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Über dieses Buch

This book provides authentic and comprehensive information on the concepts, methods, functional details and applications of nano-emulsions. Following an introduction to the applications of nanotechnology in the development of foods, it elaborates on food-grade nano-emulsion and their significance, discusses various techniques and methods for producing food-grade nano-emulsion, and reviews the main ingredient and component of food-grade nano-emulsions.
Further, the book includes a critical review of the engineering aspect of fabricating food-grade nano-emulsions and describe recently developed vitamin encapsulated nano-systems. In closing, it discuss the challenges and opportunities of characterizing nano-emulsified systems, the market risks and opportunities of nano-emulsified foods, and packaging techniques and safety issues – including risk identification and risk management – for nano-foods.
The book offers a unique guide for scientists and researchers working in this field. It will also help researchers, policymakers, industry personnel, journalists and the general public to understand food nanotechnology in great detail.



Chapter 1. Nanotechnology in Food Sector

Recently, applications of nanotechnology are in the lime light in all the sectors including food and nutrition. Food nanotechnology is becoming new frontiers of this century. The applications of nanotechnology in food and agriculture sector are comparatively more recent than the nano-drugs and nanopharmaceuticals. Smart and efficient delivery of active food components, protein bioseparation, nanoencapsulation of nutraceuticals are few of the emerging topics in food and agriculture nanotechnology. Other advancement in food and agriculture biotechnology is the nano-films and their applications in packaging also the smart materials for sensing properties make it more fit to be used in food and agriculture sector. Industrialists, scientists and researchers are focusing to meet their need with the help of nanotechnology e.g. high nutrition level, efficient nutritional delivery, more shelf life, good mechanical properties as well as longer shelf life and durability of food-products. In this review, we have summarized the applications of nanotechnology in food and nutraceuticals and also have identified the outstanding challenges to be overcome which further indicates future of this food nanotechnology. Here in this review, we have described (i) the recently launched marketed nano-foods; (ii) major applications of nanotechnology in food and its allied sectors (iii) challenges and opportunities in nano-food processing.
Nandita Dasgupta, Shivendu Ranjan

Chapter 2. Food Nanoemulsions: Stability, Benefits and Applications

Applied nanoscience has gained much attraction towards medical, pharmaceuticals, food and agriculture and also industries has received great attention from the scientific community. Sharp increase in consumers’ demand for safer as well as healthier foods has given the opportunity to develop new products to encapsulate, protect and release the nutrition as well as active food compounds. Due to toxic effects of metal nano-particles, colloidal nanomaterials are more in use to fabricate food-grade nanomaterials – mainly nano-emulsions. Nanoemulsions found to be more efficiently bioactive than micro- or macro-emulsions. Nanoemulsion technology is well suitable for the stable and efficient encapsulation of active food component with increased preventive measure and improved bioavailability. Here in this review, (i) the stability factors, advantages and disadvantages of nanoemulsions have been discussed when used in food. (ii) the major applications of nanoemulsions in food have been discussed and also the recent researches, challenges and opportunities have been discussed.
Nandita Dasgupta, Shivendu Ranjan

Chapter 3. Fabrication of Nanoemulsion: A Brief Review

Nanoemulsion is the best way to develop nano-vehicle for the protected, and efficient delivery of encapsulated vitamins, flavors, nutraceuticals, active molecules, and preservatives. Increased bioavailability, weaker light scattering gives transparency, texture modulator, higher stability, and protection of encapsulated molecules are few of the major advantages of nanoemulsions than conventional emulsions. Whereas, few risks also associated with nanoemulsions which might be solved, the risks are as their ability to change the biological fate of active compounds during their route of delivery or the toxicity of the components used in the fabrication. Understanding the theories behind fabrication of nanoemulsions is as important as as understanding the fabrication methodology. Here in this review, (i) different theories behind fabrication of nano-emulsions have been discussed in brief for better understanding of the authors; (ii) irrespective of listing out different nano-emulsion fabrication methodologies, the principle of those fabrication method have been discussed for better understanding; (iii) followed by recent examples from each fabrication methods; (iv) including the opportunities and future implications of those have been discussed.
Nandita Dasgupta, Shivendu Ranjan

Chapter 4. Ingredients and Components of Nanoemulsions

For formulating a food grade nanoemulsion, a food technologist not only has to check for the interacting forces between the oil, water and surfactant but also for various ingredients present in a food product such as preservatives, gelling agents, chelating agents, flavours, colorants etc. The molecular and functional aspect of each ingredient plays an important role in determining the stability and organoleptic property of a food product. However, most of the food products developed is due to mixing of ingredients based upon previous knowledge rather than the interaction studies of different components. Nano-encapsulation systems for active compounds often need a higher concentration of surfactant, which may lead to toxicity and irritancy problems. Consequently, judicious and logical selection of ingredients along with their optimum concentration is required, which has been focussed discussed in this review. Optimum selection as well as concentration would aid in better fabrication with desirable outcome.
The use of nanoemulsions in nutraceutical delivery has been reviewed, and it was noted that almost all the studies have not been very systematic with regard to selection of cosurfactants and surfactants. The main objective of this review is to provide a systematic understanding for the proper selection of oils, cosurfactants, surfactants for fabricating nanoemulsions.
Here in this review, (i) different ingredients for developing food-grade nanoemulsions have been described; (ii) recent research trends, challanges and opportunities have been discussed in each of the major sections; (iii) the importance and activity of the major ingredients have been discussed in detail.
Nandita Dasgupta, Shivendu Ranjan

Chapter 5. Food Engineering for Developing Food-Grade Nanoemulsions

The conventional food-engineering equipments such as evaporators, drier, extruders have been identified to have major applications in developing food-grade nanoemulsions. These engineering aspects also helped industrialists to scale-up the laboratory scale formulation to the industrial scale via pilot-plat scale. Nanoencapsulation can be defined as a process to pack active compound using miniature making techniques such as nanoemulsification, nanocomposite, and nanoestructuration. It will maintain the product functionability during storage and also may lead to targeted delivery and controlled release of the core i.e. active compound encapsulated. Here in this review, (i) The food engineering aspects for developing food-grade nanoemulsions have been discussed; (ii) The major advantages, important changes required and other challenges have been discussed (iii) possibilities of developing food-grade nanoemulsions from lab-scale formulations have been discussed.
Nandita Dasgupta, Shivendu Ranjan

Chapter 6. Research Updates on Different Vitamins Based Nanoemulsions and Characterization of Nanoemulsions

Developing and marketing vitamin rich food products are major challenge because of efficient nutritional delivery system, longer stability, and shelf life. Nanoemulsified and nanoencapsulated vitamin based nanoemulsions have been developed to overcome these issues. Recently, vitamin based nanoemulsions have been developed and also been marketed. Here in this review, (i) several vitamin enriched nanoemulsions have been discussed in which different oils have been used to meet specific need (ii) the opportunities of such products in markets and research have been discussed; (iii) the conventional nanoemulsion characterization techniques have been discussed and also (iv) non-conventional and newly developed characterization techniques have been discussed to show their future and impact on nanoemulsion characterization.
Nandita Dasgupta, Shivendu Ranjan

Chapter 7. Food-Grade Nanoemulsions: Review on the Possible Market

Nanoemulsions are thermodynamically stable, low viscosity, transparent, and isotropic dispersions consisting of water and oil stabilized by an interfacial film of surfactant molecules, in conjunction with a cosurfactant. Nanoemulsions (so-called due to their small particle size; 5–100 nm) have found application in a wide variety of systems, such as pharmaceutical, food, agriculture, environment and oil recovery. Understanding the market of the basic research will lead to development of products with real-life use. The same have been explained in brief with the aim to focus on the future market of food-grade nanoemulsions to attract researchers, scientists and industrialists.
Nandita Dasgupta, Shivendu Ranjan

Chapter 8. Nanotechnology in Food Packaging

Packaging of the food products are the major and unavoidable stage of food supply chain as the better packaging leads to longer durability, shelf life and maintenance of mechanical, physical, chemical and physio-chemical properties of food products. Here in this review, (i) a details of nano-packaging have been discussed; (ii) different forms of nano-packaging systems have been discussed to meet specific requirements; (iii) additionally, the recent trends, future and opportunities of nano-food packaging have been discussed.
Nandita Dasgupta, Shivendu Ranjan

Chapter 9. Nano-Food Toxicity and Regulations

Food nanotechnology has seen exponential growth in last decade due to its unique physicochemical properties; however, the risk associated with this emerging technology has withdrawn ample attention in the past decade. Developing novel food-product for better efficiency is important but analyzing the short term as well as long term toxic effects is more important and that is why rules, regulations and other controlling measures. Nanotoxicity is majorly contributed to the small size and large surface area of nanomaterials, which allow easy dispersion and invasion of anatomical barriers in human body. Unique physio-chemical properties of nanomaterials make the investigation of their toxic consequences intricate and challenging. Nano-toxicity has various effects on human health and diseases as they can easily enter into the humans via different routes, mainly respiratory, dermal and gastrointestinalroutes.
This review focuses on the nanomaterial-cell interactions leading to toxicological responses. Different mechanisms involved in nanoparticle-mediated toxicity with the main focus on oxidative stress, genotoxic and carcinogenic potential has also been discussed. This review provides a better understanding of the current scenario of the nanotoxicology, disease progression due to nanomaterials, and their use in the food industry and medical therapeutics. Briefly, the required rules, regulations and the need of policy makers has been discussed critically. Here in this review, (i) the toxicity of nano-materials used in foods are discussed in brief; (ii) Safety regulations drafted in context of nano-foods have been discussed; (iii) globally many countries e.g. India do not have any strict regulations to control nano-food products, in this regard, the regulations and recommendations which may fit with nano-foods have been pointed out here. This review will be brief note for the policymakers when the nano-toxicology, nano-regulations will come in lime-light.
Nandita Dasgupta, Shivendu Ranjan
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