Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Physical size limitations in user equipment may force multiple antennas to be spaced closely, and this generates a considerable amount of mutual coupling between antenna elements whose effect cannot be neglected. Thus, the design and deployment of antenna selection schemes appropriate for next generation wireless standards such as 3GPP long term evolution (LTE) and LTE advanced needs to take these practical implementation issues into account. In this paper, we consider multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) systems where antenna elements are placed side by side in a limited-size linear array, and we examine the performance of some typical antenna selection approaches in such systems and under various scenarios of antenna spacing and mutual coupling. These antenna selection schemes range from the conventional hard selection method where only part of the antennas are active, to some newly proposed methods where all the antennas are used, which are categorized as soft selection. For the cases we consider, our results indicate that, given the presence of mutual coupling, soft selection can always achieve superior performance as compared to hard selection, and the interelement spacing is closely related to the effectiveness of antenna selection. Our work further reveals that, when the effect of mutual coupling is concerned, it is still possible to achieve better spectral efficiency by placing a few more than necessary antenna elements in user equipment and applying an appropriate antenna selection approach than plainly implementing the conventional MIMO system without antenna selection.
Foschini GJ, Gans MJ: On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas. Wireless Personal Communications 1998, 6(3):311-335. 10.1023/A:1008889222784 CrossRef
Overview of 3GPP Release 8 V0.0.3 November 2008, http://www.3gpp.org/Release-8
Molisch AF, Win MZ: MIMO systems with antenna selection. IEEE Microwave Magazine 2004, 5(1):46-56. 10.1109/MMW.2004.1284943 CrossRef
Kotecha J: LTE:MIMO Techniques in 3GPP-LTE. Freescale Semiconductor, June 2008
Win MZ, Winters JH: Analysis of hybrid selection/maximal-ratio combining in Rayleigh fading. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1999, 47(12):1773-1776. 10.1109/26.809693 CrossRef
Collin L, Berder O, Rostaing P, Burel G: Soft vs. hard antenna selection based on the minimum distance for MIMO systems. Proceedings of the 38th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, November 2002, Grove, Calif, USA 2: 1369-1373.
Molisch AF, Zhang X: FFT-based hybrid antenna selection schemes for spatially correlated MIMO channels. IEEE Communications Letters 2004, 8(1):36-38. 10.1109/LCOMM.2003.822512 CrossRef
Balanis CA: Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design. 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA; 2005.
Janaswamy R: Effect of element mutual coupling on the capacity of fixed length linear arrays. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 2002, 1: 157-160. CrossRef
Waldschmidt C, Schulteis S, Wiesbeck W: Complete RF system model for analysis of compact MIMO arrays. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2004, 53(3):579-586. 10.1109/TVT.2004.825788 CrossRef
Wallace JW, Jensen MA: Mutual coupling in MIMO wireless systems: a rigorous network theory analysis. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2004, 3(4):1317-1325. 10.1109/TWC.2004.830854 CrossRef
Abouda AA, Häggman SG: Effect of mutual coupling on capacity of MIMO wireless channels in high SNR scenario. Progress in Electromagnetics Research 2006, 65: 27-40. CrossRef
Gans MJ: Channel capacity between antenna arrays—part II: amplifier noise dominates. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2006, 54(11):1983-1992. CrossRef
Xu Z, Sfar S, Blum RS: On the importance of modeling the mutual coupling for antenna selection for closely-spaced arrays. Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS '06), March 2006, Princeton, NJ, USA 1351-1355.
Lu D, So DKC, Brown AK: Receive antenna selection scheme for V-BLAST with mutual coupling in correlated channels. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '08), September 2008, Cannes, France 1-5.
Orfanidis SJ: Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas. Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA; 2004.
Hewes J: Impedance and reactance. The Electronics Club, February 2008, http://www.kpsec.freeuk.com/imped.htm
Kermoal JP, Schumacher L, Pedersen KI, Mogensen PE, Frederiksen F: A stochastic MIMO radio channel model with experimental validation. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2002, 20(6):1211-1226. 10.1109/JSAC.2002.801223 CrossRef
Oestges C, Clerckx B, Vanhoenacker-Janvier D, Paulraj AJ: Impact of fading correlations on MIMO communication systems in geometry-based statistical channel models. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2005, 4(3):1112-1120. CrossRef
Shiu D-S, Foschini GJ, Gans MJ, Kahn JM: Fading correlation and its effect on the capacity of multielement antenna systems. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2000, 48(3):502-513. 10.1109/26.837052 CrossRef
Nakaya Y, Toda T, Hara S, Takada J-I, Oishi Y: Incorporation of RF-adaptive array antenna into MIMO receivers. Proceedings of IEEE Topical Conference on Wireless Communication Technology (WCT '03), October 2003, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA 297-298.
- Antenna Selection for MIMO Systems with Closely Spaced Antennas
Rick S. Blum
- Springer International Publishing
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking
Elektronische ISSN: 1687-1499
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA, Best Practices für die Mitarbeiter-Partizipation in der Produktentwicklung/© astrosystem | stock.adobe.com