Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen

2022 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

9. Ammonia for Decarbonized Maritime Transportation

verfasst von: Burak Zincir

Erschienen in: Clean Fuels for Mobility

Verlag: Springer Singapore

share
TEILEN

Abstract

Carbon emissions are one of the important topics in maritime transportation recently since International Maritime Organization (IMO) implemented stricter regulations. IMO announced Initial Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Strategy in 2018 for decarbonization of maritime transportation. International shipping consumed 300 million tons of high carbon content fossil fuels annually and it is increasing year by year. Maritime transportation constitutes 3.1% of the total global CO2 emissions which depends on the usage of high carbon content fossil fuels. The Initial GHG Strategy aims to reach zero-carbon shipping in the future. One way to achieve this aim is the usage of alternative fuels with zero-carbon content. Ammonia is one of the alternative fuels that can be either used for fuel cells on ships and at marine diesel engines. Ammonia has a carbon-free and sulfur-free structure and it can be combusted by the dual-fuel combustion concept at marine diesel engines as same as other alternative marine fuels. In this chapter, a review study is conducted on ammonia to show its importance for decarbonized maritime transportation. The outcomes of the chapter reveal that although there are some barriers to ammonia as a marine fuel, the existing experience of the maritime industry, supply chains and infrastructures of fertilizer industry, low modification requirement on engines, and achievement of significantly lower CO2 and soot emissions, and almost zero SOX emissions will facilitate the use of ammonia, and it can be one of the options for full decarbonized maritime transportation by 2050.

Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 69.000 Bücher
  • über 500 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Testen Sie jetzt 15 Tage kostenlos.

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 50.000 Bücher
  • über 380 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




Testen Sie jetzt 15 Tage kostenlos.

Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Alemu MA, Ilbas M (2020) Direct ammonia powered solid oxide fuel cells: challenges, opportunities, and future outlooks. J Eng Appl Sci Technol 2(3):1–11 Alemu MA, Ilbas M (2020) Direct ammonia powered solid oxide fuel cells: challenges, opportunities, and future outlooks. J Eng Appl Sci Technol 2(3):1–11
Zurück zum Zitat Alfa L, Hafnia, Haldor T, Vestas, Siemans G (2020) Ammonfuel—an industrial view of ammonia as a marine fuel. Industrial report, Aug 2020 Alfa L, Hafnia, Haldor T, Vestas, Siemans G (2020) Ammonfuel—an industrial view of ammonia as a marine fuel. Industrial report, Aug 2020
Zurück zum Zitat American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) (2019) Setting the course to low carbon shipping. 2030 Outlook/2050 Vision American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) (2019) Setting the course to low carbon shipping. 2030 Outlook/2050 Vision
Zurück zum Zitat American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) (2020a) Setting the course to low carbon shipping. Pathways to sustainable shipping American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) (2020a) Setting the course to low carbon shipping. Pathways to sustainable shipping
Zurück zum Zitat American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) (2020b) Ammonia as marine fuel. Sustainability whitepaper, Oct 2020 American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) (2020b) Ammonia as marine fuel. Sustainability whitepaper, Oct 2020
Zurück zum Zitat Belgiorno G, Di Blasio G, Beatrice C (2019) Advances of the natural gas/diesel RCCI concept application for light-duty engines: comprehensive analysis of the influence of the design and calibration parameters on performance and emissions. In: Srinivasan K, Agarwal AK, Krishnan S, Mulone V (eds) Natural gas engines. Energy, environment, and sustainability. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-981-13-3307-1_​9 Belgiorno G, Di Blasio G, Beatrice C (2019) Advances of the natural gas/diesel RCCI concept application for light-duty engines: comprehensive analysis of the influence of the design and calibration parameters on performance and emissions. In: Srinivasan K, Agarwal AK, Krishnan S, Mulone V (eds) Natural gas engines. Energy, environment, and sustainability. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-981-13-3307-1_​9
Zurück zum Zitat Brinks HW, Chryssakis C (2017) LPG as a marine fuel. DNV GL strategic research and position paper Brinks HW, Chryssakis C (2017) LPG as a marine fuel. DNV GL strategic research and position paper
Zurück zum Zitat Brinks HW, Hektor EA (2020) Ammonia as a marine fuel. DNV GL, Group Technology & Research, White Paper 2020 Brinks HW, Hektor EA (2020) Ammonia as a marine fuel. DNV GL, Group Technology & Research, White Paper 2020
Zurück zum Zitat de Vries N (2019) Safe and effective application of ammonia as a marine fuel. Delft University of Technology, Delft de Vries N (2019) Safe and effective application of ammonia as a marine fuel. Delft University of Technology, Delft
Zurück zum Zitat Hansson J, Fridell E, Brynolf S (2020) On the potential of ammonia as fuel for shipping, a synthesis of knowledge. Lighthouse reports. Swedish Maritime Competence Centre Hansson J, Fridell E, Brynolf S (2020) On the potential of ammonia as fuel for shipping, a synthesis of knowledge. Lighthouse reports. Swedish Maritime Competence Centre
Zurück zum Zitat Heywood JB (1988) Internal combustion engine fundamentals. McGraw-Hill, New York Heywood JB (1988) Internal combustion engine fundamentals. McGraw-Hill, New York
Zurück zum Zitat Ianniello R, Belgiorno G, Di Luca G, Beatrice C, Di Blasio G (2021) Ethanol in dual-fuel and blend fueling modes for advanced combustion in compression ignition engines. In: Shukla PC, Belgiorno G, Di Blasio G, Agarwal AK (eds) Alcohol as an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. Energy, Environment, and Sustainability. Springer, Singapore. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-981-16-0931-2_​2 Ianniello R, Belgiorno G, Di Luca G, Beatrice C, Di Blasio G (2021) Ethanol in dual-fuel and blend fueling modes for advanced combustion in compression ignition engines. In: Shukla PC, Belgiorno G, Di Blasio G, Agarwal AK (eds) Alcohol as an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. Energy, Environment, and Sustainability. Springer, Singapore. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-981-16-0931-2_​2
Zurück zum Zitat Inal OB, Zincir B, Deniz C (2021) Hydrogen and ammonia for the decarbonization of shipping. In: 5th international hydrogen technologies congress (IHTEC-2021), 26–28 May 2021 (Online) Inal OB, Zincir B, Deniz C (2021) Hydrogen and ammonia for the decarbonization of shipping. In: 5th international hydrogen technologies congress (IHTEC-2021), 26–28 May 2021 (Online)
Zurück zum Zitat International Maritime Organization (IMO) (2015) Third greenhouse gas study 2014 International Maritime Organization (IMO) (2015) Third greenhouse gas study 2014
Zurück zum Zitat International Maritime Organization (IMO) (2018) Adoption of the initial IMO strategy on reduction of GHG emissions from ships and existing IMO activity related to reducing GHG emissions in the shipping sector International Maritime Organization (IMO) (2018) Adoption of the initial IMO strategy on reduction of GHG emissions from ships and existing IMO activity related to reducing GHG emissions in the shipping sector
Zurück zum Zitat International Maritime Organization (IMO) (2020) Fourth greenhouse gas study 2020 International Maritime Organization (IMO) (2020) Fourth greenhouse gas study 2020
Zurück zum Zitat Klüssmann JN, Ekknud LR, Ivarsson A, Schramm J (2020) Ammonia application in CI engines. Special report, a report from the advanced motor fuels technology collaboration programme Klüssmann JN, Ekknud LR, Ivarsson A, Schramm J (2020) Ammonia application in CI engines. Special report, a report from the advanced motor fuels technology collaboration programme
Zurück zum Zitat Kroch E (1945) Ammonia—a fuel for motor buses. J Inst Pet 31:213–223 Kroch E (1945) Ammonia—a fuel for motor buses. J Inst Pet 31:213–223
Zurück zum Zitat MAN Energy Solutions (2019) Engineering the future two-stroke green-ammonia engine. Technical paper, Nov 2019 MAN Energy Solutions (2019) Engineering the future two-stroke green-ammonia engine. Technical paper, Nov 2019
Zurück zum Zitat McKinlay CJ, Turnock SR, Hudson DA (2020) A comparison of hydrogen and ammonia for future long distance shipping fuels. LNG/LPG and alternative fuels, 29–30 Jan 2020. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, London McKinlay CJ, Turnock SR, Hudson DA (2020) A comparison of hydrogen and ammonia for future long distance shipping fuels. LNG/LPG and alternative fuels, 29–30 Jan 2020. The Royal Institution of Naval Architects, London
Zurück zum Zitat Niki Y, Nitta Y, Sekiguchi H, Hirata K (2018) Emission and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fumigated with ammonia. In: Proceedings of the ASME 2018 internal combustion engine division fall technical conference ICEF2018, 4–7 Nov 2018, San Diego, CA, USA Niki Y, Nitta Y, Sekiguchi H, Hirata K (2018) Emission and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fumigated with ammonia. In: Proceedings of the ASME 2018 internal combustion engine division fall technical conference ICEF2018, 4–7 Nov 2018, San Diego, CA, USA
Zurück zum Zitat Porter DH (1998) The life and times of sir Goldsworthy Gurney, gentleman scientist and inventor: 1793–1875. Lehigh University Press Porter DH (1998) The life and times of sir Goldsworthy Gurney, gentleman scientist and inventor: 1793–1875. Lehigh University Press
Zurück zum Zitat Reiter AJ, Kong S (2010) Diesel engine operation using ammonia as a carbon-free fuel. In: Proceedings of the ASME 2010 internal combustion engine fall technical conference ICEF2010, USA Reiter AJ, Kong S (2010) Diesel engine operation using ammonia as a carbon-free fuel. In: Proceedings of the ASME 2010 internal combustion engine fall technical conference ICEF2010, USA
Zurück zum Zitat Shamun S, Belgiorno G, Di Blasio G (2020) Engine parameters assessment for alcohols fuels application in compression ignition engines. In: Singh PS, Sharma YC, Mustafi NN, Agarwal AK (eds) Alternative fuels and their utilization strategies in internal combustion engines. Energy, Environment, and Sustainability. Springer, Singapore. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-981-15-0418-1_​8 Shamun S, Belgiorno G, Di Blasio G (2020) Engine parameters assessment for alcohols fuels application in compression ignition engines. In: Singh PS, Sharma YC, Mustafi NN, Agarwal AK (eds) Alternative fuels and their utilization strategies in internal combustion engines. Energy, Environment, and Sustainability. Springer, Singapore. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-981-15-0418-1_​8
Zurück zum Zitat United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (2020) Review of maritime transport 2020 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (2020) Review of maritime transport 2020
Zurück zum Zitat Zincir B (2019) An alternative fuel assessment model for ships and experiments on the effect of methanol on diesel engines. Dissertation thesis. Department of Maritime Transportation Engineering, Istanbul Technical University Zincir B (2019) An alternative fuel assessment model for ships and experiments on the effect of methanol on diesel engines. Dissertation thesis. Department of Maritime Transportation Engineering, Istanbul Technical University
Zurück zum Zitat Zincir BA (2020) Comparison of the carbon capture systems for onboard application and voyage performance investigation by a case study. M.Sc. thesis. Department of Maritime Transportation Engineering, Maritime Faculty, Istanbul Technical University Zincir BA (2020) Comparison of the carbon capture systems for onboard application and voyage performance investigation by a case study. M.Sc. thesis. Department of Maritime Transportation Engineering, Maritime Faculty, Istanbul Technical University
Zurück zum Zitat Zincir B (2020) A short review of ammonia as an alternative marine fuel for decarbonised maritime transportation. In: Proceedings of international conference on energy, environment and storage of energy (ICEESEN2020), 19–21 Nov 2020, Kayseri-Turkey Zincir B (2020) A short review of ammonia as an alternative marine fuel for decarbonised maritime transportation. In: Proceedings of international conference on energy, environment and storage of energy (ICEESEN2020), 19–21 Nov 2020, Kayseri-Turkey
Metadaten
Titel
Ammonia for Decarbonized Maritime Transportation
verfasst von
Burak Zincir
Copyright-Jahr
2022
Verlag
Springer Singapore
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-8747-1_9

Premium Partner