Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
In the present day, social agenda is constructed on media, but its manner has become complicated after the rise of the Internet. Socio-scientific issues also form their shape on media, so it could be said media is an origin where misunderstanding between experts and citizens begins. The theme of this chapter is to depict the difficulty of performing deliberation within this complex media ecosystem with subsuming socio-scientific issues. Furthermore, by figuring out its difficulty, this chapter will throw questions at Science and Technology Studies (STS) about its significance and role in the face of the media argument. In order to outline this complicated problem, this chapter takes the following configuration: First, depict the structural features of science media in Japan, which is an object of intervention of the Science Media Centre of Japan (SMCJ). Then we will describe the functional procedures of the SMCJ. This will lead to a reflexive examination of the SMCJ’s activity following the Great East Japan Earthquake, where we will discuss the significance and limitation on intervening agenda building and framing processes in the media
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
For example, “Climate Gate” which occurred in November 2009 was covered only in a single brief article on December, in liberal national newspaper, Asahi-Shimbun. In latter 5 years, only 7 articles in Asahi-Shimbun covered the issue and all of them are short trivial article such as AAAS meeting report from USA or book review. Conservative Yomiuri-Shimbun only reported 1 article in 2012. Articles picking Séralini’s case were only 2 in Asahi in introducing Anti-GMO movie, and none in Yomiuri.
According to a study of Yomiuri-Shimbun and Asahi-Shimbum, based on the discourse and content analysis from 11 March 2011 to 11 March 2012 (Qi 2014).
The three programs are as follows: The University of Tokyo established the “Science Interpreter Training Program”, for sub major about communication and STS program for graduate students in natural science course. Waseda University made a graduate school for science journalism, the “Master of Arts program for Journalism Education in Science and Technology (Currently named the Graduate School of Journalism)”. Third and h most successful was Hokkaido University's “Communication in Science and Technology Education and Research Program”, which was open to every citizen.
In other SMCs, the same service as Science Alert is called a Round Up or Rapid Reaction.
This is because important papers related to social agenda is sometimes restricted by embargo.
In general, results were similar to other surveys such as in USA (Pinholster and O’Malley 2006).
In this case, SMCJ might perform excess function than expected. We did not expect to stop the service. The SMCJ was misunderstood for a media company because of this first case. In addition, nowadays there are many similar services provided by education companies in Japan.
An accurate record of viewers is unavailable due to the fact the SMCJ server crashed several times because of internet traffic to the SMCJ website. We are grateful for our server company who then provided us with free server rental and unlimited bandwidth during this time, a story that was also picked up by the media.
Some complications were experienced here. When the SMCJ server crashed, the University of Tokyo graduate students who we had been collaborating with had created and uploaded their own SMCJ website and continued to update information through this website. While their intentions were good, as an officially registered independent organization we could not allow them to use the SMCJ name without our consent. But more importantly, it was the risk the students learning about atomic power were putting themselves and the public under by uploading information about health safety. Within the day, both groups negotiated and agreed to transfer content to the SMCJ. Later, our collaborators would be silenced by a gag order given out by the University of Tokyo.
For example, Fukushima is a region famous for producing shiitake mushrooms, and this was the first food source to be affected.
In this connection, our answer for this question was a request for English speakers. At this time we were very busy with corresponding with the Japanese media and had no energy to respond to enquiries from oversea. But their response was that government also had a shortage of English speakers.
As a result, the comments provided by this expert within the Nuclear Power Village was picked up by one of the SMCJ’s registered journalists, and used in a tabloid news site. Even though the article was accurate, they were unable to make a difference in the upstream engagement process at bigger newspapers.
After the disaster, targets for credibility had focused on SNS, and this focusing induced divide of the community on SNS. We are now trying to depict this process with social network analysis of Twitter data.
Hosuke Nojiri, @nojiri_h a science fiction writer, “(tweet fully quoted in body),” 3 July 2011, 17:33. Tweet.
After the complicated argument, representation of the word ‘STS’ was sometimes used for ridicule in Japan after the disaster, especially on twitter.
Asayama, S., & Ishii, A. (2012). Shimbun houdou ni yoru IPCC zou no kouchiku to sono shakaitekigani (Framing analysis of climate science in Japan: An analysis of Japanese major newspapers’ reporting on the IPCC). Kagakugijutsu Shakairon Kenkyu, 9, 70–83.
Bennett, W. L., Lawrence, R., & Livingston, S. (2007). When the press fails: Political power and the news media from Iraq to Katrina. London, UK: University of Chicago Press. CrossRef
Boyce, T. (2007). Health, risk and news: The MMR vaccine and the media. New York: Peter Lang.
Brenner, D. J., Doll, R., Goodhead, D. T., Hall, E. J., Land, C. E., Little, J. B., et al. (2003). Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing radiation: Assessing what we really know. PNAS, 100, 13761–13766. CrossRef
Bruine de Bruin, W., Fischhoff, L., Brilliant, L., & Caruso, D. (2006). Expert judgments of pandemic influenza. Global Public Health, 1, 178–193. CrossRef
Bruns, A. (2008). Blogs, wikipedia, second life, and beyond: From production to produsage. New York: Peter Lang.
Collins, H., & Evans, H. (2007). Rethinking expertise. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. CrossRef
Davis, N., (2008). Flat earth news, London, UK: Random House.
Fukushima Minyu. (2014, March). Genpatsu saigai fukkou no kage–shinrai sarenai “anzen” kenkyusya ga atumeta data ni “kyohihannou” (Distrusted ‘safety’: ‘Rejection’ toward the data gathered by researchers). Minyu-net. Retrieved July 5, 2014, from http://www.minyu-net.com/osusume/daisinsai/serial/fukkou-kage/140304/news.html. Electric version. Serial of articles are available from http://www.minyu-net.com/osusume/daisinsai/serial/fukkou-kage/index.html.
Gaver, I. (2001). Government by spin: An analysis of the process. Media, Culture and Society, 22, 507–518.
Hallin, D. C., & Mancini, P. (2004). Comparing media systems: Three models of media and politics. New York: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Hayano, R. S., Tsubokura, M., Miyazaki, M., Satou, H., Sato, K., Masaki, S., et al. (2013). Internal radiocesium contamination of adults and children in Fukushima 7–20 months after the Fukshima NPP accident as measured by extensive whole-body-counter surveys. Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences, B89, 157–163. CrossRef
Hakuhodo DY Media Partners. (2011, October). Shinsai no eikyou ni yoru seikatsusya no media sessyoku jyoukyou ni kansuru chousa (Survey about media usage of citizens after the disaster, Trans.). Survey report. Retrieved May 30, 2014, from http://www.hakuhodody-media.co.jp/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/HDYnews111031.pdf.
Hayashi, K. (2011). <Onna Kodomo> no Journalism–Care no rinri to tomoni (Journalism of women and children: with ethics of care). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident. (2012). Fukushima genpatsu jiko dokuritsu kenshyou iinkai chyousa kensyou houkokusyo (Independent investigation commission on the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, final report, Trans.). Tokyo: Discover 21.
Kageura, K. (2013). Shinrai no jouken–Genpatsu jiko wo meguru kotoba (Conditions of trust: Discourses around nuclear powerplant disaster, Trans.). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
Kitamura, M. (2012). Genshiryoku anzen ronri no saikouchiku to resilience base no anzengaku (Reframing of nuclear safety logic on the basis of resilience engineering). Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkaishi, 54, 721–726.
Kosugi, M., Tsuchya, T., & Taniguchi, T. (2011). Gijutsu risk ni taisuru senmonka to simin no shiten: ippan shimin tono kairi wo kanjiru senmonka no tokutyou (Viewpoints of the “expert” versus “the public” on technological risks: Characteristics of the expert with a feeling of distance from the public). Nihon Risk Kenkyu Gakkaishi, 21, 115–123.
Lang, G. E., & Lang, K. (1983). The battle for public opinion: The president, the press, and public opinion. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lewis, J., Williams, A., & Franklin, B. (2008). “A compromised fourth estate? UK news journalism, public relations and news sources”. J ournalism Studies, 9(1), 1–20.
Lundgren, R. E., & McMakin, A. H. (2011). Risk communication: A handbook for communicating environmental, safety, and health risks (4th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley-IEEE Press.
Macilwain, C. (2012). Two nations divided by a common purpose. Nature, 483, 247. CrossRef
Makino, J. (2013). Genpatsu jiko to kagakuteki houhou (Nuclear power plant accident and science methods, Trans.). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.
McCurry, J. (2014, May). Gourmet manga stirs up storm after linking Fukushima to nosebleeds: Outcry over storyline blaming radiation exposure moves PM to respond and publisher to suspend Oishinbo series. The guardian. Retrieved May 23, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/22/gourmet-oishinbo-manga-link-fukushima-radiation-nosebleeds.
MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology—Japan). (2012). FY2012 white paper on education, culture, sports, science and technology (English version). Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://www.mext.go.jp/component/english/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2013/01/15/1329765_05.pdf.
Nagai, K. (2015). Chikyu ondanka heno media attention (Media attention of global warming to politics than science, Trans.). In S. Segawa & N. Sekiya (Eds.), Henyousuru Kankyomondai to Journalism (Transfiguration of environmental issues and journalism, Trans.). Kyoto: Minerva Shobo. (Chapter 6).
Namba, M., Tanaka, M., & Saijo, M. (2014). Providing of scientific information in the nuclear accident: Settle on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant accident after 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Information Sharing, Rome.
NAOJ (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan), & Sokendai (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies). (2005). Gakujutsu Seika no Symposium (Public relations and press about scientific research). (Report).
Noelle-Neumann, E. (1984). The spiral of silence: Public opinion—Our social skin. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Ooi, S., Ogawa, K., Kobayashi, Y., Sakoh, S., Fukuda, M., Yamamoto, K., et al. (2014). 2013 nen ban “Nihon no journalist chousa” wo yomu—Nihon no journalism no genzai. (Reading journalism survey in Japan (2013 edition): Present stage of Japanese journalism, Trans.). Journalism and Media, 7, 247–279.
Office of Science and Technology, & The Wellcome Trust. (2000). Science and the public: A review of science communication and public attitude to science in Britain. London: The Wellcome Trust.
Pantti, M., Wahl-Jorgensen, K., & Cottle, S. (2012). Disasters and the media. Oxford: Peter Lang.
Parisar, E. (2012). The filter bubble: How the new personalized web is changing what we read and how we think. London: Penguin Books. CrossRef
Pinholster, G., & O’Malley, C. (2006). EurekAlert! survey confirms challenges for science communicators in the post-print era. Journal of Science Communication, 5, 1–11.
Protess, D. L., & McCombs, M. (1991). Agenda setting—Readings on media, public opinion, and policymaking. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Qi, H. (2014). Shimbun houdou ni oite housyanou no kenkoueikyou risk wo kouseisuru actor gensetsu no bunseki (Discourse analysis of actors constructing radioactive risk on newspapers, Trans.). Dissertation, Waseda University, Tokyo.
Royal Society. (1985). The public understanding of science. The Royal Society.
Reporters Without Borders. (2014). 2013 World Press freedom index: Dashed hopes after spring. Retrieved April 22, 2014, from http://en.rsf.org/spip.php?page=classement&id_rubrique=1054.
Segawa, S. (2010). Kenkyusha no mass media literacy (Mass media literacy of science experts). JST-RISTEX project survey report.
Segawa, S. (2011). Genpatsu houdou wa ‘daihoneihappyou’ dattaka –asa, mai, yomi, nikkei no kijikara saguru (Was nuclear reactor report ‘imperial headquarters’ announcement?’: Comparison from Asahi, Mainichi, Yomiuri and Nikkei articles, Trans.). Journalism, 255, 28–39.
Séralini, G. E., Clair, E., Mesnage, R., Gress, S., Defarge, N., & Malatesta, M. (2012). Long term toxicity of a roundup herbicide and a roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50, 4221–4231. (Retracted). CrossRef
Shineha, R., & Tanaka, M. (2014) “Mind the gap: 3.11 and the information vulnerable” The Asia-Pacific Journal, 12(7), 4.
Shineha, R., Yashiro, Y., & Tanaka, M. (2014). Analysis of media discourses on stem cell research and regenerative medicine in Japanese newspapers. Paper presented at International Society for Stem Cell Research 12th Annual Meeting, June 18–21, 2014, Vancouver, Canada.
SMCJ (Science Media Centre of Japan). (2014). “Lessons learnt after 3.11,” summarize of discussion in Tokyo (Sept 11, 2011) and Fukushima (July 27, 2012).
Solnit, R. (2009). A paradise built in hell: The extraordinary communities that arise in disaster. New York: The Viking Press.
Sunstein, C. (2001). Republic.com. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Tanaka, M., Shineha, R. & Maruyama, K. (2012). Saigai Jyakusha to Jouhou Jyakusya -3.11 go naniga misugosaretaka? (Vulnerable populations in disaster and digital divide: What was ignored after 3.11?) Tokyo: Chikuma-shobo.
Tateishi, Y. (2014, September). Houshasen hibaku mondai ni okeru kagaku kenkyu to hihan no ryoritsu—Kenkyu ryoiki goto no chigai ni tyumoku shite (Compatibility of criticism and scientific research and criticism: Focusing on the differences in research area, Trans.). Paper presented at the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Japan Association for Science, Technology and Society.
Tsuchiya, Y. (2013). Nihon ni okeru gan no hokandaitaiiryou no shimbun houdou ni kansuru kenkyu (Analysis of newspaper coverage about complementary medicine for cancer in Japan, Trans.). Dissertation, Waseda University, Tokyo.
Wynne, B. (1991). Knowledge in context. Science, Technology and Human Values, 16, 111–121. CrossRef
Wynne, B. (1996). Misunderstood misunderstandings: social identities and public uptake of science. In A. Irwin & B. Wynne (Eds.), Misunderstanding science? The public reconstruction of science and technology (pp. 19–46). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Waltner-Toews, D. (2008). Food, sex and salmonella: Why our food is making us sick. Vancouver: Greystone Books.
Wien, C., & Elmelund-Præstekær, C. (2009). An anatomy of media hypes: Developing a model for the dynamics and structure of intense media coverage of single issues. European Journal of Communication, 24, 183–198. CrossRef
Xiong, Q. (2014). Nihon no Komemondai ni taisuru shimbun houdou to nationalism (Nationalism behind the rice articles in Japanese newspaper, Trans.). Dissertation, Waseda University, Tokyo.
- Agenda Building Intervention of Socio-Scientific Issues: A Science Media Centre of Japan Perspective
- Chapter 3