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The composition of recharge water evolves as it passes through the unsaturated zone and enters and flows through an aquifer. Infiltrated and injected waters interact with aquifer minerals and organic matter, and mix and react with native groundwater. Geochemical processes during and after aquifer recharge can either improve or cause a deterioration of water quality. The concentrations of pathogens and some chemical contaminants are reduced during recharge and subsequent aquifer transport and residence. Storage of impaired waters (e.g., treated wastewater) in aquifers provides time for the biodegradation of contaminants that degrade slowly. Some managed aquifer recharge (MAR) projects (e.g., soil-aquifer treatment and bank filtration) intentionally take advantage of natural contaminant attenuation processes to improve water quality. Fluid-rock interactions in some MAR systems have released arsenic and metals into recharged waters causing an unacceptable deterioration in water quality. Pretreatment options are available to control adverse geochemical reactions, such as dissolved oxygen removal to prevent oxidation of arsenic-bearing sulfide minerals and associated leaching.
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- Anthropogenic Aquifer Recharge and Water Quality
Robert G. Maliva
- Chapter 6