Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Agricultural R&D has contributed to obesity by making food more abundant and cheaper, and some commentators have proposed that the agricultural research portfolio could be tilted more in favor of healthy foods, and away from less-healthy foods. We review these ideas in principle, and present a review of prior work and new evidence on the effects of past research investments and on the likely costs of changing the R&D portfolio as a way of fighting obesity in the United States. Our analysis suggests that redirecting agricultural research priorities would be a generally ineffective and highly expensive way of fighting obesity.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Alston, J.M. 2012. “US Food and Nutrition Programs: Costs, Effectiveness, and Impact on Obesity,” in American Boondoggle: Fixing the 2012 Farm Bill. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.
Alston, J.M., and P.G. Pardey. 1996. Making Science Pay: Economics of Agricultural R&D Policy. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy.
Alston, J.M., and P.G. Pardey. 2001. “Attribution and Related Problems in Assessing the Returns to Agricultural R&D.” Agricultural Economics 25: 141–152. CrossRef
Alston, J.M., and P.G. Pardey. 2008. “Public Funding for Research into Specialty Crops.” HortScience 43(5): 1461–1470.
Alston, J.M., M.C. Marra, P.G. Pardey, and T.J. Wyatt. 2000. A Meta Analysis of Rates of Return to Agricultural R&D: Ex Pede Herculem?. IFPRI Research Report No 113. Washington, DC: IFPRI.
Alston, J.M., J.W. Freebairn, and J.S. James. 2004. “Levy-Funded Research Choices by Producers and Society.” Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 48(1): 34–64. CrossRef
Alston, J.M., D.A. Sumner, and S.A. Vosti. 2006. “Are Agricultural Policies Making Us Fat? Likely Links between Agricultural Policies and Human Nutrition and Obesity, and Their Policy Implications.” Review of Agricultural Economics 28(3): 313–322. CrossRef
Alston, J.M., J.M. Beddow, and P.G. Pardey. 2009b. “Agricultural Research, Productivity and Food Prices in the Long Run.” Science 325(4): 1209–1210. CrossRef
Alston, J.M., P.G. Pardey, J.S. James, and M.A. Andersen. 2009c. “A Review of Research on the Economics of Agricultural R&D.” Annual Review of Resource Economics 1(October): 537–565. CrossRef
Alston, J.M., M.A. Andersen, J.S. James, and P.G. Pardey. 2010b. Persistence Pays: U.S. Agricultural Productivity Growth and the Benefits from Public R&D Spending. New York: Springer Publishers. CrossRef
Alston, J.M., M.A. Andersen, J.S. James, and P.G. Pardey. 2011. “The Economic Returns to U.S. Public Agricultural Research.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 93(5): 1257–1277. CrossRef
Alston, J.M., M.A. Andersen, and P.G. Pardey. 2016. “The Rise and Fall of U.S. Farm Productivity Growth, 1910–2007.” Staff Paper P15-02, Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota.
Alston, J.M., J.P. MacEwan, and A.M. Okrent. 2016a. “Effects of U.S. Public Agricultural R&D on U.S. Obesity and its Social Costs.” Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy 38(3): 492–520. CrossRef
Bittman, M., M. Pollan, R. Salvador, and O. De Schutter. 2015. “A National Food Policy for the 21st Century.” Medium. Available at https://medium.com/@michaelpollan/a-national-food-policy-for-the-21st-century-7d323ee7c65f.
Bleich, S., D. Cutler, C. Murray, and A. Adams. 2008. “Why is the Developed World Obese?.” Annual Reviews of Public Health 29: 273–295. CrossRef
Carter, C.A., G.C. Rausser, and A.D. Smith. 2016. “Commodity Storage and the Market Effects of Biofuel Policies.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 98(5): 1–15. CrossRef
Cash, S.B., D.L. Sunding, and D. Zilberman, “Fat Taxes and Thin Subsidies: Prices, Diet and Health Outcomes,” Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica (2005) 2 (Section C): 167–174.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012. “Body Measurements.” FastStats. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/body-measurements.htm.
Drewnowski, A., and N. Darmon. 2005. “The Economics of Obesity: Dietary Energy Density and Energy Cost.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82(1S): 265S–273S.
Drewnowski, A., and S. Specter. 2004. “Poverty and Obesity: The Role of Energy Density and Energy Costs.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79(1): 6–16.
Evenson, R.E. 2002. “Economic Impacts of Agricultural Research and Extension,” Chapter 11 in B.L. Gardner and G.C. Rausser eds. Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Volume 1A: Agricultural Production. New York: Elsevier.
Fuglie, K., and A. Toole. 2014. “The Evolving Institutional Structure of Public and Private Agricultural Research.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 96: 862–883. CrossRef
Fuglie, K.O., and P.W. Heisey. 2007. Economic Returns to Public Agricultural Research. USDA, ERS Economic Brief No. 10. Washington, DC: USDA Economic Research Service, September.
Grandi, S.M., and C. Franck. 2012. “Agricultural Subsidies: Are They a Contributing Factor to the American Obesity Epidemic ?.” Archives of Internal Medicine 172(22): 1754–1755. CrossRef
Hurley, T.M, X. Rao, and P.G. Pardey “Re-examining the Reported Rates of Return to Food and Agricultural Research and Development.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 96(5): 1492–1504.
Institute of Medicine. 2012. Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention: Solving the Weight of the Nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Lakdawalla, D., and T. Philipson. 2002. “The Growth of Obesity and Technological Change: A Theoretical And Empirical Examination.” NBER Working Paper No. 8946. National Bureau of Economic Research, May.
Lakdawalla, D., and T. Philipson. 2009. “The Growth of Obesity and Technological Change.” Economics and Human Biology 7(3): 283–293. CrossRef
Lakdawalla, D., T. Philipson, and J. Bhattacharya. 2005. “Welfare-Enhancing Technological Change and the Growth of Obesity.” American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings 92(2): 253–257. CrossRef
MacEwan, J.P., J.M. Alston, and A.M. Okrent. 2014. “The Consequences of Obesity for the External Costs of Public Health Insurance in the United States.” Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy 36(4): 696–716. CrossRef
Mazziochi, M., B. Traill, and J.F. Shogren. 2009. Fat Economics: Nutrition, Health, and Economic Policy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
McAfee, R.P. 1983. “American Economic Growth and the Voyage of Columbus.” American Economic Review 73(4): 735–740.
Miller, J.C., and K.H. Coble. 2007. “Cheap Food Policy: Fact or Rhetoric?.” Food Policy 32: 98–111. CrossRef
Miller, J.C., and K.H. Coble. 2008. “An International Comparison of the Effects of Government Agricultural Support on Food Budget Shares.” Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 40(2): 551–558. CrossRef
Ogden, C.L., C.D. Fryar, M.D. Carroll, and K.M. Flegal. 2004. “Mean Body Weight, Height and Body Mass Index, United States 1960–2002.” Advance Data for Vital and Health Statistics 347.
Pardey, P.G., B. Koo, J. Drew, J. Horwich, and C. Nottenburg. 2013a. “The Evolving Landscape of Plant Varietal Rights in the United States, 1930–2008.” Nature Biotechnology 3(1): 25–29. CrossRef
Pardey, P.G., J.M. Alston, and C. Chan-Kang. 2013b. “Public Agricultural R&D over the Past Half Century: An Emerging New World Order.” Agricultural Economics 44: 103–113. CrossRef
Pardey, P.G., J.M. Alston, and C. Chan-Kang. 2013c. Public Food and Agricultural Research in the United States: The Rise and Decline of Public Investments, and Policies for Renewal. Washington, DC: Agree Policy Report, April. Available at: http://www.foodandagpolicy.org/sites/default/files/AGree–Public%20Food%20and%20Ag%20Research%20in%20US‐Apr%202013.pdf.
Popkin, B. 2009. The World Is Fat: The Fads, Trends, Policies and Products That Are Fattening the Human Race. New York, NY: Avery.
Popkin, B.M. 2011. “Agricultural Policies, Food and Public Health.” EMBO Reports 12(1): 11–18. CrossRef
Popkin, B.M., and W.R. Kenan Jr. 2016. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes: Changing the Food Industry. Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2016.05.001.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015. “2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans”. 8th Edition. December. Available at: http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/.
Wang, S.L., and V.E. Ball. “Agricultural Productivity Growth in the United States: 1948–2011. Amber Waves Feature”. February 2014. Available at https://www.ers.usda.gov/amber-waves/2014/januaryfebruary/agricultural-productivity-growth-in-the-united-states-1948-2011/
White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity Report to the President. 2010. Solving the Problem of Childhood Obesity Within a Generation. Washington, DC: Executive Office of the President of the United States. Available at: http://www.letsmove.gov/white-house-task-force-childhood-obesity-report-president.
U.S. Department of Agriculture-National Agricultural Statistical Service. Various Years. “Agricultural Prices Summary”. 2013. Available at: http://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewDocumentInfo.do;jsessionid=F154BA78C7C50C021C8CA924EDB72FD5?documentID=1003.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. 2012. “National Income and Product Accounts.” Available at: http://www.bea.gov/iTable/index_nipa.cfm.
Okrent, A.M., and J.M. Alston. 2012. “The Effects of Farm Commodity and Retail Food Policies on Obesity and Economic Welfare in the United States.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 94(1): 611–646. CrossRef
- Agricultural R&D, Technology, and Obesity
Julian M. Alston
Abigail M. Okrent
- Palgrave Macmillan US
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Voraussetzungen für wirtschaftliche additive Fertigung/© Marco2811 | Fotolia