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Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Industrial Management and the XVI Congreso de Ingeniería de Organización (CIO 2012). The aim of CIO is to establish a forum for the open and free exchange of ideas, opinions and academic experiences about research, technology transfer or successful business experiences in the field of Industrial Engineering. The CIO 2012 is an annual meeting promoted by “Asociación para el Desarrollo de la Ingeniería de Organización” (Industrial Engineers Association, ADINGOR) with a Scientific Committee composed of 61 international referees and more than 200 professionals from 7 countries.

A selection of the lectures and presentations made over three days by researchers and practitioners from different countries are presented here. A range of topics is covered including:

A selection of the lectures and presentations made over three days by researchers and practitioners from different countries are presented here. A range of topics is covered including:

· Business Administration & Economic Environment

· Technological & Organizational Innovation

· Logistics & Supply Chain Management

· Production & Operations Management

· Management Systems & Sustainability

The conference in Industrial Engineering (CIO) and its proceedings are an excellent platform for the dissemination of the outputs of the scientific projects developed in the frame of the International Research and Development plans.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Business Administration and Economic Environment

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. A Characterization of Types and Determinant Factors for Corporate Entrepreneurship: A Case Study Based Analysis

What we present in this paper are the results of a preliminary stage of a study, part of a bigger project of Innobasque, Basque Innovation Agency. Our work uses the integrative model proposed by Narayanan et al. (

2009

), to try to identify the characteristics of the new business, activities or ventures created by entrepreneurial companies and explore the cause-effect relationship of some proposed “Context agents” such as: External factors (industry, technological change), Internal organizational factors (capital structure, top management commitment, competitive strategy, organizational structure, human resources policies, use of public funds and policies). We try to identify what are the more relevant factors, so that a systematic process to promote Intrapreneurship actions could be designed and afterwards disseminate the good practices learnt to small and medium enterprises. The methodology proposed for this work is Multiple Case Studies. We have selected, six technology based companies with a medium-high intensity in R + D, either small and medium-high companies from very different industries. All of them are involved in Intrapreneurship. The preliminary results confirm some of the literature thesis: there is by no means a unique type of Corporate Entrepreneurship, decisive influence of top management implication, corporate entrepreneurship is a strategic issue with a decisive influence in the company survival, decisive influence of the Intrapreneur. But show a broad set of contingent possibilities and situations for the internal agents: (capital structure, competitive strategy, organizational structure, human resources policies, public funds and policies).

Eneritz Onaindia Gerrikabeitia, Unai Goyogana Quesada, Carlos Ochoa Laburu

Chapter 2. Activity Based Costing, Time-Driven Activity Based Costing and Lean Accounting: Differences Among Three Accounting Systems’ Approach to Manufacturing

Choosing an appropriate accounting system for manufacturing has always been a challenge for managers. In this article, we try to compare three accounting systems designed since 1980 to address problems of traditional accounting system. In the first place, we present a short overview on background and definition of three accounting systems: Activity Based costing, Time-Driven Activity Based Costing and Lean Accounting (LA). Comparisons are made based on the three basic roles of information generated by accounting systems: financial reporting, decision making, and operational control and improvement. The analysis in this paper reveals how decisions are made over the value stream in the companies using Lean Accounting while decisions under the Activity Based Costing (ABC) Accounting system are taken at individual product level, and finally, we will show how Time-Driven Activity Based Costing (TD-ABC) covers both product and process levels for decision making. In addition, this paper shows the importance of nonfinancial measures for operational control and improvement under the Lean Accounting and TD-ABC methods whereas ABC relies mostly on financial measures in this context.

Carlos Rodriguez Monroy, Azadeh Nasiri, Miguel Ángel Peláez

Chapter 3. Operational Characterisation of a Micro-SME Producing Farmhouse Cheese in the South of Venezuela

A piece of the research conducted on the Guayanes Farmhouse Telita cheese Producers Network is presented. This Farmhouse is located in the Piar and Padre Chien rural municipalities in the Bolivar state in Venezuela. Guayanes telita cheese is a regional dairy product. The producers are located in a rural area with a high potential for marketing the label in the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR). This market is the focal point of the strategic importance of this study for the Region and the Country. The research is of a descriptive type conducted in the field. A questionnaire based on good food production practices was used as a data gathering technique. The final sample included 30 production units. Statistical processing was performed with version 15.2 of the STATGRAPHICS Centurion computational tool. The results confirm previous studies that point to the existence of factors that prevent these Micro-SMEs from guaranteeing the food safety of the product. The results indicate that new lines of research, such as formulating strategies for the continuous improvement of these micro-SMEs, including quality control indicators need to be opened.

C. Rodríguez Monroy, E. Cardozo, W. Guaita, M. Pelaez

Chapter 4. Analysis of the Operating Efficiency of Mobile Operators During the 2002–2008 Period

This article aims to quantify the efficiency of mobile operators in Spain and other European countries such as France and Germany. The period considered is from 2002 to 2008. Linear regression is used to analyze the relationship between growth in revenue and gross operating margin (EBITDA) generated by the relevant operators and the aggregate industry in each country. At the industry level, it is shown that (1) there is a strong correlation between revenue and margin; and (2) this correlation weakens when competitive intensity grows. At the operator level, those which achieved larger increases in revenues did not sacrifice their margins, but offset the additional investments and costs required to achieve said growth through economies of scale.

Félix Roux Martínez, Felipe Ruiz López, Santos Eguren

Chapter 5. Challenges in Data-driven Hotel Infrastructure Assignment Decisions

High quality short-term Hotel Infrastructure Assignment decisions (

HIADs

) can improve hotel profitability and customer satisfaction. Optimization of

HIAD

s requires addressing two fundamental challenges namely, accurate prediction of customer behaviour and management of interaction complexity and customer reactions. Here, we view the decision environment as a sequence of decisions within the context of customer lifecycles. Each decision is composed of two parts i.e. the hotel’s decision followed by the customer’s decision. We analyze the challenges and conclude that sequential assignment of hotel infrastructure to customers may not be optimal because of limited incorporation of implications of customer reactions in the decision mechanism. Therefore, we need to consider parallel assignment i.e. assignment of hotel infrastructure to the most promising of the likely subsets of potential customers competing for the same time slot. Finally, we discuss a possible data-driven decision support scheme for

HIADs

that is based on the integration of data mining techniques with micro-simulation.

Rajesh Natarajan, Esmeralda Giraldo, Alfonso Duran

Chapter 6. Economic Analysis of the Renewable Energy Policies in the European Union

The European energy sector is undergoing a major transformation and is facing a series of difficult challenges. These include a high and increasing dependence on external energy resources; dramatically reduce the need for the emissions of greenhouse gases to meet environmental objectives and the difficulties related to the promotion of energy market effectively integrated and competitive. Some of the policies associated with the various objectives are sometimes in conflict with each other, while in other cases are mutually reinforcing. The aim of this paper is to do a scientific analysis of the developments so far and the expectations for the coming period focusing on the pillars of energy policy in the EU in terms of security of supply, environment, climate change and promoting a competitive and integrated market. The use of renewable energy sources is seen as a key element of European energy policy and should help to: reduce dependence on fuel from non-member countries; reduce emissions from carbon-based energy sources, and; decouple energy costs from oil prices.

Roberto Rodríguez, Carlos Rodríguez-Monroy, Miguel Ángel Peláez

Chapter 7. Analyzing the Chinese Development and Its Impacts on the Brazilian Economy

Considering the growing strategic importance of China for the Brazilian economy, this article seeks to expand the knowledge about the Chinese remarkable development and assess its impacts on the Brazilian economy. We chose to carry out an exploratory and bibliographical approach highlighting the process of China’s economic opening as from 1978, and the most evident effects in the commercial relationship with Brazil. It appears that China will maintain a high growth rate of the GDP. It is inferred that there will be two categories of impact in Brazil: one with a positive outlook in relation to the favorable performance of the exports of commodities and the attraction of Chinese investments in the country, and one that will challenge even more the competitiveness of important segments of the Brazilian industrial sector.

Ana Paula Lisboa Sohn

Chapter 8. Rethinking the Social Contract: An Agent-Based Model Approach

The actual crisis has brought to a forefront the failure in wealth distribution and it has questioned market with democracy. It has vividly demonstrated the deficiencies in the outdated current economic theories, calling for rethinking Economics. Agent Based Modelling (ABM) applied to this economic rethinking is a choice, a challenge and a promise. Market efficiency has received attention from ABM experts and the authors. However, they have not studied the wealth distribution problem. In this paper, using an agent-based model approach, we study the sensitivity of wealth distribution to the agents’ behavior in a Continuous Double Auction market. We find that the inequality on wealth distribution increases as the percentage of

parasitic

agents grows.

Marta Posada, Cesáreo Hernández-Iglesias

Technological and Organizational Innovation

Frontmatter

Chapter 9. The Importance of Strategic Alignment in Enterprise Collaboration

The increasing competition, in which companies are currently involved, requires the search for agreement among different trading partners to achieve synergies that will allow them to build competitive advantage and survive in a globalized environment. Additionally, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in this environment is essential to integrate and communicate to members of the supply chain (SC) or networks that want to collaborate, therefore it is necessary that the information systems and information technologies (IS/IT) be adjust and be support to global business strategy of the SC and/or networks. In this sense, this article seeks to analyze, relate and synthesize the research that has addressed the disciplines of collaboration and strategic alignment, both individually and jointly, in order to identify possible future lines of research from conceptualization performed.

Alix Vargas, Andrés Boza, Llanos Cuenca, Angel Ortiz

Chapter 10. Infrastructure Assignment Reference Metamodel

In this paper we explore the potential advantages derived from adopting a generalized approach to enterprise management software development, and particularly to achieving the additional flexibility required to provide efficient support to certain types of infrastructure assignment (IA) problems. Within the OMG metamodeling framework, we follow a modeling generalization process, leading to the design and conceptual definition of an infrastructure assignment reference metamodel. The modeling process is carried out through three methodological steps. Taking a company using an enterprise metamodel-based management system as the starting point, we first incorporate infrastructure assignment functionality to the system and then add support for the design of the assignment process. Finally, we propose an infrastructure assignment metamodel, intended to be the core of an independent decision support system.

Miguel Gutierrez, Alfonso Duran

Chapter 11. Innovation Infrastructures Assessment Through Knowledge Management Models

The design and implementation of innovative infrastructures to support business activities have been carried out in our country over the last years. There have been significant investments, which have often been unsuccessful and very expensive, since they have been based on opportunistic criteria far away from objective and professional criteria. However, there have also been successful cases that have endured over time. This paper proposes a model to help managers and authorities to make future decisions concerning the design and implementation of such infrastructures. This model should be based on a future-oriented focus and on knowledge and experience of the different stakeholders from different fields of knowledge who have an important participation in the design and development process. This model should allow assessing, a priori or at any stage thereof, the probabilities of success of such initiatives in a quantitative way.

José Teba, Luis Onieva, Gerardo Jiménez, Jesús Muñuzuri

Chapter 12. Managing Systems and Innovation: An Empirical Study of Basque Firms

The assumption that the innovation process is subject to historical conditions plays a central role in the evolutionary approach, what is reflected in various ways commonly used in studies on innovation. Thus, although business innovation has been seen by different authors and researchers as an evolving process, there are few studies that have conducted empirical studies on the influence of the historical conditions of the company on innovation, beyond the consideration of the firm age variable Control. This paper analyses the way management systems influence innovation in firms. Specifically, this paper focuses on studying innovation from an innovation performance, innovation management and innovation management tools (IMTs) holistic perspective. To this end, we propose a specific model of analysis, tested in a sample of 566 Basque companies in Northern Spain. Research results highlight that business innovation is related to companies′ previous development and implementation of management systems (MSs).

Juan Ignacio Igartua, Nekane Errasti, Noemi Zabaleta

Chapter 13. Knowledge Management Practices in SME: Case Study in Basque Country SME

In a competitive market like the current one, knowledge and its management have become the best partner to generate competitive advantages in small and medium enterprises. It is important for country economic development that SMEs, as main source of wealth, manage their intangible resources to continue creating value, both business and social, and get to be leader in an international and competitive market, in order to gain advantages to present difficult situation due to financial crisis. Therefore, this research study analyzes what the current situation of Knowledge Management in Basque Country SMEs is. More specifically, the use of Knowledge Management practices and strategies for capture explicit and tacit knowledge have been studied in depth, in order to identify what practices and knowledge capture strategies are the most frequent and what activity sector and size of SME, by number of employees, are using them more intensely.

Izaskun Alvarez, Ernesto Cilleruelo, Ibon Zamanillo, Enara Zarrabeitia

Logistics and Supply Chain Management

Frontmatter

Chapter 14. Internal and External Supply Chain Integration: Construct Definition and Validatiion

Academic literature would appear to indicate that supply chain integration is a major factor in explaining the performance of companies. The results are nevertheless inconclusive. Certain authors put forward the idea that the vast range of results obtained are due, amongst other things, to the fact that there is no exactness to the group of scales used, no-one has yet published an analysis of the measurement models nor clear benchmarks. In this paper, we present the theoretical definition of four supply chain integration scales (clients, suppliers, external and internal) and the convergent and discriminant validity of a measurement instrument based on a list of items taken from earlier papers. We also propose a benchmark to interpret the scales by percentiles, using a diverse international sampling broken down into sub-samples based on sector, type of company, size of company and degree of vertical integration.

Juan A. Marin-Garcia, Rafaela Alfalla-Luque, Carmen Medina-López

Chapter 15. Characterizing Productive Processes with Lack of Homogeneity in the Product and Its Impact on the Master Planning and Order Promising

Manufacturing environments with Lack of Homogeneity in the Product (LHP) are characterized by the fact that units of the same product can present differences in some attributes relevant to customers. This aspect becomes a problem when customer needs to be served with homogeneous units of one same product. Though LHP is present in many sectors, particular characteristics introduced by LHP in transformation activities, products and orders have not been previously studied in a systematic approach. This paper provides a conceptual framework for characterizing LHP manufacturing processes and analyzes the LHP impact on the master planning and the order promising, stressing the new aspects introduced by LHP as compared with traditional environments.

M. M. E. Alemany, F. Alarcón, Ll. Cuenca, A. Ortiz

Chapter 16. The Reduction of CO2 Emission into the Supply Network Design: A Review of Current Trends in Mathematical Models

The problem of global warming is attracting increasing attention in the academic and industrial world. Today a major portion of the population is aware that greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the main contributors to climate change. This article reviews current trends in CO

2

emission reductions in supply network design. This article focuses on mathematical models employed in supply network design that include environmental characteristics. Facility location and technology selection are important factors in supply design, and may determine the possible environmental damage and economic impact of a supply network. The CO

2

market appears as an interesting alternative for managing emissions using CO

2

credits. In the area of production, emphasis is placed on reducing emissions through efficient energy use and in the transport area through freight transport consolidation, and more efficient vehicle utilization.

Carola Pinto, Anna M. Coves Moreno

Chapter 17. Design of a Continuous Review Stock Policy

In stock management system with inventory management policy (s, Q) sometimes managers find that is a spread between the level of service they have calculated and the real one. This is because, there are exact and approximate ways of calculating CSL (cycle service level). The former are difficult to calculate (and not typically used in business), and the latter tend to neglect the deviations in the reorder point (also called undershoots) this results in differences mentioned above. This paper presents an structured review of the literature on the methodology to be followed in the design of inventory management policy (s, Q) when demand process is stationary with discrete probability function, independent and identically distributed, and replenishment period L constant and pinpoints the most significant research gaps and also proposes guidelines for the practical application of the most usual approximations. Models are considered for lost sales and backorders.

Sofía Estellés-Miguel, Manuel Cardós, José Miguel Albarracín, Marta Elena Palmer

Chapter 18. MILP Model for Designing the Intermodal Inland Terminals and Seaports Network: A Case Study

This paper aims to propose a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model based on the typical hub location problem, which has been designed and used to propose an analysis for the intermodal inland terminals network design considering container seaports, their traffic and limited allocations. The main container freight flows from/to selected seaports and distances between provinces (with the support of a Geographic Information System) are considered. Estimated functions for road and railway transport costs are included, these being the required inputs to solve the problem. The model’s main objective is to reduce total transport costs through the optimal location of a set of inland terminals connected to seaports by railway. The problem has been successfully solved by using the Gurobi software, which allows an interesting analysis of inland terminals location and their area of influence.

Julien Maheut, S. Furió, C. Andrés

Chapter 19. Modeling of Integrated Management System of Sugar Cane: Taking Advantage of Sugarcane Agriculture Residues

This paper presents the results of a phase of a research project which modeled the activities involved in the supply chain of sugar cane under the scheme and principles of the IDEF0 methodology, in order to visualize the elements involved in the generation and disposal of sugarcane agricultural residues. The integration of the stages of field management, harvest and factory, looked into the operation of a reference sugar mill that currently does not consider sugarcane agricultural residues collection as an alternative system of business enterprise to diversify the product portfolio.

Maritza Correa Valencia, Gloria Mercedes López Orozco, Adriana Carolina Lozano Riascos

Chapter 20. An Overnight Parcel Logistics Company’s Capillary Distribution Network Design by Regression Analysis

This article will explore and analyse how to design the capillary distribution network of an Overnight Parcel Logistics Company (hereby referred to as OPLC). The OPLC needs to design a capillary distribution network that is capable of collecting all the merchandise that their clients wish to deliver, and, at the same time, have the capacity to distribute all shipments to their destination. To reach this goal, the designers have to decide the type of vehicles (van, lorry or trailer) and the quantity of each type of vehicle the capillary distribution network needs to cover the area around each hub efficiently. This number of vehicles has to satisfy the delivery/collection quality requirements with the minimum cost to guarantee the maximum profit for the OPLC. This research will demonstrate that regression analysis is a valid technique to help an OPLC in the decision making related to the distribution costs of the capillary network. The way the costs of each distribution areas are obtained for the design of the capillary network is by regression models. Most models related to logistics companies have been based on deterministic techniques so far.

Oscar Rioja San Martín, Joaquim Lloveras Maciá

Chapter 21. Optimization of Recyclable Waste Collection Using Real-Time Information

This paper addresses the recyclable waste collection problem in urban areas. The work focuses on the recyclable glass bins collection, but with the peculiarity that these are provided with a device that sends fill level data daily to the control center. With this additional real time information we propose a collection policy that minimizes the length of the routes of vehicles on two levels, one daily and other for a larger planning horizon. This proposed policy is compared to the one used in the current literature and only optimizes the daily routes. Several simulations of the two policies are performed on a model of the city of Seville. Results show the proposed policy achieves better results in terms of meeting demand and better utilization of resources.

R. Grosso de la Vega, J. Muñuzuri Sanz, M. Rodriguez Palero, J. Teba Fernandez

Production and Operations Management

Frontmatter

Chapter 22. Managing Qualities, Tones and Gages of Ceramic Supply Chains Through Master Planning

Ceramic production processes are characterized by providing quantities of the same finished goods that differ in qualities, tones and gages. This aspect becomes a problem for ceramic supply chains (SCs) that should promise and serve customer orders with homogeneous quantities of the same finished good. In this paper a mathematical programming model for the centralized master planning of ceramic SCs is proposed. Inputs to the master plan include demand forecasts in terms of customer order classes based on their order size and splitting percentages of a lot into homogeneous sub-lots. Then, the master plan defines the size and loading of lots to production lines and their distribution with the aim of maximizing the number of customer orders fulfilled with homogeneous quantities in the most efficient manner for the SC.

M. I. Mundi, M. M. E. Alemany Díaz, A. Boza, R. Poler

Chapter 23. Strategic Capacity Planning in KIOs: A Classification Scheme

This paper introduces the Strategic Capacity Planning problem in knowledge intensive organizations (KIOs) and proposes a classification scheme based on different characteristics such as the organization structure, the workforce characteristics, the capacity requirements, the capacity decisions or the evaluation criteria, among others. The classification, which gives rise to a high number of variants, is the first step towards a general solving methodology design and the developing of ad hoc solving procedures.

C. Martínez, A. Lusa, M. Mas, R. de la Torre, M. Mateo

Chapter 24. Leagility in Enterprise Networks Configuration of Capital Goods Sector

The paper reviews the characteristics of lean and agile paradigms as well as the different order fulfilment strategies, through the position of the Order Penetration Point (OPP). Based on an empirical study, the paper explores the findings of the literature review applied to the capital goods sector. It analyses four distinguishing factors between the lean and the agile paradigm: typical products, marketplace demand, product variety and customer drivers in combination with the different OPP positions: ETO, MTO, ATO and MTS.

Raquel Sanchis, Eduardo Saiz, Eduardo Castellano, Raul Poler

Chapter 25. Minimizing the Makespan on Parallel Batch Scheduling with Stochastic Times

In this paper we approach the problem of set-up scheduling in a parallel machine environment with size dependent setup time, release time and minimizing the makespan (C

max

). The jobs’ process times, set-up times and release times are stochastic for better depiction of the real world. The problem is NP-hard. Therefore, in this paper we will compare different heuristics with a special simulation approach then we will analyze the obtained results.

R. Sahraeian, F. Samaei, I. Rastgar

Chapter 26. A Makespan Minimization in an m-Stage Flow Shop Lot Streaming with Sequence Dependent Setup Times: MILP Model and Experimental Approach

This paper considers the recent growing interest the scientific community has put over the use of Lot Streaming technics (LS) or lot splitting. Implications are highlighted, from the scheduling point of view. It is presented this consideration and a MILP mathematical model to minimize makespan in an n-job flow shop problem with sequence dependent setup times (SDST). At the same time, the model is resolved, for the two- and three-machine flow shop, with the purpose of analyzing, through a design of experiments, which is the achieved makespan reduction and computation time increment regarding to no LS consideration used. Finally, it will be reflected about the use of non-optimum technics relating makespan values and expected calculation time.

Pedro Gómez-Gasquet, Rubén Segura Andrés, Rubén D. Franco Pereyra, Carlos Andrés-Romano

Chapter 27. A Modified Approach Based on Ranking Fuzzy Numbers for Fuzzy Integer Programming with Equality Constraints

This paper proposes a method for solving fuzzy integer programming problems where all the cost coefficients of the objective function and the right hand side terms of equality constraints are, in general, fuzzy numbers. We formulate a modified fuzzy ranking method to rank the fuzzy objective values and to deal with the equality relation on constraints under integrity conditions. We build a fuzzy subset in the integer decision space whose membership function represents the balance between the feasibility degree of constraints and the satisfaction degree of the goal. Finally, to illustrate our proposal, we solve a numerical example of a transport planning problem.

Manuel Díaz-Madroñero, Josefa Mula, Mariano Jiménez

Chapter 28. Modeling and Solving a Variant of MMSP-W Problem with Production Mix Restrictions

In this paper, we propose a procedure based on Bounded Dynamic Programming (

BDP

) to solve the Mixed-Model Sequencing Problem with Work overload Minimisation (

MMSP

-

W

), with serial workstations, unrestricted (or free) interruption of the operations and with production mix restrictions.

Joaquín Bautista, Alberto Cano, Rocío Alfaro

Chapter 29. Coordination Mechanism for MILP Models to Plan Operations Within an Advanced Planning and Scheduling System in a Motor Company: A Case Study

The aim of this paper is to present a coordination mechanism between MILP models for planning operations within an integrated planning tool. The mechanism presented allows co-ordinate planning models between different domains (procurement, production, transportation), the different planning horizons (mid-term, short-term and very short-term) and between the different planning periods. This mechanism has been design to ensure coordination and integrity between the different plans while meeting the expectations of the different stakeholders involved in the planning process of an automotive plant. The proposed mechanism was implemented in an Advanced Planning and Scheduling system for an engine assembly company.

J. Maheut, J. P. Garcia-Sabater, J. J. Garcia-Sabater, J. Marin-Garcia

Chapter 30. Lean-Six Sigma Approach put into Practice in an Empirical Study

Manufacturing process improvement using Lean principles, tools and techniques has been highlighted as one of the most effective approaches since its main goal is to eliminate waste and inefficiencies by creating more value with fewer resources. This approach has been extended worldwide, especially in the manufacturing sector. Nevertheless, to deepen the development of advanced stages of Lean, such as pull and demand-oriented production, it is necessary to reduce variability in processes. For this purpose, the integration of Six Sigma- DMAIC could be a useful approach in order to develop advanced lean stages. This paper presents the Six Sigma and Lean effectiveness integration via an action research case study carried out in a domestic appliance manufacturing facility.

Martínez S. Miguélez, A. Errasti, J. A. Alberto

Chapter 31. Lean Toolbox for Seasonal Process Industries: A Nougat Fabrication Case Study

Although lean production tools are considered an urgent prerequisite for producers everywhere, in the process industry, and particularly the seasonal process industry, there is surprisingly little use of these techniques. The aim of this paper is to analyze and facilitate the implementation of the core tools for lean in the seasonal process industry. The second part of the paper presents a brief case study of a nougat fabrication company to show the applicability of this proposal. Although process industries may need to adapt the traditional lean tools to better fit their circumstances, the case study will show how, with slight modification, several tools were applied successfully and with great impact.

M. Tanco, J. Santos, J. L. Rodríguez, J. Reich

Chapter 32. Systematic Improvement of IT Processes: Application of CMMI.DEV in Implementation of ERP

This article presents and analyzes the experience of a IT European multinational company in the analysis, evaluation and improvement of internal processes of implementation of ERP tools, taking as a reference model of good practice CMMI.DEV within their management system quality. A model but is intended for software developers and the company activities are the parameterization of ERP, provides a proven methodology to maintain, among other things, the baseline and carry out the “monitoring and configuration control so the interaction between information (requirements), configuration (current status and evolution of software) and documentation (of support and revisions) can be managed effectively and the concordance of states throughout all the ERP implementation project. This work has also allowed the analysis of the model itself what has a disciplined approach for improvement based on a set of progressive steps also apply to the certification process and what contrasts with the methodologies proposed by other sectorial quality models based on the ISO 9000.

M. Grijalvo Martín, A. Ocampo Aguirre, Ana M. Vargas

Management Systems and Sustainability

Frontmatter

Chapter 33. Quality, Environment and Safety: From Individual Systems to Integration—A Portuguese Case Study

The purpose of this case study is to define, a model of structure for an Integrated Management System (IMS) considering the individual Management Systems—Quality Management System (QMS) according to ISO 9001, Environmental Management System (EMS) according to ISO 14001, Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS) according to OHSAS 18001 and others, which were progressively and independently implemented a Portuguese SME, localized in the Municipality of Vila Nova de Famalicão, Portugal, that along the last twenty five years. An internal analysis by questionnaire was performed, to the 160 Collaborators of the Company. The rate responses was equal to 86 %. Very important findings were highlighted from the integration to result, as several tangible and intangible gains for the Company, as well as to their internal and external Stakeholders. On the other hand, the results show us that the integration of the individual Management Systems represent, since now, a relevant added value, that the organizations cannot avoid considering the accelerated evolution of the growing of requirements in the external environment, as a whole, towards the business.

Gilberto Santos, Síria Barros, Manuel Rebelo

Chapter 34. Evaluation of the Business Process Management Practices: An Application in the Company of Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

This paper presents a group of criteria and observable variables to evaluate the maturity of the business process management practices. From the review of the literature about the attributes used by the maturity models, a group of desirable criteria and observable variables was defined to evaluate the maturity of the business process management. In the context of a case study held in a company of oil and gas exploration and production, the group of criteria and observable variables suggested was used to evaluate the business process management practices of the company. The data for the evaluation were obtained within a survey conducted with the company collaborators who had experience with business process management in the exploration and production of oil and gas. The results of the evaluation indicate that the practices related to the Process Mapping and Indicators criteria were evaluated positively and can be considered strong points of the process management of the company. While the practices related to the Process Improvement, Process Manager, People Management and Leadership criteria presented several opportunities of improvement.

Moacyr A. D. Figueiredo, Gilson Brito Lima, José Rodrigues de Farias Filho, Debora A. Herkenhoff, Lívia C. Figueiredo, Carolina C. Figueiredo

Chapter 35. Safety Management Models in Manufacturing Companies

In Spain, companies can decide how to manage safety. Although most safety activities are mandatory, the management model can be decided in some extend by each company. Not all models have the same effectiveness according to their preventive practices and injury rates. This study applies a discrimination model in order to determine which reasons and circumstances make a company adopt a certain safety model or a safety management system. Results can be used in public promotion programs oriented to convince managers of the benefits of implementing safety management systems with internal preventive resources instead of subcontracting an external preventive service.

J. A. Carrillo, J. Guadix, L. Onieva

Chapter 36. Strategic Packaging Logistics: A Case Study from a Supply Chain Perspective

Few companies give importance to the impact of an appropriate packaging design on the implementation of logistic efficiency and sustainability strategies in the supply chain. Thus, this paper sets out to illustrate how a strategic view of this design (“Strategic Packaging Logistics”) makes it possible to obtain competitive advantages throughout the companies in the supply chain. To achieve this, not only the conceptual field of this new concept is developed, but also in its application, analysing a Spanish distribution company.

Jesús García-Arca, J. Carlos Prado-Prado, A. Trinidad González-Portela Garrido

Chapter 37. Insights into Corporate Social Responsibility Measurement

This article is aimed at identifying and measuring impacts of CSR at the company level, both in financial and non-financial performance. CSR contribution to firm performance has been widely discussed in the management literature in the last decades. However, efforts in building a straight link between CSR and financial performance at the macro level have led to no single answer, given the complex nature of CSR outcomes. Our contribution builds on existing literature in CSR strategy and CSR measurement and develops a model for assessing CSR financial and non-financial outcomes from a company-specific perspective. We also argue that measuring CSR outcomes can lead to further integration of non-financial issues in management systems and better inform strategic decision-making processes. Finally, a case example illustrates the proposed model.

Diego Pérez López, Ana Moreno Romero

Chapter 38. Personnel Participation: A Review of Its Role in Corporate Social Responsibility Models and Standards

The object of this article is to identify if personnel participation in continuous improvement is an issue considered within the wide concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), as this is currently understood. To this end, in this paper we analyze the main international CSR models and standards, in order to describe to what extent personnel participation is treated in them. Finally, some conclusions and the authors’ proposals are provided.

A. J. Fernández-González, R. Fernández-Pérez, J. C. Prado-Prado

Chapter 39. A Performance Measurement Framework for Monitoring Supply Chain Sustainability

In the competitive business environment achieving sustainable supply chains is an issue that is still to be solved despite its relevance. For that reason, there are several tools that have emerged in the last years to aid to understand and support supply chain sustainability. Performance measurement frameworks are useful tools that aid to collect and monitor the evolution of performance of any organization. However, there are few performance measurement frameworks developed in the literature for that purpose, all of them recently published, and lacking of a solid structure that aids to define and implement performance measurement elements in a way that provide an overall evaluation of the sustainability status of the supply chain. This paper introduces a novel performance measurement system to fill this research gap.

M. J. Verdecho, J. J. Alfaro-Saiz, R. Rodriguez–Rodriguez

Papers Prize–Award

Frontmatter

Chapter 40. A Methodology to Share Profits and Costs in Non-hierarchical Networks

The creation of Non-Hierarchical manufacturing Networks (NHN) will allow SMEs to reach innovative and agile networks. Some of the existing problems associated with collaborative processes among networked SMEs are reminded in this paper. Amongst the collaborative problems we have focused on share profits and costs problem due to the fact that it is a relevant problem to achieve collaboration in decentralised networks and it has not been satisfactory solved in NHN context. The aim of the paper is to provide a methodology for enabling SMEs to manage the share of costs and profits when decentralised and collaborative relationships are established.

Beatriz Andrés, R. Poler

Chapter 41. Fill Rate in a Periodic Review Base Stock System Under Discrete Distributed Demand for the Backordering Case

The fill rate is the fraction of demand that is satisfied directly from shelf. In the literature, this service metric is usually computed by using the traditional approach, which calculates the fill rate as the complement of the quotient between the expected unfulfilled demand and the expected demand per replenishment cycle, instead of directly the expected fraction of fulfilled demand. Furthermore the available methods to estimate the fill rate apply only under specific demand conditions. This paper shows the research gap regarding the estimation procedures to compute the fill rate and suggests: (1) a new exact procedure to compute the traditional approximation for any discrete demand distribution; and (2) a new method to compute the fill rate directly as the fraction of fulfilled demand for any discrete demand distribution. Simulation results show that the latter methods outperform the traditional approach, which underestimates the simulated fill rate, over different demand patterns. This paper focuses on the traditional periodic review, base stock system when backlogged demands are allowed.

E. Babiloni, E. Guijarro, M. Cardós, S. Estellés

Chapter 42. A Proposed Collaborative Network Enterprise Model in the Fruit-and-Vegetable Sector Using Maturity Models

Spain is the first European producer and exporter of fresh fruits and vegetables. SMEs need to join forces, through collaboration, to make a continuous innovative effort to add value to the sector and face foreign competition. A collaborative network is the way for companies to share abilities and resources, processes and technology. This paper presents the development of a logistic network model, for the fruit-and vegetable companies, based on maturity models. This approach will allow evaluating, in an objective way, the state of the companies and the network from the views of the selected maturity models, the purpose of which is to establish the level of integration and collaboration within the studied network, and to propose evolutionary improvements in the network’s collaborative processes.

Maria Alonso-Manzanedo, M. Victoria De-la-Fuente-Aragon, Lorenzo Ros-McDonnell

Chapter 43. Incorporating Small-Scale Farmers into Sustainable Supply Chains: A Case Study

Increased globalization and outsourcing to developing countries is fostering the interest in supply chain sustainability. From the academic point of view, while environmental impacts of supply chains have been largely analysed, the research on social issues has been scattered and fragmented. This paper thereby sets out to close this gap. We have identified an emerging sphere of knowledge at the interface between sustainable supply chain management, business strategy and international development literature, which seeks to propose innovative strategies for poverty alleviation. The incorporation of impoverished farmers into supply chains is presented here as one of those strategies, and illustrated through a case study on the integration of smallholders in the Senegalese horticulture supply chain.

Inma Borrella, Ruth Carrasco-Gallego, Carlos Mataix, Ramón Fisac
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