As a result of agricultural and industrial activities, wide varieties of xenobiotic aromatic compounds have been introduced into the biosphere (Bechard et al., 1990). Nitroaromatic compounds are used as herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and bactericides, and also as explosives (Boopathy et al., 1994a). TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) is a nitroaromatic compound that is introduced into soil and water ecosystems mainly by military activities. The wastewater from processing explosives is contaminated with TNT. For years, this water was discarded outside of the manufacturing facilities, on the ground or in lagoons that leached explosives into soil and groundwater. Concerns about the environmental fate of TNT residues have intensified because the recent vegetation of contaminated sites could allow TNT, TNT metabolites and plant-produced TNT intermediates to be introduced into the food chain (Harvey et al., 1990).
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- Anaerobic bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soil: a laboratory study
C. F. Kulpa
- Springer Netherlands