Interaction between transverse electron beam waves in so-called pump structures has been studied theoretically by several authors. Analysis has shown that there exists a number of interaction schemes involving the cyclotron waves and synchronous waves. The nature, of the interaction depends on the details of the pump field. Although the theory is far from complete, it describes the fundamental properties of the various interaction schemes. However, the theoretical work has not been followed up by experiments. The quadrupole structure used in the Adler tube is the only pump which has been thoroughly investigated experimentally , , . Some electrostatic and magnetostatic pump structures have been shown to operate, but no systematic investigation of their performance under various operating conditions has been carried out , , , . The possible advantages of transverse modulation as compared to longitudinal modulation is far from being utilized in practical devices.
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