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Über dieses Buch

This book gives a survey of the physics and fabrication of carbon nanotubes and their applications in optics, electronics, chemistry and biotechnology. It focuses on the structural characterization of various carbon nanotubes, fabrication of vertically or parallel aligned carbon nanotubes on substrates or in composites, physical properties for their alignment, and applications of aligned carbon nanotubes in field emission, optical antennas, light transmission, solar cells, chemical devices, bio-devices, and many others. Major fabrication methods are illustrated in detail, particularly the most widely used PECVD growth technique on which various device integration schemes are based, followed by applications such as electrical interconnects, nanodiodes, optical antennas, and nanocoax solar cells, whereas current limitations and challenges are also be discussed to lay the foundation for future developments.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction to Carbon

Abstract
Carbon is the fourth most abundant chemical element in the universe by mass. It is also the second abundant element by mass in human body.
Zhifeng Ren, Yucheng Lan, Yang Wang

Chapter 2. Carbon Nanotubes

Abstract
The carbon atoms in a carbon nanotube (CNT) are bonded trigonally in a curved sheet (graphite layer) that forms a hollow cylinder in nanoscale, similar to that in other fullerenes. The length of CNTs may range from less than a micron to several millimeters or even centimeters. Their unique nanostructures result in many extraordinary properties such as high tensile strength, high electrical and thermal conductivities, high ductility, high thermal and chemical stability, making them suitable for various applications as discussed in Chapter 8: Properties and Applications of Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays and Chapter 9 : Potential Applications of Carbon Nanotube Arrays. In this chapter, we review the history and structures of carbon nanotubes.
Zhifeng Ren, Yucheng Lan, Yang Wang

Chapter 3. Growth Techniques of Carbon Nanotubes

Abstract
Random carbon nanotubes have been synthesized from many methods. Based on the understanding of the growth mechanism from these methods, aligned carbon nanotubes have been in situ grown. Randomly grown carbon nanotubes can also be aligned using ex situ methods. In this chapter we introduce various methods to grow carbon nanotubes. The grown nanotubes are aligned or random during growth.
Zhifeng Ren, Yucheng Lan, Yang Wang

Chapter 4. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes

Abstract
Chemical vapor deposition is a popular industrial method to grow carbon nanotubes because of the mass production at low cost. Such method is also a very important technique to in situ align carbon nanotubes. In this chapter, we introduce various chemical vapor deposition methods, including thermal chemical vapor deposition and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, as well as the mechanism of growth and alignment.
Zhifeng Ren, Yucheng Lan, Yang Wang

Chapter 5. Physics of Direct Current Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

Abstract
Among various chemical vapor deposition methods, direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is one of the most important methods to align carbon nanotubes. Highly ordered carbon nanotube arrays can be in situ grown by the method, widely being used in various chemical and biosensors. In this chapter, we introduce the equipment, physics, and experimental parameters of direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to in situ grow carbon nanotube arrays.
Zhifeng Ren, Yucheng Lan, Yang Wang

Chapter 6. Technologies to Achieve Carbon Nanotube Alignment

Abstract
A massive number of CNTs can be in situ grown directly from reaction gases on substrate or ex situ aligned from as-grown random CNTs under various fields to preserve the strong anisotropic nature of individual CNTs. In this chapter, we introduce various techniques to fabricate CNTs along a certain direction. The morphology of aligned CNTs is illustrated and the fabrication mechanism of each technique is discussed.
Zhifeng Ren, Yucheng Lan, Yang Wang

Chapter 7. Measurement Techniques of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes

Abstract
The microstructures of individual CNTs can be characterized by TEM, AFM, and STM etc. In this chapter, we introduce some powerful techniques to characterize the alignment of CNTs besides the structures of individual CNTs. These advanced techniques including electron microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopy can determine the unique ordering properties of aligned CNTs, such as the degree of alignment.
Zhifeng Ren, Yucheng Lan, Yang Wang

Chapter 8. Properties and Applications of Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays

Abstract
Aligned CNT arrays have unique properties over individual CNTs and have wider applications, including field emission and flat screens, ultracapacitors, nanoelectrode arrays, fuel cells, solar cells, transistors, chemical and biological sensors, due to the ordering of their aligned structures. In this chapter, we focus on the applications of the well-aligned CNT arrays and talk about these applications in detail.
Zhifeng Ren, Yucheng Lan, Yang Wang

Chapter 9. Potential Applications of Carbon Nanotube Arrays

Abstract
Aligned CNT assemblies have many applications besides what were discussed in the previous chapters. In this chapter, we introduce some potential applications of aligned CNTs, which is possible from theoretical point of view but might take a long time to realize because of the immature of the needed techniques.
Zhifeng Ren, Yucheng Lan, Yang Wang

Backmatter

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