Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Scholars and policymakers prescribe legal titling to improve prospects for economic development and political order. However, a public choice literature exists that has long recognized that self-governance often works well and that the state may not be able to improve upon local economic institutions at reasonable cost. Although the implication that legal titling should proceed with caution is seemingly straightforward, the literature on legal titling does not take anarchy seriously as a policy option. In addition, there is a public choice literature that presumes the state is the most important source of property rights. This essay fills this gap in the property rights literature by applying the concept of “efficient anarchy” to legal titling in Afghanistan. Original fieldwork evidence from rural Afghanistan suggests that anarchy of land governance is a better option than legal titling. The essay concludes by opening up the black box of state building by explaining why it often makes sense to sequence improvements in political capacity and political constraints prior to investing in legal titling.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Acemoglu, D., & Jackson, M. O. (2014). Social norms and the enforcement of laws. National Bureau of Economic Research.
Acemoglu, D., Reed, T., & Robinson, J. A. (2014). Chiefs: Economic development and elite control of civil society in Sierra Leone. Journal of Political Economy,122(2), 319–368.
Albertus, M., & Kaplan, O. (2013). Land reform as a counterinsurgency policy: Evidence from Colombia. Journal of Conflict Resolution,57(2), 198–231.
Alden Wily, L. (2003). Land relations in Bamyan Province: Findings from a 15 village case study. Kabul: Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit.
Alden Wily, L. (2009). Looking for peace on the pastures: Rural land relations in Afghanistan. Kabul: Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit.
Alden Wily, L. (2013). Land, people, and the state in Afghanistan. Kabul: Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU).
Alston, L. J., Libecap, G. D., & Mueller, B. (1999). Titles, conflict, and land use: The development of property rights and land reform on the Brazilian Amazon frontier. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Anderson, J. (1978). There are no khāns anymore: Economic development and social change in tribal Afghanistan. Middle East Journal,32(2), 167–183.
Anderson, T. L., & Hill, P. J. (1990). The race for property rights. Journal of Law and Economics,33, 177–197.
Anderson, T. L., & Hill, P. J. (2002). Cowboys and contracts. The Journal of Legal Studies,31(S2), S489–S514.
Anderson, T. L., & Hill, P. J. (2004). The not so wild, wild west: Property rights on the frontier. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Andrews, M. (2013). The limits of institutional reform in development: Changing rules for realistic solutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Arruñada, B. (2012). Institutional foundations of impersonal exchange: Theory and policy of contractual registries. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Arruñada, B. (2014). Registries. Man and the Economy,1(2), 209–230.
Asia Foundation. (2011). A survey of the Afghan people. Asia Foundation.
Baldwin, K. (2013). Why vote with the chief? Political connections and public goods provision in Zambia. American Journal of Political Science,57(4), 794–809.
Barfield, T. J. (2008). Culture and custom in nation-building: Law in Afghanistan. Maine Law Review,60, 347.
Barfield, T. J. (2010). Afghanistan: A cultural and political history. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Barfield, T. J., Nojumi, N., & Thier, J. A. (2011). The clash of two goods: State and non-state dispute resolution in Afghanistan. In D. Isser (Ed.), Customary justice and the rule of law in war-torn societies. Washington, D.C: United States Institute of Peace.
Barzel, Y. (1989). Economic analysis of property rights. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Batson, D. E. (2008). Registering the human terrain: A valuation of cadastre. Washington: DTIC Document.
Batson, D. E. (2013). Snow leopards and cadastres: Rare sightings in post-conflict Afghanistan. In J. Unruh & R. Williams (Eds.), Land and Post- Conflict Peacebuilding (pp. 245–65).
Beath, A., Christia, F., & Enikolopov, R. (2013). Empowering women: Evidence from a field experiment in Afghanistan. American Political Science Review,107(3), 540–557.
Berkowitz, D., Pistor, K., & Richard, J.-F. (2001). Economic development, legality, and the transplant effect. European Economic Review,47(1), 165–195.
Berkowitz, D., Pistor, K., & Richard, J.-F. (2003). The transplant effect. American Journal of Comparative Law,51, 163.
Boone, C. (2013). Property and political order in Africa: Land rights and the structure of politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bromley, D. W. (2006). Sufficient reason: Volitional pragmatism and the meaning of economic institutions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bromley, D. W. (2009). Formalising property relations in the developing world: The wrong prescription for the wrong malady. Land Use Policy,26(1), 20–27.
Bromley, D. W., & Anderson, G. (2012). Vulnerable people, vulnerable states: Redefining the development challenge. New York: Routledge.
Clay, K. B., & Wright, G. (2005). Order without law? Property rights during the California gold rush. Explorations in Economic History,42(2), 155–183.
Coburn, N. (2011). Bazaar politics: Power and pottery in an Afghan market town. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Commons, J. R. (1924). Legal foundations of capitalism. New York: Macmillan.
Coyne, C. J. (2008a). After war: The political economy of exporting democracy. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
Coyne, C. J. (2008b). The politics of bureaucracy and the failure of post-war reconstruction. Public Choice,135(1–2), 11–22.
Coyne, C. J., & Boettke, P. J. (2009). The problem of credible commitment in reconstruction. Journal of Institutional Economics,5(1), 1.
De Soto, H. (2000). The mystery of capital: Why capitalism triumphs in the West and fails everywhere else. New York: Basic Books.
Deininger, K., & Feder, G. (2009). Land registration, governance, and development: Evidence and implications for policy. The World Bank Research Observer,24(2), 233–266.
Edwards, D. B. (2002). Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan jihad. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Ellickson, R. C. (1991). Order without law: How neighbors settle disputes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Fearon, J. D., & Laitin, D. D. (2011). Sons of the soil, migrants, and civil war. World Development,39(2), 199–211.
Field, E. (2005). Property rights and investment in urban slums. Journal of the European Economic Association,3(2–3), 279–290.
Flores, T. E., & Nooruddin, I. (2012). The effect of elections on postconflict peace and reconstruction. The Journal of Politics,1(1), 1–13.
Foschini, F. (2013). Land grabs in Afghanistan: Deh Sabz, the new and the old. Afghanistan Analysts Network.
Fukuyama, F. (2013). What is governance? Governance,26(3), 347–368.
Fukuyama, F. (2014). Political order and political decay: From the industrial revolution to the globalization of democracy. New York: Macmillan.
Galiani, S., & Schargrodsky, E. (2010). Property rights for the poor: Effects of land titling. Journal of Public Economics,94(9), 700–729.
Gehlbach, S., & Keefer, P. (2011). Investment without democracy: Ruling-party institutionalization and credible commitment in autocracies. Journal of Comparative Economics,39(2), 123–139.
Giustozzi, A., Franco, C., & Baczko, A. (2012). Shadow justice: How the Taliban run their judiciary. Kabul, Afghanistan: Integrity Watch Afghanistan.
Government of the Islamic Republic of Afgahanistan. Central Statistics Organization. http://cso.gov.af/en.
Greif, A. (2005). Commitment, coercion and markets: The nature and dynamics of institutions supporting exchange. In C. Ménard & M. M. Shirley (Eds.), Handbook of new institutional economics (pp. 727–786). Dordrecht: Springer.
Greif, A. (2006). Institutions and the path to the modern economy: Lessons from medieval trade. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hadfield, G. K., & Weingast, B. R. (2012). What is law? A coordination model of the characteristics of legal order. Journal of Legal Analysis,4(2), 471–514.
Hadfield, G. K., & Weingast, B. R. (2013). Law without the state. Journal of Law and Courts,1(1), 3–34.
Hanifi, S. M. (2011). Connecting histories in Afghanistan: Market relations and state formation on a colonial frontier. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Herbst, J. (2000). States and power in Africa: Comparative lessons in authority and control. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hodgson, G. M. (2009). On the institutional foundations of law: the insufficiency of custom and private ordering. Journal of Economic Issues,43(1), 143–166.
Kakar, H. (1979). Government and society in Afghanistan: The reign of Amir’Abd al-Rahman Khan. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Kerekes, C. B., & Williamson, C. R. (2008). Unveiling de Soto’s mystery: Property rights, capital formation, and development. Journal of Institutional Economics,4(3), 299.
Kerekes, C. B., & Williamson, C. R. (2010). Propertyless in Peru, even with a government land title. American Journal of Economics and Sociology,69(3), 1011–1033.
Knight, J., & North, D. C. (1997). Explaining the complexity of institutional change. The political economy of property rights: Institutional change and credibility in the reform of centrally planned economies (pp. 349–354). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Landa, J. T. (1981). A theory of the ethnically homogeneous middleman group: An institutional alternative to contract law. The Journal of Legal Studies,10, 349–362.
Leeson, P. T. (2006). Efficient anarchy. Public Choice,130(1–2), 41–53.
Leeson, P. T. (2007a). Anarchy, monopoly, and predation. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics,163(3), 467–482.
Leeson, P. T. (2007b). Better off stateless: Somalia before and after government collapse. Journal of Comparative Economics,35(4), 689–710.
Leeson, P. T. (2011). Government, clubs, and constitutions. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,80(2), 301–308.
Leeson, P. T. (2014). Anarchy unbound: Why self-governance works better than you think. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Leeson, P. T., & Coyne, C. J. (2012). Sassywood. Journal of Comparative Economics,40(4), 608–620.
Libecap, G. D. (1989). Contracting for property rights. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Libecap, G. D. (2007). The assignment of property rights on the western frontier: Lessons for contemporary environmental and resource policy. Journal of Economic History,67(2), 257.
Lund, C. (2008). Local politics and the dynamics of property in Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Malkasian, C. (2013). War comes to Garmser: Thirty years of conflict on the Afghan frontier. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Menkhaus, K. (2007). Governance without government in Somalia: Spoilers, state building, and the politics of coping. International Security,31, 74–106.
Milgrom, P. R., & North, D. C. (1990). The role of institutions in the revival of trade: The law merchant, private judges, and the champagne fairs. Economics and Politics,2(1), 1–23.
Mukhopadhyay, D. (2013). Warlords, strongman governors and state building in Afghanistan. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Murtazashvili, I. (2013). The political economy of the American frontier. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Murtazashvili, J. (2014). Informal federalism: Self-governance and power sharing in Afghanistan. Publius: The Journal of Federalism,44(2), 324–343.
Murtazashvili, J. (2015). Informal order and the state in Afghanistan. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Newell, R. S. (1972). The politics of Afghanistan. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
North, D. C. (1981). Structure and change in economic history. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
North, D. C., & Thomas, R. P. (1973). The rise of the Western world: A new economic history. New York: Cambridge University Press.
North, D. C., & Weingast, B. R. (1989). Constitutions and commitment: The evolution of institutions governing public choice in seventeenth-century England. The Journal of Economic History,49(4), 803–832.
Olson, M. (1993). Dictatorship, democracy, and development. American Political Science Review,87(3), 567–576.
Onoma, A. K. (2009). The politics of property rights institutions in Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ostrom, E. (2005). Understanding institutional diversity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Peter, T. A. (2011, August 11). What may be a bigger threat to Afghanistan than insurgency? Land disputes. Christian Science Monitor.
Powell, B., & Stringham, E. P. (2009). Public choice and the economic analysis of anarchy: A survey. Public Choice,140(3–4), 503–538.
Pritchett, L., Woolcock, M., & Andrews, M. (2013). Looking like a state: Techniques of persistent failure in state capability for implementation. The Journal of Development Studies,49(1), 1–18.
Rahman, A. (1900). The life of Abdur Rahman. Amir of Afghanistan: John Murray.
Rashid, A. (2010). Taliban: Militant Islam, oil and fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Riker, W. H., & Sened, I. (1991). A political theory of the origin of property rights: Airport slots. American Journal of Political Science,35(4), 951–969.
Riker, W. H., & Weimer, D. L. (1993). The economic and political liberalization of socialism: The fundamental problem of property rights. Social Philosophy and Policy,10(02), 79–102.
Riker, W. H., & Weimer, D. L. (1995). The political economy of transformation: Liberalization and property rights. Modern political economy: Old topics, new directions (pp. 80–107). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Roy, O. (1990). Islam and resistance in Afghanistan. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rubin, B. R. (2002). The fragmentation of Afghanistan: State formation and collapse in the international system. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Safar, M. Y., & Stanfield, J. D. (2007). Cadastral survey in Afghanistan. Kabul: Asian Development Bank.
Scott, J. C. (2009). The art of not being governed: An anarchist history of upland Southeast Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Scott, J. C. (2012). Two cheers for anarchism: Six easy pieces on autonomy, dignity, and meaningful work and play. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sediqi, R. (2013, June 3). Land grabbing a new concern for Afghanistan. Tolo News.
Sened, I. (1997). The political institution of private property. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sjaastad, E., & Bromley, D. W. (1997). Indigenous land rights in Sub-Saharan Africa: Appropriation, security and investment demand. World Development,25(4), 549–562.
Skarbek, D. (2011). Governance and prison gangs. American Political Science Review,105(04), 702–716.
Skarbek, D. (2012). Prison gangs, norms, and organizations. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization,82(1), 96–109.
Stanfield, J. D., Murtazashvili, J. B., Safar, M. Y., & Salam, A. (2013). Community documentation of land tenure and its contribution to state-building in Afghanistan. In R. Williams & J. Unruh (Eds.), Land and post- conflict peacebuilding (pp. 265–285).
Stanfield, J. D., Safar, Y., Salam, A., & Brick, J. (2010). Rangeland administration in (post) conflict conditions: The case of Afghanistan. In K. Deininger, C. Augustinus, S. Enmark, & P. Munro-Faure (Eds.), Innovations in land rights: Recognition, administration and governance (pp. 300–317). Washington: World Bank.
Stringham, E. P. (2014). Extending the analysis of spontaneous market order to governance. Atlantic Economic Journal,42(2), 171–180.
Sugden, R. (1989). Spontaneous order. The Journal of Economic Perspectives,3, 85–97.
Umbeck, J. (1977). A theory of contract choice and the California gold rush. Journal of Law and Economics,20, 421.
Weimer, D. L. (Ed.). (1997). The political economy of property rights: Institutional change and credibility in the reform of centrally planned economies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Weingast, B. R. (1995). The economic role of political institutions: Market-preserving federalism and economic development. Journal of Law Economics and Organization,11, 1.
Williamson, C. R. (2009). Informal institutions rule: Institutional arrangements and economic performance. Public Choice,139(3–4), 371–387.
Williamson, C. R., & Kerekes, C. B. (2011). Securing private property: Formal versus informal institutions. Journal of Law and Economics,54(3), 537–572.
Williamson, C. R., & Mathers, R. L. (2011). Economic freedom, culture, and growth. Public Choice,148(3–4), 313–335.
Wintrobe, R. (1998). The political economy of dictatorship. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Anarchy, self-governance, and legal titling
- Springer US
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Neuer Inhalt/© julien tromeur | Fotolia