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Über dieses Buch

The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain.

It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts.

The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. The Air Transport System

Abstract
This chapter provides a broad entrance to transportation and the high level aspects of air transport. Starting with a description of the air transport system and its surroundings, the passenger expectations concerning highly attractive air transportation are explained. Further, the development of mobility and the principle transport chain are presented. Based on the global economic development of populations, the evolution of air transport and the general impact on climate are given. An introduction to high level global challenges as given in ACARE Vision 2020 or NextGen follows. A systems-based view of air transport and definitions of the roles of the most relevant stakeholders provide the way of thinking presented in this book. The chapter ends with a description of how performances can be described and measured to improve the air transport system.
Dieter Schmitt, Volker Gollnick

Chapter 2. Historical Development of Air Transport

Abstract
The historical development of air transport starts with a short review of myths and legends, the Dream of flying, which is as old as mankind. The next part covers the physically based approach of flying, starting from Da Vinci and his drawings of flying vehicles, via the Montgolfier’s hot air balloon, Sir George Cayley and his principles of flying. The part about the technically based approach covers briefly the different attempts from Clement Ader, Otto Lilienthal up to the Wright brothers, who finally in 1903 managed to fly with a vehicle heavier than air. It follows the beginning of commercial air transport in Europe and US between the two World Wars. In the 1950s, the jet age in civil air transport started with a disaster of Comet, but all lessons learned from these air accidents helped other companies to start successfully these new jet engine types of civil transport aircraft, which are still flying today. The aircraft design parameters of speed, range, size and fuel efficiency and their development of the last century are shortly addressed to extract the standards and the maturity of today’s air transport system. A brief review of the airline development follows with the example of KLM. It follows a short airport review, where the airport development of Atlanta—the biggest airport today—is taken as example.
Dieter Schmitt, Volker Gollnick

Chapter 3. Market Aspects

Abstract
This chapter describes the strategic importance of aerospace, the link between military and civil transport, the strong US dominance in the civil market in the 1960s and 1970s and the creation of Airbus in Europe, leading finally to a duopoly in the civil transport market for aircraft with more than 120 seats. Specific aspects of the aeronautical industry are the very long development cycle of an aircraft, where invested money will only be recovered after 12–20 years. National support is therefore needed, leading however to a constant fight between the US and Europe in front of the World Trade Organization WTO. New entrants are on the horizon to challenge the duopoly from the lower market area. Market forecast methods are described in detail and the outlook from industry for the next 20 years is presented, identifying a huge growth market with a doubling of the number of aircraft for this period. The air freight market with its specific elements is outlined, and the refurbishing of elder passenger aircraft into freighter aircraft is a main driver in the passenger market. Reflections about the importance of cost and commonality aspects conclude the chapter.
Dieter Schmitt, Volker Gollnick

Chapter 4. The Regulatory Framework of the Air Transportation System

Abstract
This chapter gives an introduction to the global regulatory and organizational setup of air transport. Based on the freedoms of the air, which are given, the main international contracts are introduced as well as major organizations like ICAO. Here also the way how international regulations are transferred into national rules is described.
Dieter Schmitt, Volker Gollnick

Chapter 5. Aircraft Characteristics

Abstract
The chapter starts with different ways of aircraft classification systems. The principles of cabin design follow, as the cabin is the important interface for the airline to the customer and where differentiation between business and leisure travellers for different comfort levels can be implemented. The principles of flight are outlined without going too much into technical details. The atmosphere around the earth is characterized and the standard atmosphere as basis for lift and drag calculation is introduced. Flight controls and their function to operate the aircraft are described. The aircraft structure, which is under a constant challenge to be minimized for a given task, and the major aircraft components are defined. The aero jet engine principle is outlined, being still a major component for further amelioration of fuel consumption. Aircraft performance and mission elements like payload range and flight envelope are specified. The Breguet formula, which characterizes the main parameters for an efficient cruise flight, is a simple but very important formula for the aircraft design.
Dieter Schmitt, Volker Gollnick

Chapter 6. Aircraft Manufacturer

Abstract
The chapter starts with the history of mergers of aircraft manufacturers in US and Europe, leading to the duopoly of Airbus and Boeing as leading players worldwide. Their product portfolio seems to be fairly identical, which is good for market competition but could also be a sign of reducing innovation and risk. Several smaller aircraft manufacturers are preparing to challenge this duopoly and are preparing their entrance into this jet airliner market. The aircraft development process is characterized, showing the long-term aspect of a new aircraft development program and the involved risks. Cost breakeven will normally not be achieved before 12–15 years. The industrial organization with the role of engine manufacturers, supply chain and the complex work breakdown structure is outlined. The cash flow principle is shown, which helps to understand major risk factors during the development of a new aircraft type. The importance of family and commonality aspects is introduced, leading to major cost savings for the operator.
Dieter Schmitt, Volker Gollnick

Chapter 7. Airlines

Abstract
This chapter describes the role of airlines in the air transport system. It starts with a description of the various airline types and the associated network structures. The development of local and global operation strategies including the different concepts of low cost carrier (LCC) and flag carrier are discussed. A major part is also dedicated to flight planning and ticket pricing as core elements of the airline business models. Also, different aspects are discussed that drive the setup of airline fleets and the selection of aircraft. For operational issues, the organizational setup of an airline and its related stations are discussed. The chapter ends with a description of aircraft maintenance as a major driver for aircraft availability. Here the major activities and strategies for improvement are introduced.
Dieter Schmitt, Volker Gollnick

Chapter 8. Airport and Infrastructure

Abstract
The airport is an essential element in the air transport system for all payload—passenger as well as cargo payload—to get access to the aircraft for transport from origin to destination. The airport can have a very simple structure, with a small runway for the aircraft for take-off and landing and a type of hangar to prepare the passenger boarding, baggage treatment, formalities such as customs or passenger checks and the infrastructure to allow for the preparation of the flight with meteorological information, route planning and aircraft loading.
Dieter Schmitt, Volker Gollnick

Chapter 9. Air Navigation Services

Abstract
In this chapter, the principle elements of ANS in terms of infrastructures, organizations, and processes as well as the main technical principles of the systems used are introduced. These characteristics are required to complete the view on the ATS and to show how ANSP is capable to fulfil its key responsibilities. First, the main organizational structures are introduced and then the set up of air space structures is discussed. In the third section, the most relevant navigation systems are presented with their general characteristics and features. The control and separation strategies are discussed in the fourth section, finally followed by a short introduction to navigation fees.
Dieter Schmitt, Volker Gollnick

Chapter 10. Environmental Aspects of Air Transport

Abstract
This chapter introduces environmental impacts of aviation. Starting with principle considerations, major emphasis is given to explain the physical effects of CO2, NO x , and contrails. Further, measurement methods to classify the environmental compatibility of engines are introduced including measures to improve the environmental compatibility. Aircraft noise as another major aspect is considered starting with a physical and mathematical explanation. Also, various sound metrices are introduced to provide an understanding of the sound impact. Regulatory requirements as well as measurement methods and criteria are discussed. Lastly, measures to reduce noise sources are discussed.
Dieter Schmitt, Volker Gollnick

Chapter 11. Challenges and Competition of Air Transport

Abstract
This chapter gives a global view of the challenges of future air transport starting first with a reflection of the ACARE Vision 2020 and Flightpath 2050 goals. The situation and perspective of energy demand and provision for air transport addresses especially the current developments in alternative fuels. A deeper look is provided at the structural and competitive situation of multimodal transport in various regions of the world. This provides a basis to assess market potentials of air transport. Some perspectives in different aviation technologies are discussed to provide a basis to assess future opportunities. A further section describes an integrated systems and technology approach to optimize the introduction of technologies across different stakeholders and substructures in the air transport system. At the end the chapter concludes with some changes and measures which should appear to realize a more efficient and competitive air transport system.
Dieter Schmitt, Volker Gollnick
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