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Über dieses Buch

This collection examines the role that foreign aid can play in dealing with the severe global challenge of climate change, one of the most pressing international development issues of the 21st century. Addressing the key threats of rising temperatures, changes in precipitation, coastal erosion and natural disasters, the book considers the implications for policy and future research, particularly in developing countries. Focusing on the worth of foreign aid in ensuring environmental sustainability, this collection consider how it can be used to improve access to sustainable energy, to promote efficient use of energy resources, to improve emission reduction and support the preservation of biodiversity in forests. Advancing our knowledge about foreign aid and climate change, it provides policy recommendations for the donors and recipient country governments. A cutting edge text on one of the most pressing international development issues of this century, this is key reading for all scholars of international development and climate change.



Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 1 sets the scene for the book and explains its structure.
Yongfu Huang, Unai Pascual

Chapter 2. Foreign Aid for Capacity Building to Address Climate Change

Chapter 2 focuses on the effectiveness of foreign aid regarding capacity building in the least developed countries, those most vulnerable to climate change and with the most pressing need to respond and adapt. It addresses an important point: that as countries try to roll out climate aid quickly, bilateral aid—which is easier for donors and recipients to control—is likely to expand much more than multilateral aid, as historical patterns with other aid programmes suggest. The chapter concludes that in the case of foreign aid targeted to tackle climate change (including capacity building), it will be a slow and difficult process to apply the lessons that have been learned from other foreign aid experiences, especially due to the need for tailoring aid to individual countries’ settings and due to the challenges to donor countries being able to make credible, long-term aid commitments. Both of these aspects are essential to build the necessary systems to invest in climate change mitigation and adaptation in the least developed countries.
David Victor

Chapter 3. Lessons Learnt about Foreign Aid for Climate Change Related Capacity-Building

Chapter 3 looks into various case studies of capacity building programmes and finds that foreign aid for capacity building is more successful when it is self-initiated, or country driven and demand driven. Further, in order to make aid work and to allow it to be scaled up, emphasis is placed on the need for strengthening cooperation among climate change aid projects and on raising public awareness, among various other key conditions.
Zexian Chen, Jingjing He

Chapter 4. The Effectiveness of Foreign Aid for Sustainable Energy and Climate Change Mitigation

Chap. 4 portrays an increasingly complex foreign aid landscape as it pertains to the energy sector—one which is increasingly fragmented, where many new actors, both public and private are gaining in prominence, in conjunction with foreign direct investment. It offers a detailed picture of the evolution of foreign aid related to the energy sector since 1990s, emphasizing the emergent south–south financial flows, especially from rising countries such as China, India and Brazil to Africa, on top of the traditional north–south ones, as well as the entrance of new non-governmental organizations and private foundations in reshaping this landscape. It points out that the Sustainable Energy for All initiative of the UN Secretary General is a good example of a coordinated effort from where to derive important lessons in this regard.
H-Holger Rogner, Kei-Kit Leung

Chapter 5. A Review of the Nature of Foreign Aid to the Energy Sector over the Last Two Decades

Chap. 5 reviews the key enabling conditions of transforming the energy system and the foreign aid policy prerequisites which will determine, to a large extent, its impacts on global climate change as well as how such systems can adapt to a context of growing energy scarcity. It is argued that support of sustainable energy, until recently, has been the stepchild of foreign aid and its efficacy has thus been questioned. The review here suggests that while there is still much room for improvement in terms of effective use of foreign aid for sustainable energy and climate protection, things have been getting better. It is also pointed out that foreign aid has been instrumental in promoting many renewables and efficiency projects that would possibly have not been implemented in developing countries without official development assistance flows.
Luis Gomez-Echeverri

Chapter 6. An Analysis of the Links between Foreign Aid and Co2 Emissions in Cities

In Chap. 6, Sandrine Kablan looks at what kinds of foreign aid practices have the best potential to work towards the achievement of green cities. She reflects on how innovative and promising these programs, initiatives and practices are, in order for them to be scaled up and made transferable across countries based on the existing literature and case studies spanning various urban sectors: urban design and public policy on buildings and infrastructure, transport, pollution and waste treatment; as well as energy supply, water supply and sewage. In addition, she employs an econometric panel data analysis covering 144 developing countries over the period 2002–11 to check the effectiveness of foreign aid in curbing the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions from buildings in urban centers, through investment in renewable energy sources. Kablan finds that foreign aid helps in reducing carbon dioxide emissions, especially associated with residential buildings as well as commercial and public services—thus contributing to greener cities.
Sandrine Kablan

Chapter 7. Foreign Aid, Urbanization and Green Cities

Jun Li’s Chap. 7, by means of three case studies, answers the overarching questions of what works and could work in terms of scalability and transferability in terms of greening urban areas through foreign aid. The case studies are based on the Chinese urban areas of Tianjin, Wenchuan and Beichuan, as well as Curutiba in Brazil. These case study cities provide the opportunity to compare two already planned ecocities (Tianjin City and Curitiba) and two areas that are recovering from an earthquake that took place in 2008, such as Wenchuan area and Beichuan. From the case studies, Jun Li derives the conditions for successful planning, design and implementation of future ecocities to combat and respond to the challenges of climate change and how this vision can be catalyzed through foreign aid.
Jun Li

Chapter 8. Opportunities and Conditions for Successful Foreign Aid to the Forestry Sector

In this chapter, Unai Pascual and colleagues address the link between sustainable forest management initiatives, the climate change policy arena and foreign aid. Pascual et al. discuss the role of foreign aid in helping to achieve sustainable forest management, framing this as the condition for delivering multiple ecosystem services, and considering the potential for donor support for the forestry sector associated with new climate finance. The chapter explores the conditions for promoting forest conservation through foreign aid, taking into account the varying interests of multiple actors. The authors warn that while REDD+ financing, catalysed by foreign aid, has the potential to move beyond traditional sustainable forest management efforts, the mechanism still faces uncertainty over the long-term sustainability of financing, thus affecting the scalability of the mechanism.
Unai Pascual, Eneko Garmendia, Jacob Phelps, Elena Ojea

Chapter 9. The Evolution, Paradigm Shift and Guidelines for Foreign Aid in Forestry

A companion to the previous chapter, Chap. 9 by Pekka Kauppi looks at how forestry aid has evolved over time, from the emphasis of foreign aid to incentivize industrial forestry in the 1960s to the new focus on REDD+ during the last decade, and argues that while investments in forestry have been associated with the value of timber as a global commodity, environmental and social concerns still remain. Kauppi discusses the history, scalability and transferability of tree planting and initiatives aimed at improving cooking stoves to save trees and to improve human health. He also points towards the important role of local universities in catalysing research towards forest conservation in developing countries, especially in Africa where university education is limited.
Pekka E. Kauppi

Chapter 10. Financing Sustainable Agriculture under Climate Change with a Specific Focus on Foreign Aid

In this chapter Jikun Huang and Yangjie Wang provide an overview and case studies of the connection between agriculture, foreign aid and climate change, and argue the extent to which agriculture is heavily underfunded and that foreign aid needs to be scaled up significantly to tackle the great challenge of food security in a climate change context. They also point at how to make climate finance through foreign aid more effective to tackle mitigation and adaptation in agriculture across different types of mitigation and adaptation measures.
Jikun Huang, Yangjie Wang

Chapter 11. Foreign Aid and Sustainable Agriculture in Africa

This chapter, by Siddig Umbadda and Ismail Elgizouli, directs the focus to agriculture in the African continent, which is undoubtedly highly aid dependent and where for the majority of the population small-scale farming is the anchoring livelihood. They review the history of foreign aid directed to agriculture in Africa and discuss the areas which donors see as strategic for such aid to increase in the future in order to enhance food security and sustainable agricultural systems. The foreign aid landscape for agriculture in Africa shows the long and windy road ahead for enhancing aid effectiveness and its scalability and transferability across the continent in a complex future, where food security under climate change will continue to be a crucial regional and global concern.
Siddig Umbadda, Ismail Elgizouli

Chapter 12. The Global Partnership on Foreign Aid for Sustainable Development

This chapter examines whether foreign aid, together with other economic, social and environmental factors, contributes to sustainable development. It starts with an illustrative theoretical growth model where foreign aid promotes sustainable development by protecting the environment. Using factor analysis and newly developed estimation methods for a dynamic panel data model with endogenous regressors, the empirical section of the chapter finds evidence that foreign aid has had a significantly positive influence on sustainable development in aid recipient countries. This effect is very likely to go through channels related to growth and resources as well as a technology channel with respect to energy intensity. This research has important implications in the 2030 development agenda for international collective action with regard to a sustainable future.
Yongfu Huang, Muhammad G. Quibria

Chapter 13. Conclusion

Chapter 13, the Conclusion, discusses the significance of foreign aid for environmental sustainability and the direction for future research.
Yongfu Huang, Unai Pascual


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