Biological systems are open systems. They exchange permanently energy, matter and information with their environment. The consequence is, that life is bound together with systems of energy and matter. These conversion processes are irreversible. Consequently, biological systems are also regenerative systems. Their rhythms are the generation sequences of a total species and the biological system. In general rhythms are the measure of time of biological processes. There is no limitation of the biological diversity of modifications, structures, complexities and species in an open biological system. This is characterized by innovative developments. In an open system the number of degrees of freedom is inexhaustible for the manifestation of life. Innovative systems also include the potential for evolution. Mutation and selection are typical criteria of the biological evolution. The particular characteristica are self-renewal, self-organization, self-control and reproduction. Biological systems are symbiotic systems.The zero biological principle – Of life, matter and energy.The first biological principle – Of the urge of the biological species to survive.The second biological principle – Of the sacrifice of individuals by the species in times of crisis.The third biological principle – Of the interaction of individuals and the population.The fourth biological principle – Of the features of the species man.
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- An English Summary: Biological Principles—How Can These Be Formulated?
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
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