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This book constitutes revised selected papers from the 9th Brazilian Workshop on Agile Methods, WBMA 2018, held in Campinas, Brazil, in October 2018. The 6 full and 1 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 18 submissions.

Accepted papers in this edition present empirical results and literature reviews on agile requirements validation in Brazilian software development companies; a survey on Brazilian software processes about to be agile or not; an evaluation of an agile maturity model; strategies to increase customer value in agile software development; an agile development environment and scrum in a strongly hierarchical organization.



Full Papers


Agile Requirements Validation in Brazilian Software Development Companies: A Survey

Background: In Agile Software Development context, Requirements Engineering (RE) is an important process that happens continuously during the iterations of a product. To be able to deliver value, the teams should perform requirements validation to assure that they meet user’s expectations, and also foster the collaboration between stakeholders and developers. Despite this understanding, there are still few studies that provide empirical data that make it possible to generalize the aspects, practices, and difficulties found by the teams that perform validation of agile requirements. Goal: The goal of this work is to understand how the requirements validation activities are being put in practice by companies of the Brazilian software industry that adopt agile methodologies. Method: We carried out an online survey, involving 117 participants. Our instrument focused on identifying the most used requirements artefacts, and what are the main difficulties in adopting these practices. Results: The results of our study reported that (i) user stories and prototypes are the most used artefacts, (ii) teams usually validate requirements by running systematic refinement meetings, and (iii) the development team and Product Owner are the most popular roles that attend to these sessions. Conclusion: The analysis reveals that agile teams are running requirements validation sessions as part of their development processes but they still face general RE problems, like the lack of stakeholders engagement or stakeholders that have different business visions of the same product. These results also contribute with information that allows future studies focused on the improvement of agile requirements validation.
Rodrigo Cursino, João Farias, Maria Lancastre, Wylliams Santos

Are We Agile or Not? A Survey on Brazilian Software Processes

How many software practitioners use agile methods in Brazil? We currently have little knowledge about Brazilian developers profile and about the software processes applied. One of the issues that remain unanswered is whether these practitioners are using agile software processes or not. With the aim to start filling this gap, we conducted a study with the objective to identify whether Brazilian software practitioners are agile. Our research approach was the survey as the method for collecting data. We applied a clustering algorithm to analyze data and characterize the software process, and text mining techniques to identify respondents perceptions of their software processes. Our results show a preliminary profile for Brazilian software processes and practitioners positive and negative perceptions about these processes. We contribute with a method to characterize agile, traditional and hybrid software processes.
Luiz Otávio Aléssio Cesa, Rafaela Mantovani Fontana, Sheila Reinehr, Andreia Malucelli

A Tool to Measure TDD Compliance: A Case Study with Professionals

Context: There are several studies related to Test Driven Development (TDD), but many with divergences of results due to the short time to perform the experiments. Moreover, the environment where they are carried out is generally academic. On the other hand, the environment requires tools not used by practitioners or imposes many technical and training requirements for their application. Goal: The goal of this paper is to provide a tool that supports the evaluation of the TDD process in the software industry and academia settings. The tool focuses on analyzing the effects of verification, validation and test (VV&T). In addition, the compliance of TDD usage in software development was evaluated. Method: This study made use of the Goal Question Metric (GQM) paradigm to characterize a set of objectives using metrics towards TDD effects on software quality. A case study was conducted with IT professionals to evaluate the tool developed. Results: Considering the existing tools that perform TDD compliance assessment, the Butterfly tool was developed to enable the evaluation of the TDD lifecycle as the developer performs the coding of the software. With this tool it is possible to analyze the compliance of TDD usage during software development. Conclusions: The tool allows to measure the effects of TDD when developing software, which will support in the characterization of TDD contributions and interventions applied to software quality in future works.
Altieres de Matos, Reginaldo Ré, Marco Aurélio Graciotto Silva

Evaluation of an Agile Maturity Model: Empirical Evidences for Agility Assessments

Software process reference models (such as Capability Maturity Model Integration – CMMI–DEV) have been used for years for software process evaluation and improvement. However, when a team uses agile methods for software development, these models hinder sustaining agility in higher maturity levels. This is the reason why some agile maturity models have been proposed in the last years. Although there are some models suggested in literature, few studies actually evaluate these models with real teams. The objective of this study is thus to evaluate an agile maturity model – the Agile Compass – creating empirical results for agile teams in the process improvement field. We conducted this research with two field studies in two different agile teams: an ethnographic study and a focus group. Our findings confirmed the need for empirical validation of academically–proposed models. The Agile Compass was effective in creating a maturity picture for the teams, but both teams seemed to prefer a more “objective” evaluation.
Adriana Corrêa Rodrigues, Rafaela Mantovani Fontana

Strategies to Increase Customer Value in Agile Software Development

Nowadays, the software industry is widely applying agile methods. However, while agile principles emphasize the development of software that delivers “customer value” as a key determinant to success in new products and service designs, there are still a few studies that demonstrate how this occurs in practice. In this study, strategies to increase customer value are discussed in literature, especially in the context of Agile Software Development. The results of systematic literature review were validated and added to an industrial inventory. Based on these investigations, 15 strategies to increase customer value have been identified and detailed at the level of approaches, techniques, tools and metrics. The results obtained reinforce the complexity and the need for new empirical studies on the subject, mainly to investigate the key success factors and main challenges for the adoption of these strategies, as well as the positive and negative impacts caused by their implementations in practice.
Fernando Sambinelli, Marcos A. F. Borges

Towards an Agile Development Environment

The demand for software engineering support environment was evident since the 70s. It was necessary to control the integration between processes, tools and developers in order to increase software quality and productivity. Research projects produced several environments which introduced important concepts such as central artefact repository, well-defined and enactable software processes, as well as supporting tools. Later, agile methods emerged as a solution to overcome strict software processes, however it also demanded support tools to facilitate its adoption in software organizations. Several works report the use of agile practices and support tools, however, they do not bring about the structure of a software engineering environment that integrates the managerial cycle and agile practices. This paper presents the design of a software engineering environment which is based on Application Life Cycle (ALM) and SCRUM principles integrated with management and construction tools. The proposed design was validated with practitioners and a comparison with previous development environment is also presented. This work contributes to support novel enterprises to set up a work environment for agile practices.
Marcelo Lessa Ribeiro, Itana Maria de Souza Gimenes

Short Paper


Scrum in a Strongly Hierarchical Organization

One of the duties of the Aeronautics Computing Center of São José dos Campos, Organization of the Brazilian Air Force, is to develop and operate Information Technology projects and applications assigned to it. As a Military Organization, this Center is constitutionally organized based on hierarchy and discipline. For the management of their projects, the software developers of this Military Organization decided to use Scrum and its good practices. However, the use of an agile framework implies in the horizontal interaction between the members of a team, without any hierarchy between them. At first, the use of Agile Methods in the military was opposed to the hierarchy, reflecting in the relationship between people and the quality of the product. This work aims to present the resources used for a healthy application of Agile Methods in an environment strongly based on the hierarchy between people, improving not only the relationship between them, but also the quality of the products they develop.
Fernando Rodrigues de Sá, Everton Luiz de Resende Lucas, Adelmo Dias de Oliveira


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