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Über dieses Buch

This book summarizes the results of 3 years of agricultural and forestry reconstructive efforts and applied research conducted directly in the affected areas of Fukushima following the Great East Japan Earthquake. It describes fast and effective revival methods and technologies from tsunami and radiation damages, demonstrated through the collaborative efforts of researchers, students, local farmers, forest owners, and municipalities gathered under the Tokyo University of Agriculture East Japan Assistance Project. Consisting of four parts, the first part of the book provides an overview of the damage and measures taken to overcome them by the local municipalities and the Tokyo University of Agriculture. The second part presents data and results of agricultural recovery from the tsunami—for example, monitoring systems, reconstruction models, and convenient, low-cost methods developed for the restoration of tsunami-damaged paddy fields. The third part focuses on recovery from radiation-contaminated farmlands and forests and consequent reputational damages. Included are various primary data obtained from field experiments and surveys, studies on the mechanism of contamination, and the results of radical monitoring, decontamination, and restoration techniques performed at this site. The final part is a collection of reflections of local farmers, forest owners, and students who participated in the project. The academic trials and errors recorded in this book are an invaluable contribution to disaster management and recovery processes. It is written for a wide audience, not limited to researchers and students, but also for government and state officials, municipalities, agricultural cooperative staff members, and farmers.

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

The Road to Reconstruction from the Tsunami and Radioactive Contamination: Two and a Half Years On

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 1. Dealing with Disasters of Unprecedented Magnitude: The Local Government’s Tribulations and the Road to Reconstruction

Abstract
The large 9.0 magnitude earthquake, followed by the unexpected tsunami disaster, reached Soma City on the afternoon of March 11, 2011. In all, 5,027 citizens lost dwellings, and among them, 10 % lost their lives. The city urgently undertook major efforts in searching for dead bodies, rescuing survivors, and providing food and shelter for victims. In addition, the citizens of Soma were both extremely terrified and very confused by the severe radioactive pollution issues caused by the meltdown catastrophe at the 1st nuclear power plant of Fukushima. As the mayor of a city, I have conducted various measures to recover and reconstruct from such an unexpected disaster as quickly as possible. This essay tells the whole truth story about the trial and errors to overcome disaster. Also, I hope this essay will give you better understanding of the actual sufferings and efforts of the Soma citizens who cannot understand any other ordinary disaster records.
Hidekiyo Tachiya

Open Access

Chapter 2. Tokyo University of Agriculture East Japan Assistance Project Assisting with Reconstruction: Guiding Principles, Planning, and Propagation of Benefits

Abstract
The Tokyo University of Agriculture East Japan Assistance project was started in April 2011 with Soma City, Fukushima Prefecture, as a target area. Three years having already elapsed since the start of the project, in the tsunami-affected areas, we contributed reconstruction in the tsunami damage paddy field by development and dissemination of restoration technology by the Tokyo University of Agriculture method and support of new farming organization construction. In addition, in the radioactive contamination area, we contributed clarification of the actual situation of radioactive contamination, and the decontamination method of the forest, and could restart farming by development of the radioactivity monitoring system.
Toshiyuki Monma

Open Access

Chapter 3. Characteristics of the Agricultural and Forestry Industries in the Soma Area and Damage Sustained as a Result of the Great East Japan Earthquake

Abstract
This chapter is organized about the characteristics of the agricultural and forestry industries in the Soma area (the cities of Soma and Minamisoma, the town of Shinchi, and the village of Iitate) and the damage sustained as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake, by using the statistics published by the country and municipalities and related documentation. The earthquake and tsunami wrought serious damage on agriculture and agriculture- and forestry-related communal facilities in the Soma area. At the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, the hydrogen explosions triggered by the earthquake and tsunami damaged reactor buildings, and large quantities of radionuclides were dispersed over a wide area. Following the accidents at the nuclear plant, two communities in the Soma area—the village of Iitate and part of the city of Minamisoma—were designated as evacuation zones. To bring an end to these consequences of the radioactive contamination as soon as possible, the city authority is implementing radiation-related measures.
Takahiro Yamada, Puangkaew Lurhathaiopath, Toshiyuki Monma

Reconstruction from Tsunami Damage

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 4. Reconstruction Support for the Farmland Struck by Tsunami

Abstract
Reconstruction support of the disaster-stricken areas in the city of Soma, Fukushima Prefecture, was started in May 2011. Sediment transported from the sea by the tsunami was from 5 to 10 cm thick on surface of the paddy fields. The tsunami sediment was mixed with the original soil of the paddy fields, and mole drains were formed to improve water drainage toward the lower layer. Subsequently, rainwater alone was used for salt removal. However, the pyrite in the soil had gradually oxidized until the pH dropped to 3.8, so converter slag was applied to neutralize the sulfuric acid. In May 2012, rice was transplanted into paddies from which the salt had been removed. On September, 10.7 t brown rice was harvested. The yield of brown rice harvested per hectare was 6.3 t, about 20 % higher than the amount before the disasters.
Itsuo Goto, Kaisei Inagaki

Open Access

Chapter 5. Tsunami Damage to Farming Operations and the New Generation of Farmers and Farm Management

Abstract
In this chapter, we show a survey of farmers’ inclination to resume farming and some actions of agricultural recovery that we carried out for the farmers where the city of Soma suffered from the tsunami disaster. Three agricultural corporations were established at the rice paddy area, and one agricultural corporation was established at the strawberry production area to resume farming in the tsunami disaster area. We show process of the establishment of these agricultural corporations and show the actual situation of the activity and a future problem.
Yukio Shibuya, Takahiro Yamada, Nyamkhuu Batdelger, Puangkaew Lurhathaiopath, Gentaro Suzumura, Toshiyuki Monma

Open Access

Chapter 6. Presenting a Model for the Revival of Rural Communities in Japan’s Disaster Zones

Abstract
During our research for the Great East Japan Earthquake Recovery Assistance Project, we focused on the city of Iwanuma in Miyagi Prefecture, where we held workshops with farmers to discuss how the revival of agriculture in the area should proceed. The feedback from these workshops was subsequently reflected in our revival plan. However, scientific data on how the ground had been altered by the earthquake and tsunami was also required to hasten the area’s reconstruction and revival. To this end, we used a three-dimensional (3-D) laser measurement system with MMS (Mobile Mapping System) to reveal the changes in the topography of the survey district. Our results suggest that the MMS system can be applied across a diverse range of fields related to community development, such as improving emergency evacuation routes and road infrastructure, devising town planning models, or for agricultural production forecasting. In future, we plan to survey a wider area, and to use our findings as a baseline ground map for actual restoration work as we conduct further research into how these baseline data can be applied to community development.
Shigeyuki Miyabayashi, Yasushi Takeuchi, Hiromu Okazawa, Tomonori Fujikawa, Yutaka Sasaki

Open Access

Chapter 7. Contributing to Restoration of Tidal Flats in Miyagi Prefecture’s Moune Bay Following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

Abstract
The Great East Japan Earthquake destroyed many artificial structures on the coast of northeastern Japan, and as a result it restored wetlands in many places. To conserve these wetlands, we started to estimate the ecological and economic values of a restored mudflat in Moune Bay, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Our tasks could be classified into three main categories: (1) establish the distribution of commercially important clams; (2) investigate the dynamics of the benthic community inhabiting the tidal flats and the floor of the bay; and (3) create a system so that monitoring of the tidal flat environment—including the two tasks mentioned—could be performed by nonspecialists. We hope that our actions will help to stimulate discussion about how Japan’s coastal areas should be used.
Susumu Chiba, Takeshi Sonoda, Makoto Hatakeyama, Katsuhide Yokoyama

Reconstruction from Radioactive Contamination

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 8. Initiatives by the Soil Fertilization Team to Develop Agricultural Technologies for Paddy Fields with Radioactive Contamination

Abstract
In April 2012, the paddy field located 20.8 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was divided into six plots to apply zeolite and potassium chloride, and a cultivation test of rice was carried out. The concentration of radiocesium in the brown rice was highest in the control plot at 17 Bq/kg, but in plots where zeolite and potassium fertilizer were applied, the concentrations had decreased to 5–6 Bq/kg. The efficacy of zeolite efficacy in inhibiting the absorption of radiocesium by rice plants is considered to be mainly the result of its ability to adsorb ammonium and potassium ions, thereby inhibiting the leaching and outflow of nitrogen and potassium from the plow layer.
Itsuo Goto, Kaisei Inagaki

Open Access

Chapter 9. The Potential for Producing Rice for Feed and Whole-Crop Rice Silage in Radiation-Contaminated Areas

Abstract
Neither whole rice plants for silage nor unhulled rice grains can be used as livestock feed if their radiation concentration exceeds the threshold limit of 100 Bq/kg. However, the results outlined here confirm that even in paddies with a comparatively high radioactive cesium soil concentration of 2,600 Bq/kg, this threshold can be met by plowing and applying zeolite as a decontamination measure. This finding is positive news for areas that have suffered radioactive contamination. The study also found the level of radiation in unhulled grains of fodder rice to be below the 100 Bq/kg limit, meaning that the rice was usable as livestock feed.
Seiji Nobuoka

Open Access

Chapter 10. Developing and Trialing a System to Monitor Radionuclides in Individual Plots of Farmland to Help Reconstruction Farming in Contaminated Areas

Abstract
We believe that if Fukushima Prefecture’s agriculture is to be saved, it is essential to create and effectively utilize a system for monitoring the radioactive contamination in each individual parcel of farmland. We are therefore currently developing such a system, as well as a mechanism for putting it to practical use, in the heavily contaminated Tamano district of Soma, adjacent to the village of Iitate. In this chapter, we describe the research outcomes verified to date relating to the characteristics and applications of the monitoring system we are developing.
Toshiyuki Monma, Puangkaew Lurhathaiopath, Youichi Kawano, Dambii Byambasuren, Yuta Ono, Quar Evine

Open Access

Chapter 11. New Decontamination Methods for Parks and Other Areas in Which Radionuclides Have Accumulated

Abstract
Activities to remove radionuclides in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident were unprecedented in nature and required the utmost urgency. The methods employed generally involved pulling plants out by the roots. Arguably, however, such drastic measures were unavoidable to achieve the paramount objective of reducing radiation dosage, thus avoiding irradiation of residents and ensuring safety. However, pulling plants out by the roots can have extremely harmful consequences. Not least of these is the volume of waste (trunks, branches, leaves, roots, soil, etc.) generated and the way in which the waste is disposed. In addition, the land is stripped bare by the decontamination process, compromising the various functional benefits the plants had previously provided to the community. Our approach to decontaminating trees and wooded areas is aimed at improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the decontamination process by utilizing current landscape architecture knowledge and techniques.
Mitsuo Kondo, Chizuko Mizuniwa

Open Access

Chapter 12. Forest Problems

Abstract
Following the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, large amounts of radionuclides were dispersed over the 50-km tract of land between the plant and the city of Date, where forested mountains make up approximately 90 % of the total area. During the weeks after the disaster, the fallout of radionuclides was deposited on trees and local residences in an aerosol or gaseous form partly dissolved in rainwater or snow. Radiocesium was incorporated into plant bodies through all the exposed surfaces, not only through the leaves but also via the bark. Trees, which can directly incorporate radionuclides, serve as one of the largest biological sinks of fallout radionuclides. Thus, they are capable of reducing the harmful impact of these radionucleotides on residents in rural land and others in Japan. The forest in the rural land became in an enormous biological sink of 137Cs with a long half-life, 30.1 years.
Takahisa Hayashi

Open Access

Chapter 13. Nuclear Radiation Levels in the Forest at Minamisoma, Fukushima Prefecture

Abstract
The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011, and 4 days later, the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant accident happened. The accident caused serious nuclear pollution damage for the Fukushima area, and it was reported that the forest area had received especially severe damage. However, its present situation has not been studied yet, nor has reforestation been planned. Therefore, we surveyed the amount of nuclear radiation at the forest of Minamisoma City where the amount of radiation has been reported as extremely high. We set several survey plots in the forest and surveyed the radiation amount of leaves, branches, wood (bark and stem), soil, litter interception, and irrigation water. The surveying results showed nuclear pollution was not spread equally in the Minamisoma forest, but in several “hot spots,” that some litter interception indicated high radiation amounts, the extraction rates from bark to xylem were different between conifers and deciduous trees and between standing living trees and mushroom bed logs, and radioactive cesium was not detected in transpiration water.
Iwao Uehara, Tomoko Seyama, Fumio Eguchi, Ryuichi Tachibana, Yukito Nakamura, Hiroya Ohbayashi

Open Access

Chapter 14. Radioactive Contamination of Ostriches in a Potentially Permanent Evacuation Zone

Abstract
We measured the concentrations of radioactive cesium (134Cs, 136Cs, and 137Cs) in muscles and internal organs of ostriches that had been contaminated by radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Although the ostriches were given uncontaminated feed and water throughout the study, radionuclide could not be eliminated completely as the birds consumed soil and plants in the enclosures. However, we found that the amount of radioactive cesium in the ostriches’ bodies declined in the first 287 days after capture. This result suggests that keeping the birds in a radiation-free environment is effective in reducing the amount of radioactive cesium in their bodies.
Hiroshi Ogawa, Hidehiko Uchiyama, Koji Masuda, Takeshi Sasaki, Tadao Watanabe, Toshiaki Tomizawa, Schu Kawashima

Open Access

Chapter 15. Radioactive Contamination in Some Arthropod Species in Fukushima

Abstract
To clarify the extent of radioactive contamination in a broad environment of Fukusima, in and around farming lands and residential areas, the amount of radionuclides in the Japanese grasshopper, Oxya yezoensis, the Emma field cricket, Teleogryllus emma, the wasp spider, Argiope bruennichi, and the Jorô spider, Nephila clavata, was investigated. Radioactive cesium was detected in all arthropods collected from survey sites in Fukushima. The highest radioactive cesium (134Cs and 137Cs) concentration of approximately 4.7 × 102 Bq/kg (wet weight) was detected from the grasshopper. The amount of radionuclides tended to rise in agreement with the space radiation dose rates in the survey sites. The spiders, which are classified at higher trophic levels on the food chain, therefore demonstrated correspondingly higher levels of cesium concentration, suggesting that bioaccumulation of radioactive cesium was occurring.
Tarô Adati, Sota Tanaka

Open Access

Chapter 16. A Consumer Survey Approach to Reputation-Based Damage Affecting Agricultural Products and How to Overcome It

Abstract
In this chapter we elucidated the changes in consumers’ feelings of safety and reassurance and the effectiveness of safety-related PR and events to support the recovery. The new knowledge presented in this chapter can be summarized as follows. According to the results, the effective ways to overcome reputation-based damage relating to agricultural products produced in irradiated areas are (a) provide accurate information on radioactive contamination (dispel ambiguity); (b) use methods that come as close as possible to testing every bag of produce, and require that agricultural products shipped to the market contain no radionuclide detectable using standard detectors (reduce importance); and (c) secure supporters by holding events to support the recovery efforts in disaster zones. It is, moreover, important to implement such initiatives on a continuous basis.
Puangkaew Lurhathaiopath, Shizuka Matsumoto, Makoto Hoshi, Sayaka Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki Monma

Activities and Impressions of Students and Farmers Who Supported the Project

Frontmatter

Open Access

Chapter 17. Staking Recovery Hopes on Soma Revival Rice

Abstract
This chapter conveys the sense of crisis and mission felt by students who participated in soil survey analyses to help restore paddy fields immensely damaged by the tsunami. Also, it presents the background and hard work that led to the harvesting and sale of “Soma Revival Rice”. This rice was grown on tsunami-damaged paddy fields recovered through a method developed by the Tokyo University of Agriculture.
Kaisei Inagaki, Tomoko Ninagi, Saburo Sasaki, Akiko Sato

Open Access

Chapter 18. Impressions of the Students Who Participated in the Radioactivity Monitoring System of Farmland

Abstract
This chapter conveys the sense of crisis and mission felt by students who participated in the development of a radioactivity monitoring system that now covers each farm field to help the farmland to recover so that farming could resume. Also, it depicts the students’ hard work in severe conditions and their interactions and shared feelings with the local people.
Volodymyr Ganzha, Keiji Kanamori, Hana Fujimoto, Ryo Itakura

Open Access

Chapter 19. Impressions of the Forestry Managers and Students Who Participated in the Radioactivity Damage Investigation of Forests

Abstract
This chapter portrays the distress of owners and workers of radiation-contaminated forests and the sense of fear and mission felt by students who participated in forest field surveys in such severe environments.
Eihachi Horiuchi, Kiyoaki Sasaki, Masaaki Itakura, Chisato Yasukawa, Chihiro Kinoshita
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