Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Energy consumption baselines are essential in promoting energy efficiency programs in an effort to mitigate the environmental impacts of increasing consumption and increasing home sizes. This study calculates baselines, using site and source energy index (EI), of approximately 348,000 detached single-family homes in San Antonio, Texas to facilitate energy efficiency programs. The data analysis pairs building characteristics of individual houses with their energy consumption, allowing researchers to categorically study houses based on EI, vintage (year built), conditioned space (size), and type of fuel and energy utilized. This study found that the size of single-family detached houses has increased over time, while average site and source energy index values have decreased. The majority of single-family detached houses (45.8 % of total or 159,147 houses) have an energy index of 25–50 kBtu/sf/year (78.8–157.7 kWh/m2/year). The majority of all-electric single-family detached houses have been built since 1980, resulting in better performance than anticipated when compared with houses having access to natural gas. Most homes built after 1990 are distributed in the lower (more efficient) energy index categories, indicating that energy efficiency programs for newer, larger houses should be behavioral or educational in nature while programs for older houses should improve the infrastructure.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Australia Department of Resources, Energy, and Tourism. (2013) Energy Savings Management Guide. Retrieved from http://eeo.govspace.gov.au/files/2013/03/ESMG.pdf
Balaras, C. A., Gaglia, A. G., Georgopoulou, E., Mirasgedis, S., Sarafidis, Y., & Lalas, D. P. (2007). European residential buildings and empirical assessment of the Hellenic building stock, energy consumption, emissions and potential energy savings. Building and Environment, 42(3), 1298–1314. CrossRef
Birtles, A. B., & Grigg, P. (1997). Energy efficiency of buildings: simple appraisal method. Building Services Engineering Research and Technology, 18(2), 109–114. CrossRef
Brecha, R. J., Mitchell, A., Hallinan, K., & Kissock, K. (2011). Prioritizing investment in residential energy efficiency and renewable energy—a case study for the US Midwest. Energy Policy, 39(5), 2982–2992. CrossRef
Census Bureau, U. S. (2010a). Median and average square feet in floor area in new single-family houses completed by location.
Census Bureau, U. S. (2010b). State & country Quickfacts: San Antonio, TX.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). 2006–2010 American Community Survey. Retrieved Aug 27, 2014, from U.S. Census Bureau: American Fact Finder
Chong, H. (2012). Building vintage and electric use: old homes use less electricity in hot weather. European Economic Review, 56, 906–930. CrossRef
Bexar County Appraisal District. (2013, Sep 17). 2013 Property Summary Data. Bexar County, TX
Elnakat, A., Gomez, J., Roberts, J., & Wright, M. (n.d.). Big data analysis of swimming pools’ impact on household electric intensity in San Antonio, Texas. International Journal of Big Data Intelligence.
Federspiel, C., Zhang, Q., & Arens, E. (2002). Model-based benchmarking with application to laboratory buildings. Energy and Buildings, 34(3), 203–214. CrossRef
Filippın, C. (2000). Benchmarking the energy efficiency and greenhouse gases emissions of school buildings in central Argentina. Building and Environment, 35(5), 407–414. CrossRef
Granade, H., Creyts, J., Derkach, A., Farese, P., Nyquist, S., & Ostrowski, K. (2009). Unlocking energy efficiency in the US economy.
Heinonen, J., & Junnila, S. (2014). Residential energy consumption patterns and the overall housing energy requirements of urban and rural households in Finland. Energy and Buildings, 76, 295–303. CrossRef
Hernandez D, Matthew Lister, Celine Suarez. Location efficiency and housing type: boiling it down to BTUs. Jonathan Rose Companies LLC with support from US Environmental Protection Agency; 2011. p. 1–15
Karamjeet, P. (2013). Managing extreme financial risk: strategies and tactics for going concerns. New York: Academic.
Kinney. Satkartar, and Mary Ann Piette. "Development of a California Commercial Building Benchmarking Database." In 2002 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 7.109–7.120. Pacific Grove, CA, 2002
Krigger, J., & Dorsi, C. (2009). Residential energy: cost savings and comfort for existing buildings (5th ed.). Helena, Mont.: Saturn Resource Management.
Mattern, S. (2013). Municipal energy benchmarking legislation for commercial buildings: you can't manage what you don't measure. Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, 40(2).
Molina, M. (2014). The best value for America's energy dollar: a national review of the cost of utility energy efficiency programs. Washington, DC: American Council for Energy-Efficient Economy.
Nikolaou, T., Kolokotsa, D., & Stavrakakis, G. (2011). Review on methodologies for energy benchmarking, rating and classification of buildings. Advances in Building Energy Research, 5(1), 53–70. CrossRef
North Carolina Energy Office. (2010, May). Benchmarks- Ranking Building Energy Intensity. Retrieved April 2014, from www.enerync.net: http://wasterreductionpartners.org/phocadownload/userupload/Resources/Energy_Saving_Fact_Sheet_Benchmarks_-_Ranking_Building_Energy_Intensity.pdf
Sailor, D. J., & Vasireddy, C. (2006). Correcting aggregate energy consumption data to account for variability in local weather. Environmental Modeling Software, 21, 733–738. CrossRef
Sarkar, Mousumi. (2011). How American homes vary by the year they were built. U.S. Census Bureau
Schipper L, and S. Meyers. energy efficiency and human activity: past trends, future prospects. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992:1–385.
Energy Star. (2013). Energy Star Portfolio Manager: technical reference source energy. Retrieved August 2014 from: http://www.energystar.gov/buildings/tools-and-resources/portfolio-manager-technical-reference-source-energy
Stillwell, A. S., King, C. W., Webber, M. E., Duncan, I. J., & Hardberger, A. (2011). The energy-water nexus in Texas. Ecology and Society, 16(1), 1–20.
Tuominen, P., Holopainen, R., Eskola, L., Jokisalo, J., & Airaksinen, M. (2014). Calculation method and tool for assessing energy consumption in the building stock. Building and Environment, 75, 153–160. CrossRef
U.S. Department of Energy. (2012). 2011 Buildings energy data book. U.S. Department of Energy: energy efficiency and renewable energy. Prepared by D&R International, Ltd.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.) State and local climate and energy program: residential energy efficiency. Retrieved May 14, 2014 from http://www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/local/topics/residential.html.
Ueno, K. (2010). Building energy performance metrics. Retrieved April 2014, from:
Van Gorp, J. C. (2005). Using key performance indicators to manage energy costs. Strategic planning for energy and the environment, 25(2), 9–25. CrossRef
Vučićević, B., Stojiljković, M., Afgan, N., Turanjanin, V., Jovanović, M., & Bakić, V. (2012). Sustainability assessment of residential buildings by non-linear normalization procedure. Energy and Buildings, 58, 348–354.
Wada, K. (2012) Energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector and their feasibility. Energy. Retrieved May 1, 2014 from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544212000515
Wang, K. and Brown, M. (2013). Policy drivers for improving electricity end-use efficiency in the USA: an economic-engineering analysis. Energy Efficiency. Retrieved May 14, 2014 from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12053-013-9237-3.
Williams, E., Matthews, S., Breton, M., & Brady, T. (2006, May). Use of a computer-based system to measure and manage energy consumption in the home. In Electronics and the Environment, 2006. Proceedings of the 2006 I.E. International Symposium on (pp. 167–172). IEEE.
- Analysis of the energy index as a benchmarking indicator of potential energy savings in the San Antonio, Texas single-family residential sector
Juan D. Gomez
- Springer Netherlands