this outstanding Spanish engineer. The contents of this CMS are structured on the basis of 3 fundamental pillars: historical, technological and graphical, and we aim to show them depending on the profile of user access. From the historical point of view, we seek to show all his work in pdf format, including all the information available in each file, i.e. the descriptive or functioning memories of the historical inventions, as well as his scarce planimetry; from a graphical point of view, we aim to show the 3D models, as well as the assembly plans with all their elements and exploded views, the virtual recreations of their operation, as well as the applications of virtual and augmented reality; finally, from the technological point of view derivative publications related to the study of computer-aided engineering (CAE) that have been generated from the 3D models of the analyzed inventions are shown. Finally, the developed CMS presents a very intuitive interface and easy navigation for the user, which facilitates its understanding, and therefore its dissemination and valorization. The self-assessment tests carried out reflect a high degree of satisfaction.

J. I. Rojas-Sola, A. I. Aguilera-García

WebGL for the Dissemination of Research Results on Agustín de Betancourt’s Historical Inventions

This paper shows the process undertaken to publish and disseminate in WebGL format 3D models that recreate the operation of historical inventions designed by Agustín de Betancourt. The main objective is the creation of a website with different inventions, on which the user can interact through the mouse or keyboard, being able to observe them animated and from different points of view and better understand their operation. The methodology allows 3D models created with Autodesk Inventor Professional (in.ipt single piece format) to be exported to Unreal Engine to be assembled correctly by applying materials and textures with topological mapping (Bump Mapping), and where the scenes for each historical invention have been created, including an animated 3D model. In a similar manner, in order to establish the user’s interaction with the 3D model from HTML5, a program has been developed using the Visual Blueprint script system, which makes possible to rotate the model when the left mouse button is pressed, to move the pointer across the screen, zooming in and out the camera using the central mouse’s wheel or use a series of keys that allow to move, rotate or zoom on the model. The results obtained have been very good according to the user experience, since from the educational point of view interaction with the model has allowed an optimal understanding of its operation, improving the teaching-learning process.

J. I. Rojas-Sola, A. I. Aguilera-García

Free Software Usage in Subjects of the Industrial Design and Product Development Engineering Degree

In recent years, the availability of funding for acquiring licenses for the different computer tools used by students, that are so common in scientific and technical careers, has been reduced. Learning in the use of technological tools of information and communication by students is considered essential for its application in daily life and in their work. These facts, together with the current rise of free software, is generating a migration towards free tools, both in teaching and in the industrial world. The increase in its use entails the reduction in expenses by institutions, as well as it encourages the scientific curiosity of the student outside the classroom. In detecting this need, free substitutes to the commercial software previously used in the subjects of Artistic Expression II and Graphic Design Applied to Product of the Industrial Design and Product Development Engineering Degree have been introduced. It was done in order to, on the one hand facilitate the access of students to the programs, and on the other hand, share the philosophy of using free media, working with the communities where the source code of the program is developed in response to the problems of the users. This experience has served to verify the benefits of teaching with free software versus commercial.

N. Muñoz-López, A. Biedermann, A. Serrano-Tierz, F. J. Galán-Pérez

Education for the Industry of the Future (IoF) with the 3D Experience Platform

The role of universities is essential for the divulgation of the competences of the Industry of the Future (IoF) in students around the world. Therefore, the existence of different CAD software for Industrial Engineering, developed by several computer software companies (e.g. Autodesk, Siemens, Dassault Systèmes or Bentley Systems among many others), together with its possibility of working in a shared environment have vital importance. In this way, Dassault Systèmes, one of the most recognized software modeling company in the world, created 3D Experience Platform. This platform jointly includes some of the programs of the Dassault Systèmes package such as Catia, Delmia or Enovia. Moreover, it is available on the premises and in a public or private cloud environment, where there is the Peer Learning Experience Platform, which offers teaching material, mainly based on Project-Based Learning (PBL). These characteristics make it an important tool for the future of the engineering world, in accordance to Industry 4.0, in which some Spanish universities currently have a key role.

V. Gomez-Jauregui, F. Cue-Palencia, C. Manchado, C. Otero

A Guide for Learning Design Practice

The learning and acquisition of industrial design skills and, in particular, methods and design process, are implemented in the scope of Bachelor’s Degree in Industrial Design and Product Development Engineering at the University of Zaragoza, Spain. This publication presents contents related to the methodological control of the design process, included in the subject “Design workshop II: methods and design process”, conducted during the first semester of the 2nd year of the degree. From this experience, this contribution shows the tools used in the subject to ensure that students are given the necessary knowledge to be able to apply a methodology and propose a clear and structured design process. The experience is based on the use of detailed scripts that structure practice sessions, showing and exemplifying their application through the projects developed during the course. This material can serve as a guide for its use and implementation in future teaching activities and academic projects in the field of engineering, in which a methodological basis and control of the design process is required, linking these aspects with the development of different analyses focused on the provision of essential information for the project. The result of these teaching practices is to facilitate a meaningful learning for the student, the interdisciplinary integration of knowledge for its application to the design process, the improvement of academic goals as well as an efficient coordination among teachers that improves communication among all the members of the university community involved in the degree.

R. Sanz-Segura, A. Fernández-Vázquez, E. Manchado-Pérez, I. López-Forniés

Improving Spatial Abilities and Comprehension in Technical Drawing Students Through the Use of Innovative Activities and Augmented Reality

Spatial abilities are essential not only for engineers but for those in many other professions such as medicine, archaeology and architecture. It has proven possible to improve these skills using sports or video games. An engineer must be capable of expressing ideas and understanding drawings, and for this, technical drawing and these abilities are an essential part of the learning process at the university. Courses such as Graphic Expression aim to help the student to have better spatial skills. However, this is not always an easy task. Many engineering students do not have the experience and knowledge when they begin their studies, and so they face a number of difficulties in understanding lessons that are of a higher level. The study we are presenting proposes a series of innovative exercises that include augmented reality to help students develop their skills and improve their understanding. These exercises could be applied in the future to other age ranges and subjects such as mechanics.

E. Olvera-García, M. D. Marín-Granados, F. J. Ortíz-Zamora

Implementation of Learning by Doing Method in the Graphical Engineering Field

Regarding the different alternatives to teaching approaches with excessively theoretical contents, there are several innovative learning strategies for active students’ involvement. According to most demanded professional profiles in the field of business [1], applicants not only should have a prominent academic background but also good personal skills, such as initiative, entrepreneurship, communication skills, and commercial vision, among others. This paper presents a experiment that aims to achieve the objectives and catching the skills by the Learning by doing technique, through a contextualization of the subject “Container and Packaging” in the Industrial Design Degree. Moreover, a close relation between university and business is achieved. In this way, students can acquire the requirements demanded by the companies. A particularization of an industrial design methodology proposed by the Technological Institute of Packaging, Transport and Logistics (ITENE, Valencia) has been implemented for the packaging’s design and packaging itself. Besides using this method, students take on a project-based learning (PBL) work under the role of a company. Then, they carry out the redesign of the container of a manufactured product close to their province of residence. This practice will not only look for improving the student’s ability to research and solve problems, but also to manage the professional and personal relationships that occur within each work group. These situations are necessary in the training process since they will be faced daily in their future professional life.

M. D. Marín-Granados, E. B. Bláquez-Parra, P. Mora-Segado, L. Miravet-Garret, F. J. Ortiz-Zamora, F. Gómez-Hermosa, E. Olvera-García

Project-Based Learning of CAD/CAE Tools for the Integrated Design of Automatic Machines

This paper reports about project-based learning activities carried out within the course of Design of Automatic Machines at the University of Genova. This didactic experience, provided to the students enrolled in the second-level degree in Mechanical Engineering, aims at providing the knowledge of those methods and tools required to optimally design functional parts of automatic machines, here including the mechanical architecture and the actuation subsystem. Lecture hours are equally devoted to the introduction of theoretical concepts and to lab exercises, which leverage on the extensive and advanced use of dedicated CAD/CAE software tools (i.e. PTC Creo). In particular, the projects are related to the in-depth study of automated packaging systems, initial (sub-optimal) design solutions being provided by an industrial partner with years of practice in the sector. After a description of the educational goals, the presentation discusses the phases of the activity and the main methodological aspects. In addition, the adopted tools for the design and simulation of the developed systems are discussed in detail.

G. Berselli, P. Bilancia, R. Razzoli

Fostering Non-technical Skills for Future Engineers: Labour Reality in the Graphic Expression Subject

21st century engineers have to confront global society’s competitiveness, so technical and technological competences have to be enriched with critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication and creativity skills. To this end, teaching methodologies like Project-Based Learning (PBL) together with cooperative work, to cover the educational needs of future engineering graduates, should be promoted in class. This paper presents the SimABP project, an action where we simulate a work experience in the CAD subject presenting a real challenge to the students, tightly linking academy to real labour reality. In addition, we also define specific rubrics for evaluating the competences and we show the most significant results obtained. Our action has increased the satisfaction and motivation of the students, and the marks obtained in technical skills have been higher.

N. Toledo, J. Lopez, P. Jimbert, M. Iturrondobeitia, I. Herrero
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