Watermarking is a suitable approach for digital image authentication. Robustness regarding attacks that aim to remove the watermark is one of the most important challenges in watermarking, in general. Several different attacks are reported that aim to make it difficult or impossible for the real owner of the digital watermarked image to extract the watermark. Some of such common attacks are noise addition, compression, scaling, rotation, clipping, cropping, etc. In this paper we address the issue of print and scan attack by introducing a method to model the scanner and printer. Then we will simulate the print and scan attack on the digital images to evaluate its robustness. In addition, we introduce how to identify the system and how to analyze the noise imposed on the digital image when it is printed and the printed version is scanned. In this approach we obtained high flexibility in analyzing the behavior of different printers and scanners. By examining the amount of degradation applied on the original watermarked image obtained after the process of scanning its printed version, we can embed the watermark in such a way that the robustness of watermark is maintained by print and scan attack. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method we used some bench marks that are available for this purpose. Our experimental results showed a high performance for our method in modeling the print and scan operations.
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- An Algorithm for Modeling Print and Scan Operations Used for Watermarking
S. Hamid Amiri
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
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