Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Social vulnerability influences the ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. The identification of vulnerable populations and factors that contribute to their vulnerability are crucial for effective disaster risk reduction. Nepal exhibits multihazard risk and has experienced socioeconomic and political upheaval in recent decades, further increasing susceptibility to hazards. However, we still know little regarding social vulnerability in Nepal. Here, we investigate social vulnerability in Nepal by adapting Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) methods to the Nepali context. Variables such as caste, and populations who cannot speak/understand Nepali were added to reflect the essence of the Nepali context. Using principal component analysis, 39 variables were reduced to seven factors that explained 63.02% of variance in the data. Factor scores were summarized to calculate final SoVI scores. The highest levels of social vulnerability are concentrated in the central and western Mountain, western Hill, and central and eastern Tarai regions of Nepal, while the least vulnerable areas are in the central and eastern Hill regions. These findings, supplemented with smaller-scale analyses, have the potential to assist village officers, policymakers, and emergency managers in the development of more effective and geographically targeted disaster management programs.
Abdi, H., and L.J. Williams. 2010. Principal component analysis. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Computational Statistics 2(4): 433–459. CrossRef
Aksha, S.K., L. Juran, and L.M. Resler. 2018. Spatial and temporal analysis of natural hazard mortality in Nepal. Environmental Hazards 17(2): 163–179. CrossRef
Armas, I. 2008. Social vulnerability and seismic risk perception. Case study: The historic center of the Bucharest Municipality/Romania. Natural Hazards 47(3): 397–410. CrossRef
Aryal, K.R. 2014. Disaster vulnerability in Nepal. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 9: 137–146. CrossRef
Aryal, S., G. Cockfield, and T.N. Maraseni. 2014. Vulnerability of Himalayan transhumant communities to climate change. Climatic Change 125(2): 193–208. CrossRef
Bajracharya, S.R., and P.K. Mool. 2009. Glaciers, glacial lakes and glacial lake outburst floods in the Mount Everest region, Nepal. Annals of Glaciology 50(53): 81–86. CrossRef
Bhattachan, K.B. 2008. Indigenous peoples & minorities of Nepal. http://www.nefin.org.np/articles/dr-krishna-b-bhattachan/377-indigenouspeoples-a-minorities-of-nepal. Accessed 16 Jun 2017.
Birkmann, J. 2006a. Indicators and criteria for measuring vulnerability: Theoretical bases and requirements. In Measuring vulnerability to natural hazards: Towards disaster resilient societies, ed. J. Birkmann, 55–77. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
Birkmann, J. 2006b. Measuring vulnerability to promote disaster-resilient societies: Conceptual frameworks and definitions. In Measuring vulnerability to natural hazards: Towards disaster resilient societies, ed. J. Birkmann, 9–54. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
Boruff, B.J., and S.L. Cutter. 2007. The environmental vulnerability of Caribbean Island nations. Geographical Review 97(1): 24–45. CrossRef
Burton, C.G. 2015. A validation of metrics for community resilience to natural nazards and disasters using the recovery from Hurricane Katrina as a case study. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 105(1): 67–86. CrossRef
CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics). 2012. National population and housing census 2011. Kathmandu, Nepal: CBS.
Christensen, J.H., K.K. Kanikicharla, E. Aldrian, S.I. An, I.F.A. Cavalcanti, M. de Castro, W.J. Dong, P. Goswami, et al. 2014. Climate phenomena and their relevance for future regional climate change. In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis, working group I contribution to the fifth assessment resport of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 1217–1308. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
CRED (Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters). 2015. The human cost of natural disasters: A global perspective. Brussels: CRED.
Cutter, S.L., B.J. Boruff, and W.L. Shirley. 2003. Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. Social Science Quarterly 84(2): 242–261. CrossRef
Cutter, S.L., and C. Finch. 2008. Temporal and spatial changes in social vulnerability to natural hazards. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(7): 2301–2306. CrossRef
Cutter, S.L., and D.P. Morath. 2014. The evolution of the social vulnerability index (SoVI). In Measuring vulnerability to natural hazards: Towards disaster resilient societies, 2nd edn., ed. J. Birkmann, 304–321. New York: United Nations University Press.
Dahal, D.R., Y.B. Gurung, B. Acharya, K. Hemchuri, and D. Swarnakar. 2002. Situation analysis of dalits in Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal: Action-Aid Nepal, CARE Nepal, and Save the Children US.
de Haen, H., and G. Hemrich. 2007. The economics of natural disasters: Implications and challenges for food security. Agricultural Economics 37(S1): 31–45. CrossRef
de Oliveira Mendes, J.M. 2009. Social vulnerability indexes as planning tools: Beyond the preparedness paradigm. Journal of Risk Research 12(1): 43–58. CrossRef
Devkota, R.P., T.N. Maraseni, G. Cockfield, and L.P. Devkota. 2013. Flood vulnerability through the eyes of vulnerable people in mid-western Terai of Nepal. Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change 4(1): 1–7. CrossRef
Dixit, A. 2003. Floods and vulnerability: Need to rethink flood management. Natural Hazards 28(1): 155–179. CrossRef
Dixit, A.M. 2014. Risk and vulnerability assessment: Experience of Nepal. In Civil society organization and disaster risk reduction: The Asian dilemma, ed. R. Shaw, and T. Izumi, 79–113. Japan: Springer. CrossRef
Dixit, A., M. Upadhya, A. Pokhrel, K.M. Dixit, D.R. Rai, and M. Devkota. 2007. Flood disaster impacts and responses in Nepal Tarai’s marginalized basins. In Working with the winds of change: Toward strategies for responding to the risks associated with climate change and other hazards, ed. M. Moench, and A. Dixit, 119–158. Kathmandu: ProVention Consortium, Institute for Social and Environmental Transition-International, and Institute for Social and Environmental Transition-Nepal.
Dixit, A.M., R. Yatabe, R.K. Dahal, and N.P. Bhandary. 2013. Initiatives for earthquake disaster risk management in the Kathmandu Valley. Natural Hazards 69(1): 631–654. CrossRef
Few, R., and G.T. Pham. 2010. Climatic hazards, health risk and response in Vietnam: Case studies on social dimensions of vulnerability. Global Environmental Change— Human and Policy Dimensions 20(3): 529–538. CrossRef
Fuchs, S., J. Birkmann, and T. Glade. 2012. Vulnerability assessment in natural hazard and risk analysis: Current approaches and future challenges. Natural Hazards 64(3): 1969–1975. CrossRef
Hewitt, K (ed.). 1997. Regions of risk: A geographical introduction to disasters. Singapore: Longman.
Holand, I.S., and P. Lujala. 2013. Replicating and adapting an index of social vulnerability to a new context: A comparison study for Norway. Professional Geographer 65(2): 312–328. CrossRef
Huggel, C., A. Raissig, M. Rohrer, G. Romero, A. Diaz, and N. Salzmann. 2015. How useful and reliable are disaster databases in the context of climate and global change? A comparative case study analysis in Peru. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 15(3): 475–485. CrossRef
Hummell, B.M.D., S.L. Cutter, and C.T. Emrich. 2016. Social vulnerability to natural hazards in Brazil. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science 7(2): 111–122. CrossRef
Immerzeel, W.W., L.P.H. van Beek, M. Konz, A.B. Shrestha, and M.F.P. Bierkens. 2012. Hydrological response to climate change in a glacierized catchment in the Himalayas. Climatic Change 110(3): 721–736. CrossRef
Juran, L., and J. Trivedi. 2015. Women, gender norms, and natural disasters in Bangladesh. Geographical Review 105(4): 601–611. CrossRef
K.C., S. 2013. Community vulnerability to floods and landslides in Nepal. Ecology and Society 18(1): Article 8.
Laska, S., and B.H. Morrow. 2006. Social vulnerabilities and Hurricane Katrina: An unnatural disaster in New Orleans. Marine Technology Society Journal 40(4): 16–26. CrossRef
Letsie, M.M., and S.W. Grab. 2015. Assessment of social vulnerability to natural hazards in the Mountain Kingdom of Lesotho. Mountain Research and Development 35(2): 115–125. CrossRef
Mainali, J., and N.G. Pricope. 2017. High-resolution spatial assessment of population vulnerability to climate change in Nepal. Applied Geography 82: 66–82. CrossRef
Mallick, B., K.R. Rahaman, and J. Vogt. 2011. Social vulnerability analysis for sustainable disaster mitigation planning in coastal Bangladesh. Disaster Prevention and Management 20(3): 220–237. CrossRef
Ministry of Environment of the Government of Nepal. 2010. National adaptation programme of action to climate change. Kathmandu, Nepal: Ministry of Environment, Government of Nepal.
Montz, B.E., and G.A. Tobin. 2011. Natural hazards: An evolving tradition in applied geography. Applied Geography 31(1): 1–4. CrossRef
Myers, C.A., T. Slack, and J. Singelmann. 2008. Social vulnerability and migration in the wake of disaster: The case of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Population and Environment 29(6): 271–291. CrossRef
Papathoma-Kohle, M., M. Kappes, M. Keiler, and T. Glade. 2011. Physical vulnerability assessment for alpine hazards: State of the art and future needs. Natural Hazards 58(2): 645–680. CrossRef
Scott, L.M., and M.V. Janikas. 2010. Spatial statistics in ArcGIS. In Handbook of applied spatial analysis: Software tools, methods and applications, ed. M.M. Fischer, and A. Getis, 27–41. Berlin: Springer. CrossRef
Sharma, P., B. Guha-Khasnobis, and D.R. Khanal. 2014. Nepal human development report 2014. Kathmandu: National Planning Commission, Government of Nepal, and United Nations Development Programme.
Shrestha, A. 2005. Vulnerability assessment of weather disasters in Syangja District, Nepal: A case study in Putalibazaar Municipality. Nepal: Department of Hydrology and Meteorology.
Shrestha, A.B., and R. Aryal. 2011. Climate change in Nepal and its impact on Himalayan glaciers. Regional Environmental Change 11(1): 65–77. CrossRef
Shrestha, A.B., C.P. Wake, P.A. Mayewski, and J.E. Dibb. 1999. Maximum temperature trends in the Himalaya and its vicinity: An analysis based on temperature records from Nepal for the period 1971–94. Journal of Climate 12(9): 2775–2786. CrossRef
Sudmeier-Rieux, K., S. Jaquet, M.H. Derron, M. Jaboyedoff, and S. Devkota. 2012. A case study of coping strategies and landslides in two villages of Central-Eastern Nepal. Applied Geography 32(2): 680–690. CrossRef
TU-CDES (Tribhuvan University-Central Department of Environmental Science). 2016. Landslide inventory characterization and engineering design for mitigation works of Chure area in ten districts. Kathmandu, Nepal: Central Department of Environmental Science (CDES), Tribhuvan University (TU), and President Chure-Tarai Madhesh Conservation Development Board, Government of Nepal.
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 2016. Human development report 2016: Human development for everyone. New York: UNDP.
Wisner, B., P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis. 2004. At risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters, 2nd edn. London: Routledge.
Zhou, Y., N. Li, W.X. Wu, J.D. Wu, and P.J. Shi. 2014. Local spatial and temporal factors influencing population and societal vulnerability to natural disasters. Risk Analysis 34(4): 614–639. CrossRef
- An Analysis of Social Vulnerability to Natural Hazards in Nepal Using a Modified Social Vulnerability Index
Sanam K. Aksha
Lynn M. Resler
- Beijing Normal University Press
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science
Print ISSN: 2095-0055
Elektronische ISSN: 2192-6395
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen