Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Over the past two decades, research has shown a growing consensus that 70% to 90% of organizational learning occurs not through formal training but informally, on-the-job, and in an ongoing manner. Despite this emerging consensus, primary data on the nature and correlates of informal learning remains sparse. The purpose of this study was to provide an integrative definition of informal learning behaviors (ILBs) and to synthesize existing primary data through meta-analysis to explore ILB correlates.
Given that there has been little systematic treatment of ILBs, we defined their construct domain and tested relationships suggested by our research questions with antecedents (personal factors, situational factors) and outcomes (attitudes, knowledge/skill acquisition, performance) using random effects meta-analyses (k = 49, N = 55,514).
Our results showed both personal and situational antecedent factors to be predictive of ILBs, as well as ILB–outcome relationships.
Findings indicate that engagement in ILBs for working adults is linked to valued criteria such as attitudes (ρ = .29), knowledge/skill acquisition (ρ = .41), and performance (ρ = .42). We provide suggestions for future research and actionable advice for organizations to support the development of ILBs.
Although hundreds of studies and over a dozen meta-analyses have explored the nature and effectiveness of formal learning in the workplace, our work is the first attempt to conceptualize a unified definition of ILBs and to aggregate primary data on ILB correlates using meta-analysis.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Aguinis, H., Gottfredson, R. K., & Wright, T. A. (2011a). Best-practice recommendations for estimating interaction effects using meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 1033–1043. CrossRef
Aguinis, H., Pierce, C. A., Bosco, F. A., Dalton, D. R., & Dalton, C. M. (2011b). Debunking myths and urban legends about meta-analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 14, 306–331. CrossRef
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1977). Attitude-behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 888–918. CrossRef
Alliger, G. M., Tannenbaum, S. I., Bennett, W., Traver, H., & Shotland, A. (1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50, 341–358. CrossRef
Armijo-Olivo, S., Stiles, C. R., Hagen, N. A., Biondo, P. D., & Cummings, G. G. (2012). Assessment of study quality for systematic reviews: A comparison of the Cochrane collaboration risk of bias tool and the effective public health practice project quality assessment tool. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 18, 12–18. CrossRefPubMed
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. San Francisco: Wiley Online Library.
Bartlett, C. A., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Beyond strategic planning to organization learning: Lifeblood of the individualized corporation. Strategy & Leadership, 26, 34–39.
*Bednall, T. C., Sanders, K., & Runhaar, P. (2014). Simulating informal learning activities through perceptions of performance appraisal quality and human resource management system strength: A two-wave study. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 13, 45–61. CrossRef
*Berg, S. A., & Chyung, S. Y. (2008). Factors that influence informal learning in the workplace. Journal of Workplace Learning, 20, 229–244. CrossRef
*Bickmore, D. L. (2011). Professional learning experiences and administrator practice: Is there a connection? Professional Development in Education, 38, 95–112. CrossRef
Bijmolt, T. H., & Pieters, R. G. (2001). Meta-analysis in marketing when studies contain multiple measurements. Marketing Letters, 12, 157–169. CrossRef
Blume, B. D., Ford, J. K., Baldwin, T. T., & Huang, J. L. (2010). Transfer of training: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Management, 36, 1065–1105. CrossRef
Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. R. (2009). Criticisms of meta-analysis. In Introduction to meta-analysis . New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 377–387
Boyce, L. A., Zaccaro, S. J., & Wisecarver, M. Z. (2010). Propensity for self-development of leadership attributes: Understanding, predicting, and supporting performance of leader self-development. The Leadership Quarterly, 21, 159–178.
Brett, J. F., & VandeWalle, D. (1999). Goal orientation and goal content as predictors of performance in a training program. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 863–873.
Button, S. B., Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. (1996). Goal orientation in organizational research: A conceptual and empirical foundation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67, 26–48.
Callahan, J. S., Kiker, D. S., & Cross, T. (2003). Does method matter? A meta-analysis of the effects of training method on older learner training performance. Journal of Management, 29, 663–680. CrossRef
*Carson, E. H. (2013). Self-directed learning and academic achievement in secondary online students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga.
Center for Workforce-Development. (1998). The teaching firm: Where productive work and learning converge: Report on research findings and implications. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, Inc.
*Choi, W., & Jacobs, R. L. (2011). Influences of formal learning, personal learning orientation, and supportive learning environment on informal learning. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 22, 239–257. CrossRef
Cooper, H. (2003). Editorial. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 3–9. CrossRef
Cortina, J. M. (2003). Apples and oranges (and pears, oh my!): The search for moderators in meta-analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 6, 415–439. CrossRef
Cseh, M., Watkins, K. E., & Marsick, V. J. (2000). Informal and incidental learning in the workplace. Germany: Munster.
*de Groot, E., Jaarsma, D., Endedijk, M., Mainhard, T., Lam, I., Simons, R. J., & van Beukelen, P. (2012). Critically reflective work behavior of health care professionals. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 32, 48–57.
*Digby, C. L. B. (2010). An examination of the impact of non-formal and informal learning on adult environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Donovan, J. (2001). Work motivation. In N. Anderson, D. S. Ones, H. K. Sinangil, & C. Viswesvaran (Eds.), Handbook of industrial, work, and organizational psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 53–76). Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
Ellinger, A. (2005). Contextual factors influencing informal learning ina workplace setting: The case of “reinventing itself company”. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16, 389–415.
*Enos, M. D., Kehrhahn, M. T., & Bell, A. (2003). Informal learning and the transfer of learning: How managers develop proficiency. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 14, 369–387. CrossRef
Eraut, M. (2004). Informal learning in the workplace. Studies in Continuing Education, 26, 247–273. CrossRef
Ericsson, K. A., & Charness, N. (1994). Expert performance: Its structure and acquisition. American Psychologist, 49, 725–747. CrossRef
Flynn, D., Eddy, E. R., & Tannenbaum, S. I. (2006). The impact of national culture on the continuous learning environment: Exploratory findings from multiple countries. Journal of East-West Business, 12, 85–107. CrossRef
*Froehlich, D., Segers, M., & Van den Bossche, P. (2014). Learning approach, leadership style, and organizational learning culture on managers’ learning outcomes. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 25, 29–57. CrossRef
*Gijbels, D., Raemdonck, I., & Vervecken, D. (2010). Influencing work-related learning: The role of job characteristics and self-directed learning orientation in part-time vocational education. Vocations and Learning, 3, 239–255. CrossRef
*Gijbels, D., Raemdonck, I., Vervecken, D., & Van Herck, J. (2012). Understanding work-related learning: The case of ICT workers. Journal of Workplace Learning, 24, 416–429. CrossRef
Gola, G. (2009). Informal learning of social workers: A method of narrative inquiry. Journal of Workplace Learning, 21, 334–346. CrossRef
*Gonzales, L. C. (1985). Relationship of cooperative board of directors’ informal learning to selected characteristics. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Wisconson-Madison.
Guion, R. (1998). Assessment, measurement, and prediction for personnel decisions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
*Hicks, E., Bagg, R., Doyle, W., & Young, J. D. (2007). Canadian accountants: Examining workplace learning. Journal of Workplace Learning, 19, 61–77. CrossRef
*Houde, J. F. (2014). The influence of formal training on informal learning networks. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, North Carolina State University.
Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (2004). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage. CrossRef
*Hurns, K. M. (2013). Business professionals’ reflective practice in the workplace. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Walsh College.
*Hutchins, H. M., Burke, L. A., & Berthelsen, A. M. (2010). A missing link in the transfer problem? Examining how trainers learn about training transfer. Human Resource Management, 49, 599–618. CrossRef
*Jeon, K. S., & Kim, K.-N. (2012). How do organizational and task factors influence informal learning in the workplace? Human Resource Development International, 15, 209–226. CrossRef
Keith, N., & Frese, M. (2008). Effectiveness of error management training: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 59–69.
Klein, H. J., Noe, R. A., & Wang, C. W. (2006). Motivation to learn and course outcomes: The impact of delivery mode, learning goal orientation, and perceived barriers and enablers. Personnel Psychology, 59, 665–702. CrossRef
Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 254–284. CrossRef
Koopmans, H., Doornbos, A. J., & Eekelen, I. M. v. (2006). Learning in interactive work situations: It takes two to tango; why not invite both partners to dance? Human Resource Development Quarterly, 17, 135–158.
*Lindner, C. L. (2012). Predictive modeling in adult education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Idaho.
*Livingstone, D. W. (2001). Worker control as the missing link: Relations between paid/unpaid work and work-related learning. Journal of Workplace Learning, 13, 308–317. CrossRef
*Livingstone, D. W., & Raykov, M. (2008). Workers’ power and intentional learning among non-managerial workers: A 2004 benchmark survey. Relations Industrielles, 63, 30–56. CrossRef
*Livingstone, D. W., & Stowe, S. (2007). Work time and learning activities of the continuously employed: A longitudinal analysis, 1998-2004. Journal of Workplace Learning, 19, 17–31. CrossRef
Lohman, M. C. (2005). A survey of factors influencing the engagement of two professional groups in informal workplace learning activities. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16, 501–527.
*Maringka, J. F. (2014). Development and validation of an instrument to assess employees’ perceptions of informal learning work context. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Marsick, V. J., & Watkins, K. (1990). Informal and Incidental Learning in the Workplace. London: Routledge.
Marsick, V. J., Volpe, M., & Watkins, K. E. (1999). Theory and practice of informal learning in the knowledge era. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 1, 80–95. CrossRef
Mathieu, J. E., & Chen, G. (2011). The etiology of the multilevel paradigm in management research. Journal of Management, 37, 610–641. CrossRef
Mathieu, J. E., Tannenbaum, S. I., & Salas, E. (1992). The influences of individual and situational characteristics on measures of training effectiveness. Academy of Management Journal, 35, 828–847. CrossRef
*Matsuo, M., & Nakahara, J. (2013). The effects of the PDCA cycle and OJT on workplace learning. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24, 195–207. CrossRef
McCauley, C. D., & Brutus, S. (1998). Management development through job experiences: An annotated bibliography. Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership.
McCauley, C. D., & Hezlett, S. A. (2001). Individual development in the workplace. In N. Anderson, D. S. Ones, H. K. Sinangil, & C. Viswesvaran (Eds.), Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 313–335). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 20–52. CrossRef
Molloy, J. C., & Noe, R. A. (2010). "learning" a living: Continuous learning for survival in today’s talent market. In S. W. J. Kozlowski & E. Salas (Eds.), Learning, training, and development in organizations (pp. 333–362). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
*Moon, S. Y., & Na, S. I. (2009). Psychological and organizational variables associated with workplace learning in small and medium manufacturing businesses in Korea. Asia Pacific Education Review, 10, 327–336. CrossRef
Morris, M. A., & Robie, C. (2001). A meta-analysis of the effects of cross-cultural training on expatriate performance and adjustment. International Journal of Training and Development, 5, 112–125.
Morrison, A. M., White, R. P., & Van Velsor, E. (1992). Breaking the glass ceiling: Can women reach the top of America’s largest corporations? New York: Perseus Publishing.
Mosier, C. I. (1943). On the reliability of a weighted composite. Psychometrika, 8, 161–168. CrossRef
Mumford, M. D., Baughman, W. A., Threlfall, K. V., Uhlman, C. E., & Costanza, D. P. (1993). Personality, adaptability, and performance: Performance on well-defined problem sovling tasks. Human Performance, 6, 241–285.
Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. (2010). The relationships of age with job attitudes: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 63, 677–718. CrossRef
Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. (2012). Evaluating six common stereotypes about older workers with meta-analytical data. Personnel Psychology, 65, 821–858. CrossRef
Ng, T. W., Eby, L. T., Sorensen, K. L., & Feldman, D. C. (2005). Predictors of objective and subjective career success: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 58, 367–408. CrossRef
Noe, R. A., & Schmitt, N. (1986). The influence of trainee attitudes on training effectiveness: Test of a model. Personnel Psychology, 39, 497–523.
Noe, R. A., & Wilk, S. L. (1993). Investigation of the factors that influence employees’ participation in development activities. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 291–302.
Noe, R. A., Tews, M. J., & McConnell-Dachner, A. (2010). Learner engagement: A new perspective for enhancing our understanding of learner motivation and workplace learning. The Academy of Management Annals, 4, 279–315. CrossRef
*Noe, R. A., Tews, M. J., & Marand, A. D. (2013). Individual differences and informal learning in the workplace. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83, 327–335. CrossRef
Orvis, K. A., & Leffler, G. P. (2011). Individual and contextual factors: An interactionist approach to understanding employee self-development. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 172–177. CrossRef
*Parise, L. M., & Spillane, J. P. (2010). Teacher learning and instructional change: How formal and on-the-job learning opportunities predict change in elementary school teachers’ practice. The Elementary School Journal, 110, 323–346. CrossRef
*Pike, G. R. (1999). The effects of residential learning communities and traditional residential living arrangements on educational gains during the first year of college. Journal of College Student Development, 40, 269–284.
Ployhart, R. E., & Vandenberg, R. J. (2010). Longitudinal research: The theory, design, and analysis of change. Journal of Management, 36, 94–120. CrossRef
Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S., & Congdon, R. (2004). HLM 6 for Windows. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International.
*Reardon, R. F. (2010). The impact of learning culture on worker response to new technology. Journal of Workplace Learning, 22, 201–211. CrossRef
Reio, T. G., & Wiswell, A. (2000). Field investigation of the relationship among adult curiosity, workplace learning, and job performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 11, 5–30.
*Reychav, I., & Te’eni, D. (2009). Knowledge exchange in the shrines of knowledge: The "how’s" and "where’s" of knowledge sharing processes. Computers & Education, 53, 1266–1277. CrossRef
*Riaz, S., Rambli, D. R. A., Salleh, R., & Mushtaq, A. (2010). Study to investigate learning motivation factors within formal and informal learning environments and their influence upon web-based learning. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 5, 41–50.
*Richter, D., Kunter, M., Klusmann, U., Lüdtke, O., & Baumert, J. (2011). Professional development across the teaching career: Teachers’ uptake of formal and informal learning opportunities. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27, 116–126. CrossRef
Rooney, J. A., & Gottlieb, B. H. (2007). Development and initial validation of a measure of supportive and unsupportive managerial behaviors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 71, 186–203.
Ross, L., & Nisbett, R. E. (1991). The person and the situation: Perspectives of social psychology: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
*Rowden, R. W. (2002). The relationship between workplace learning and job satisfaction in U.S. small to midsize businesses. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 13, 407–425. CrossRef
*Rowden, R. W., & Conine, R. T. (2005). The impact of workplace learning on job satisfaction in small US commercial banks. Journal of Workplace Learning, 17, 215–230. CrossRef
Salas, E., DiazGranados, D., Klein, C., Burke, C. S., Stagl, K. C., Goodwin, G. F., & Halpin, S. M. (2008). Does team training improve team performance? A meta-analysis. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 50, 903–933. CrossRef
Sambrook, S. (2005). Factors influencing the context and process of work-related learning: Synthesizing findings from two research projects. Human Resource Development International, 8, 101–119. CrossRef
*Sanders, J., Oomens, S., Blonk, R. W. B., & Hazelzet, A. (2011). Explaining lower educated workers’ training intentions. Journal of Workplace Learning, 23, 402–416. CrossRef
*Santos, I. M., & Ali, N. (2012a). Beyond classroom: The uses of mobile phones by female students. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education, 8, 63–75. CrossRef
*Santos, I. M., & Ali, N. (2012b). Exploring the uses of mobile phones to support informal learning. Education and Information Technologies, 17, 187–203. CrossRef
*Scheurer, A. J. (2013). Antecedents of informal learning: A study of core self-evaluations and work-family conflict and their effects on informal learning. Unpublished masters thesis, Ohio State University.
Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (2001). Meta-analysis. In N. Anderson, D. S. Ones, J. K. Sinangil, & C. Viswesvaran (Eds.), Handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 51–70). Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
Simmering, M. J., Colquitt, J. A., Noe, R. A., & Porter, C. O. (2003). Conscientiousness, autonomy fit, and development: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 954–963.
Skule, S. (2004). Learning conditions at work: A framework to understand and assess informal learning in the workplace. International Journal of Training and Development, 8, 8–20.
Smith, E. M., Ford, J. K., & Kozlowski, S. W. (1997). Building adaptive expertise: Implications for training design strategies. In M. A. Quinones & A. Ehrenstein (Eds.), Training for a rapidly changing workforce: Applications of psychological research (pp. 89–118). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Snijders, T. A., & Bosker, R. J. (1999). Introduction to multilevel analysis. London: Sage.
*Spreitzer, G. M., McCall, M. W., & Mahoney, J. D. (1997). Early identification of international executive potential. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 6–29. CrossRef
Stamps, D. (1998). Learning ecologies. Training, 35, 32–38.
Tannenbaum, S. I. (1997). Enhancing continuous learning: Diagnostic findings from multiple companies. Human Resource Management, 36, 437–452. CrossRef
Tannenbaum, S. I., & Cerasoli, C. P. (2013). Do team and individual debriefs enhance performance? A meta-analysis. Human Factors: The Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 55, 231–245. CrossRef
Tannenbaum, S. I., Beard, R. L., McNall, L. A., & Salas, E. (2010). Informal learning and development in organizations. In S. W. J. Kozlowski & E. Salas (Eds.), Learning, training, and development in organizations (pp. 303–332). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Tannenbaum, S. I., Beard, R. L., & Cerasoli, C. P. (2013). Conducting team debriefings that work: Lessons from research and practice. In E. Salas, S. Tannenbaum, D. Cohen, & G. Latham (Eds.), Developing and enhancing teamwork in organizations: Evidence-based best practices and guidelines (pp. 488–519). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
*van der Heijden, B., Boon, J., van der Klink, M., & Meijs, E. (2009). Employability enhancement through formal and informal learning: An empirical study among Dutch non-academic university staff members. International Journal of Training and Development, 13, 19–37.
*Van der Klink, M., Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Boon, J., & van Rooij, S. W. (2014). Exploring the contribution of formal and informal learning to academic staff member employability: A Dutch perspective. Career Development International, 19, 337–356. CrossRef
*Wasiyo, K. (2010). Proactive knowledge accessibility and causal clarity: Key factors in improving project management and cross-project learning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Columbia University.
*Welch, C. M. (2013). Perceptions of value: A study of worker characteristics and performance interventions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Capella University.
Whitener, E. M. (1990). Confusion of confidence intervals and credibility intervals in meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 315–321. CrossRef
Yukl, G. (2010). Leadership in organizations. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
- Antecedents and Outcomes of Informal Learning Behaviors: a Meta-Analysis
Christopher P. Cerasoli
George M. Alliger
Jamie S. Donsbach
John E. Mathieu
Scott I. Tannenbaum
Karin A. Orvis
- Springer US
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, So bewältigen Sie Stress im Fernstudium/© granata68 | stock.adobe.com | AdobeStock