Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-017-9956-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
People who are more religious tend to experience more positive affect and higher levels of life satisfaction. Current explanations for this relation include social support, meaning in life, and more positive emotional experiences. Adding cognitive reappraisal as a new mechanism, we propose that religion consistently trains people to reappraise emotional events, making the devout more effective in applying this emotion regulation practice, which cultivates more positive affect and greater life satisfaction. In two studies, involving Israeli Jewish (N = 288) and American Christian (N = 277) participants, we found that more frequent use of cognitive reappraisal mediated the relationship between religiosity and affective experiences, which in turn, were associated with greater life satisfaction. Religiosity was associated with more frequent cognitive reappraisal (in both samples) and less frequent expressive suppression (in the Christian sample). Cognitive reappraisal mediated the link between religiosity and positive affect (in both samples) as well as negative affect (in the Christian sample). We discuss implications for understanding the link between religion and emotional well-being.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Supplementary material 1 (docx 160 KB)10902_2017_9956_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 217–237. CrossRef
Augustine, A. A., Hemenover, S. H., Larsen, R. J., & Shulman, T. E. (2010). Composition and consistency of the desired affective state: The role of personality and motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 133–143. CrossRef
Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Meanings of life. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Ben-Nun Bloom, P., Arikan, G., & Courtemanche, M. (2015). Religious social identity, religious belief, and anti-immigration sentiment. American Political Science Review, 109, 203–221. CrossRef
Buhrmester, M., Kwang, T., & Gosling, S. D. (2011). Amazon’s mechanical turk: A new source of inexpensive, yet high-quality, data? Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 3–5. CrossRef
Cohen, A. B. (2009). Many forms of culture. American Psychologist, 64, 194–204. CrossRef
Compton, W. C., Smith, M. L., Cornish, K. A., & Qualls, D. L. (1996). Factor structure of mental health measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 406–413. CrossRef
Davies, D. J. (2011). Emotion, identity and religion: Hope, reciprocity, and otherness. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Diener, E., & Clifton, D. (2002). Life satisfaction and religiosity in broad probability samples. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 206–209.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75. CrossRef
Diener, E., Suh, E., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276–302. CrossRef
Diener, E., Tay, L., & Myers, D. G. (2011). The religion paradox: If religion makes people happy, why are so many dropping out? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 1278–1290. CrossRef
Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D., Oishi, S., et al. (2010). New well-being measures: Short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research, 97, 143–156. CrossRef
Durkheim, E. (1915/1965). The elementary forms of religious life (J. W. Swain, Trans.). New York, NY: The Free Press.
Ellison, C. G., & Levin, J. S. (1998). The Religion-health connection: Evidence, theory, and future directions. Health Education and Behavior, 25, 700–720. CrossRef
Emmons, R. A., & Crumpler, C. A. (2000). Gratitude as a human strength: Appraising the evidence. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 56–69. CrossRef
Fredrickson, B. L. (2002). How does religion benefit health and well-being? Are positive emotions active ingredients? Psychological Inquiry, 13, 209–213.
Gebauer, J. E., Sedikides, C., & Neberich, W. (2012). Religiosity, social self-esteem, and psychological adjustment: On the cross-cultural specificity of the psychological benefits of religiosity. Psychological Science, 23, 158–160. CrossRef
George, L. K., Ellison, C. G., & Larson, D. B. (2002). Explaining the relationships between religious involvement and health. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 190–200. CrossRef
Graham, J., & Haidt, J. (2010). Beyond beliefs: Religions bind individuals into moral communities. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14, 140–150. CrossRef
Gross, J. J. (1998). Antecedent and response focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 224–237. CrossRef
Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362. CrossRef
Gross, J. J., & Levenson, R. W. (1993). Emotional suppression: Physiology, self-report, and expressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 970–986. CrossRef
Gross, J. J., & Levenson, R. W. (1997). Hiding feelings: The acute effects of inhibiting negative and positive emotion. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 95–103. CrossRef
Gross, J. J., Richards, J. M., & John, O. P. (2006). Emotion regulation in everyday life. In D. K. Snyder, J. A. Simpson, & J. N. Hughes (Eds.), Emotion regulation in families: Pathways to dysfunction and health (pp. 13–35). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Hackney, C. H., & Sanders, G. S. (2003). Religiosity and mental health: A meta-analysis of recent studies. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42, 43–55. CrossRef
Hall, M. E. L., & Johnson, E. L. (2001). Theodicy and therapy: Philosophical/theological contributions to the problem of suffering. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 20, 5–17.
Hill, P. C., & Pargament, K. I. (2003). Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of religion and spirituality. American Psychologist, 58, 64–74. CrossRef
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. CrossRef
Kämpfe, N., & Mitte, K. (2009). What you wish is what you get? The meaning of individual variability in desired affect and affective discrepancy. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 409–418. CrossRef
Kim-Prieto, C., & Diener, E. (2009). Religion as a source of variation in the experience of positive and negative emotions. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 447–460. CrossRef
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
Koenig, H. G. (2012). Religion, spirituality, and health: The research and clinical implications. ISRN Psychiatry, 2012, 1–33. CrossRef
Koenig, H. G., McCullough, M. E., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Handbook of religion and health. New York: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Kortt, M. A., Dollery, B., & Grant, B. (2014). Religion and life satisfaction down under. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16, 277–293. CrossRef
Krause, N. (2003). Religious meaning and subjective well-being in late life. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 58B, S160–S170. CrossRef
Kuppens, P., Realo, A., & Diener, E. (2008). The role of positive and negative emotions in life satisfaction judgment across nations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 66–75. CrossRef
Lambert, N. M., Fincham, F. D., Braithwaite, S. R., Graham, S. M., & Beach, S. R. H. (2009). Can prayer increase gratitude? Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 1, 139–149. CrossRef
Laurin, K., Kay, A. C., & Fitzsimons, G. M. (2012). Divergent effects of activating thoughts of God on self-regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 4–21. CrossRef
Lim, C., & Putnam, R. D. (2010). Religion, social networks, and life satisfaction. American Sociological Review, 75, 914–933. CrossRef
Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 616–628. CrossRef
Mauss, I. B., & Tamir, M. (2014). Emotion goals: How their content, structure, and operation shape emotion regulation. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), The handbook of emotion regulation (2nd ed., pp. 361–375). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
May, M., & Smilde, D. (2016). Minority participation and well-being in majority catholic nations: What does it mean to be a religious minority? Journal of Religion and Health, 55, 874–894. CrossRef
McCauley, R. N., & Lawson, E. T. (2002). Bringing ritual to mind: Psychological foundations of cultural forms. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112–127. CrossRef
McIntosh, D. N., Silver, R. C., & Wortman, C. B. (1993). Religion’s role in adjustment to a negative life event: Coping with the loss of a child. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 812–821. CrossRef
McRae, K., Ciesielski, B., & Gross, J. J. (2011). Unpacking cognitive reappraisal: Goals, tactics, and outcomes. Emotion, 12, 250–255. CrossRef
Nezlek, J. B., & Kuppens, P. (2008). Regulating positive and negative emotions in daily life. Journal of Personality, 76, 561–580. CrossRef
Pargament, K. I. (1996). Religious methods of coping: resources for the conservation and transformation of significance. In E. P. Shafranske (Ed.), Religion and the clinical practice of psychology (pp. 215–239). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Pargament, K. (2002). Is religion nothing but…? Explaining religion versus explaining religion away. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 239–244. CrossRef
Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the satisfaction with life scale. Psychological Assessment, 5, 164–172. https://doi.org/10.1037//1040-3518.104.22.168. CrossRef
Richards, J. M., & Gross, J. J. (1999). Composure at any cost? The cognitive consequences of emotion suppression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1033–1044. CrossRef
Richards, J. M., & Gross, J. J. (2000). Emotion regulation and memory: The cognitive costs of keeping one’s cool. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 410–424. CrossRef
Rusting, C. L., & Larsen, R. J. (1995). Moods as sources of stimulation: Relationships between personality and desired mood states. Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 321–329. CrossRef
Salsman, J. M., Brown, T. L., Brechting, E. H., & Carlson, C. R. (2005). The link between religion and spirituality and psychological adjustment: The mediating role of optimism and social support. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 522–535. CrossRef
Schimmel, S. (2004). Gratitude in Judaism. In R. A. Emmons & M. E. McCullough (Eds.), The psychology of gratitude (pp. 37–57). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Schjoedt, U., Sørensen, J., Nielbo, K. L., Xygalatas, D., Mitkidis, P., & Bulbulia, J. (2013). Cognitive resource depletion in religious interactions. Religion, Brain and Behavior, 3, 39–86. CrossRef
Schwartz, S. H., & Rubel-Lifschitz, T. (2009). Cross-national variation in the size of sex differences in values: Effects of gender equality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 171–185. CrossRef
Scollon, C. N., Koh, S., & Au, E. W. M. (2011). Cultural differences in the subjective experience of emotion: When and why they occur. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5, 853–864. CrossRef
Skinner, E. A., Edge, K., Altman, J., & Sherwood, H. (2003). Searching for the structure of coping: a review and critique of category systems for classifying ways of coping. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 216–269. CrossRef
Smidt, C. E., Kellstedt, L. A., & Guth, J. L. (2009). The role of religion in American politics: explanatory theories and associated analytical and measurement issues. In C. E. Smidt, L. A. Kellstedt, & J. L. Guth (Eds.), Oxford handbook on religion and American politics (pp. 3–42). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Steger, M. F., & Frazier, P. (2005). Meaning in life: One link in the chain from religion to well-being. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 574–582. CrossRef
Taylor, A. B., MacKinnon, D. P., & Tein, J. (2008). Tests of the three-path mediated effect. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 241–269. CrossRef
Tellegen, A., Lykken, D. T., Bouchard, T. J., Wilcox, K. J., Segal, N. J., & Rich, S. (1988). Personality similarity in twins reared apart and together. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1031–1039. CrossRef
Troy, A. S., Shallcross, A. J., & Mauss, I. B. (2013). A person-by-situation approach to emotion regulation: Cognitive reappraisal can either help or hurt, depending on the context. Psychological Science, 24, 2505–2514. CrossRef
Tsai, J. L., Miao, F. F., & Seppala, E. (2007). Good feelings in Christianity and Buddhism: Religious differences in ideal affect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 409–421. CrossRef
Van Cappellen, P., Toth-Gauthier, M., Saroglou, V., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2016). Religion and well-being: The mediating role of positive emotions. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17, 485–505. CrossRef
Vishkin, A., Bigman, Y., Porat, R., Solak, N., Halperin, E., & Tamir, M. (2016). God rest our hearts: Religiosity and cognitive reappraisal. Emotion, 16, 252–262. CrossRef
Vishkin, A., Bigman, Y., & Tamir, M. (2014). Religion, emotion regulation, and well-being. In C. Kim-Prieto (Ed.), Positive psychology of religion and spirituality across cultures. New York, NY: Springer.
Voas, D. (2007). Surveys of behavior, beliefs and affiliation: Micro-quantitative. In J. A. Beckford & N. J. Demerath III (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of the sociology of religion (pp. 144–166). London: Sage. CrossRef
Watkins, P. C., Woodward, K., Stone, T., & Kolts, R. L. (2003). Gratitude and happiness: Development of a measure of gratitude and relationships with subjective well-being. Social Behavior and Personality, 31, 431–452. CrossRef
Watts, F. N. (1996). Psychological and religious perspectives on emotion. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 6, 71–87. CrossRef
Watts, F. N. (2007). Emotion regulation and religion. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 504–520). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Webb, T. L., Miles, E., & Sheeran, P. (2012). Dealing with feeling: A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 775–808. CrossRef
Yinger, J. M. (1970). The scientific study of religion. London: Macmillan.
Zika, S., & Chamberlain, K. (1987). Relation of Hassles and personality to subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 155–162. CrossRef
Zinnbauer, B. J., Pargament, K. I., & Scott, A. B. (1999). The emerging meanings of religiousness and spirituality: Problems and prospects. Journal of Personality, 67, 889–919. CrossRef
- Always Look on the Bright Side of Life: Religiosity, Emotion Regulation and Well-Being in a Jewish and Christian Sample
Pazit Ben-Nun Bloom
- Springer Netherlands
Journal of Happiness Studies
An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being
Print ISSN: 1389-4978
Elektronische ISSN: 1573-7780
Entwicklung einer Supply-Strategie bei der Atotech Deutschland GmbH am Standort Feucht