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Advertising Confluence offers a unique blend of both traditional and contemporary social media thinking about advertising and integrated brand promotions from both the developed and emerging world.



1. From Lipophilia to Lipophobia: The Role of Moral Entrepreneurs

In the last decades, in most developed countries, fat has progressively been banished from both our plates and our bodies. Lipophobia is now growing in affluent societies, in striking contrast to traditional societies, where lipophilia prevails. In the last 30 years scientific, medical, and public health interest in obesity has skyrocketed. Increasingly the term “epidemic” is being used in the media to describe the current prevalence of corpulence in modern societies. To understand the phenomenon of increasing lipophobia and related issues, this paper focuses on how the standards toward fat evolved and on how moral entrepreneurs impact the perception of fat in Western societies via the use of media.
Anne-Sophie Bacouël, Sabine Bacouël-Jentjens

2. Creative Advertising Appeals on Global Cultural Spectrum

The research focuses on consumer advertising appeals on a cross-cultural spectrum. It is imperative for advertising agencies to understand that each culture is not only different on a global cultural spectrum but also unique in different subcultures. The perceptions of advertising appeals are ever changing and this research study discusses the different appeals used to target consumers across the global cultural spectrum. This chapter proposes the AD Hard-Soft conceptual framework which focuses on attitudes toward the ad, brand and purchase intentions through the usage of hard-and soft-sell advertising appeals. The chapter uses qualitative research wherein different ads with varying advertising appeals were utilized and their findings are recorded. The differences between hard- and soft-sell are highlighted through this research.
John Hudson, Anshu Saxena Arora

3. Polysemy in Advertising: A Study of the Effects of Advertising Messages on Decision Making

This chapter explores the use of polysemy in advertising messages and the varying interpretations consumers have of those messages. In this research we examine television commercials targeted specifically at children to review the differences in how the target audience processes the message as opposed to members of a different age group (e.g., their parents). We further examine the use of imagery and aesthetics in the messages and the effect on consumers’ thoughts, feelings, and interpretation of the advertising.
William Chasteen, Shalonda Bradford

4. Does the Country of Origin Matter for Cosmetics? The “Made in France” Argument

The market for cosmetics has shown considerable growth in recent years, particularly driven by emerging markets. Many cosmetic brands are present in these countries, competing with French products, which are renowned worldwide. This reputation is mainly based on France’s iconic image built through its premium brands. In our research, we question the relevance of the country of origin in the process of consumer decision making and ask representatives of the French cosmetics sector about their assessment. Our overarching research question is: Does the country of origin allow cosmetics to differentiate themselves in the globalized and highly competitive world markets?
Manon Rebufet, Leila Loussaief, Sabine Bacouël-Jentjens

5. Brand Diffusions and Brand Naming Strategies

The research study examines a company’s ability to create brand equity within its sub-brand when employing diffusion branding. Brand equity is the importance of a brand within the minds of consumers based on their experiences with the brand over time. Diffusion brands are step-down line extensions of existing luxury brands, normally less expensive than the mainline products. This study explores three types of brand naming strategies in addition to the well-known brand extension strategsy for building brand equity and investigates customers’ perceptions of brand image when using brand naming strategies. Such findings can be useful to help reduce failures when implementing brand diffusions and extension programs and thus improve overall consumer response to diffused brands.
Eric Billinger, Amit Arora

6. Say It without Saying It: How Consumers Interpret “Tropes” in Advertising and Its Impact on Campaign Success

As consumers we are subject to various mediums of advertising including print, radio, and commercials. The going trend in advertising is to have a witty trope or metaphor which appeals to consumers. Each consumer interprets these tropes differently, creating a difference in opinions toward the advertised product. The success of an advertising campaign weighs heavily on how consumers will receive a particular message. This research introduces the RURRAL framework, a new innovative framework which determines if an advertising campaign is successful.
Jamin Gordon, Jun Wu

7. How “True” Are Stereotypes? The Role of Stereotypes in Advertising

Advertising aims to adapt to the ever-changing consumer perceptions of all races, sexes, ethnicities, and attitudes of consumers worldwide. Yet to date there are still advertisements that portray persons of color either in a stereotypical manner or as background to European Americans. This research study explores and investigates the role of advertising in targeting African-American consumers through stereotypes and further examines the following questions. Do the stereotypes project the true feelings of African-American population? Should advertisers be held responsible for the continued perpetuation of the stereotypes?
Grace Curry, Ulysses Brown, Jun Wu, Anshu Saxena Arora

8. The Value of Social Networks in the World of Advertising

Since the inception of the Internet, firms have developed strategies to incorporate the Web in their business models. Most recently, the explosion of social networking sites has changed the business world. This study looks into the phenomenon of social networks and its impact on advertising. Firms are gravitating toward social networking sites to reach target markets, create brand awareness, promote positive attitudes toward their brand names and develop brand trust. This study will investigate how social networking sites can be used as a marketing tool and how social networks can assist marketers in identifying and communicating with target markets.
April Harris, Reginald Leseane


The writing in this volume is innovative not only for the new ground it breaks in social movement advertising and marketing research, but also for the way that each piece of scholarship represents the close mentoring of a student author. Authentic teaching is the transmission of skills and expertise to a new generation so that they may enter and expand the discourse community of a field. The chapters in this publication exemplify the process of nurturing new perspectives and voices so that they may find expression and make significant contributions to knowledge production.
Lisa Yount


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