Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Natural materials are plentifully accessible low cost. A natural resource which is nontoxic to the ecosystem. Because of the excess amount of inorganic pollutants, organic pollutants and pathogens in water, it is harmful to human being. These contaminants should be taken out by the natural adsorbent due to the harmful force of these contaminants. This chapter surveys the current evolution of natural clays and their modified forms as adsorbing agents for treating drinking water. This chapter explores the adaptable nature of natural materials and nanomaterials with their capability to absorb multiplicity of contaminants, which are present in the drinking water. The properties and alteration of the natural adsorbent and its significance in removing a detailed type of contaminants are identified. The efficacy of the natural and modified adsorbents is compared to active technologies, materials and methods, and it is considerably higher or similar.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
The Clay Mineral Group. 2011. http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/silicate/clays.htm.
Lin, S.H., and R.S. Juang. 2002. Heavy metal removal from water by sorption using surfactant-modified montmorillonite. Journal of Hazardous Materials 92 (3): 315–326. CrossRef
Krishna, B.S., D.S.R. Murty, and B.S. Jai Prakash. 2000. Thermodynamics of chromium(VI) anionic species sorption onto surfactant-modified montmorillonite clay. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 229 (1): 230–236. CrossRef
Bailey, S.E., T.J. Olin, R.M. Bricka, and D.D. Adrian. 1999. A review of potentially low-cost sorbents for heavy metals. Water Research 33 (11): 2469–2479. CrossRef
Babel, S., and T.A. Kurniawan. 2003. Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials 97 (1–3): 219–243. CrossRef
Virta, R.L. 1996. U.S. Geological Survey-Minerals Information, http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/190496.pdf.
Pinnavaia, T.J. 1983. Intercalated clay catalysts. Science 220 (4595): 365–371. CrossRef
Cadena, F. Rizvi, R. and Peters, R. W. (1990). Feasibility studies for the removal of heavy metal from solution using tailored bentonite, hazardous and industrial wastes. In Proceedings of the 22nd Mid-Atlantic Industrial Waste Conference, Drexel University, 77–94.
Tanabe, K. 1981. Solid acid and base catalysis. In Catalysis—Science and technology, edited by J.R. Anderson and M. Boudart, 231.
Olphen, H. 1977. An introduction to clay colloid chemistry. New York, NY, USA: Wiley-Interscience.
Churchman, G.J. 2002. Formation of complexes between bentonite and different cationic polyelectrolytes and their use as sorbents for non-ionic and anionic pollutants. Applied Clay Science 21 (3–4): 177–189. CrossRef
Breen, C. 1999. The characterisation and use of polycationexchanged bentonites. Applied Clay Science 15 (1–2): 187–219. CrossRef
Radian, A., and Y.G. Mishael. 2008. Characterizing and designing polycation—clay nanocomposites as a basis for imazapyr controlled release formulations. Environmental Science and Technology 42 (5): 1511–1516. CrossRef
Zadaka, D., S. Nir, A. Radian, and Y.G. Mishael. 2009. Atrazine removal from water by polycation-clay composites: Effect of dissolved organic matter and comparison to activated carbon. Water Research 43 (3): 677–683. CrossRef
Darder, M., M. Colilla, and E. Ruiz-Hitzky. 2005. Chitosan-clay nanocomposites: Application as electrochemical sensors. Applied Clay Science 28 (1–4): 199–208. CrossRef
Darder, M., M.L. Blanco, P. Aranda, A.J. Aznar, J. Bravo, and E. Ruiz-Hitzky. 2006. Microfibrous chitosan—sepiolite nanocomposites. Chemistry of Materials 18 (6): 1602–1610. CrossRef
Ruiz-Hitzky, E., M. Darder, and P. Aranda. 2005. Functional biopolymer nanocomposites based on layered solids. Journal of Materials Chemistry 15 (35–36): 3650–3662. CrossRef
An, J.H., and S. Dultz. 2007. Adsorption of tannic acid on chitosan montmorillonite as a function of pH and surface charge properties. Applied Clay Science 36 (4): 256–264. CrossRef
Li, J.M., X.G. Meng, C.W. Hu, and J. Du. 2009. Adsorption of phenol, p-chlorophenol, and p-nitrophenol onto functional chitosan. Bioresource Technology 100 (3): 1168–1173. CrossRef
Bhattacharyya, K.G., and S.S. Gupta. 2008. Adsorption of a few heavy metals on natural and modified kaolinite and montmorillonite: A review. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 140 (2): 114–131. CrossRef
Ulmanu, M., E. Marañón, Y. Fernández, L. Castrillón, I. Anger, and D. Dumitriu. 2003. Removal of copper and cadmium ions from diluted aqueous solutions by low cost and waste material adsorbents. Water, Air, and Soil pollution 142 (1–4): 357–373. CrossRef
Yavuz, O., Y. Altunkaynak, and F. Guzel. 2003. Removal of copper, nickel, cobalt and manganese from aqueous solution by kaolinite. Water Research 37 (4): 948–952. CrossRef
Bhattacharyya, K.G., and S.S. Gupta. 2007. Adsorption of Co(II) from aqueous medium on natural and acid activated kaolinite and montmorillonite. Separation Science and Technology 42 (15): 3391–3418. CrossRef
Bhattacharyya, K.G., and S.S. Gupta. 2006. Adsorption of Fe(III) from water by natural and acid activated clays: Studies on equilibrium isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamics of interactions. Adsorption 12 (3): 185–204. CrossRef
Gupta, S.S., and K.G. Bhattacharyya. 2005. Interaction of metal ions with clays: I. A case study with Pb(II). Applied Clay Science 30 (3–4): 199–206. CrossRef
Mellah, A., and S. Chegrouche. 1997. The removal of zinc from aqueous solutions by natural bentonite. Water Research 31 (3): 621–629. CrossRef
Oliveira, L.C.A., R.V.R.A. Rios, J.D. Fabris, K. Sapag, V.K. Garg, and R.M. Lago. 2003. Clay-iron oxide magnetic composites for the adsorption of contaminants in water. Applied Clay Science 22 (4): 169–177. CrossRef
Etci, Ö., N. Bektaş, and M.S. Öncel. 2010. Single and binary adsorption of lead and cadmium ions from aqueous solution using the clay mineral beidellite. Environmental Earth Sciences 61 (2): 231–240. CrossRef
Gecol, H., P. Miakatsindila, E. Ergican, and R.H. Sage. 2006. Biopolymer coated clay particles for the adsorption of tungsten from water. Desalination 197 (1–3): 165–178. CrossRef
Aytas, S., M. Yurtlu, and R. Donat. 2009. Adsorption characteristic of U(VI) ion onto thermally activated bentonite. Journal of Hazardous Materials 172 (2–3): 667–674. CrossRef
Mishra, P.C., and R.K. Patel. 2009. Removal of lead and zinc ions from water by low-cost adsorbents. Journal of Hazardous Materials 168 (1): 319–325. CrossRef
Yuan, P., M. Fan, and D. Yang. 2009. Montmorillonite-supported magnetite nanoparticles for the removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solutions. Journal of Hazardous Materials 166 (2–3): 821–829. CrossRef
Angove, M.J., B.B. Johnson, and J.D. Wells. 1998. The influence of temperature on the adsorption of cadmium(II) and cobalt(II) on kaolinite. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 204 (1): 93–103. CrossRef
Doušová, B., L. Fuitová, and T. Grygar. 2009. Modified aluminosilicates as low-cost sorbents of As(III) from anoxic groundwater. Journal of Hazardous Materials 165 (1–3): 134–140.
Sajidu, S.M.I., I. Persson, W.R.L. Masamba, E.M.T. Henry, and D. Kayambazinthu. 2006. Removal of Cd 2+, Cr 3+, Cu 2+, Hg 2+, Pb 2+ and Zn 2+ cations and AsO 3−4 anions from aqueous solutions by mixed clay from Tundulu in Malawi and characterisation of the clay. Water SA 32 (4): 519–526.
Bleiman, N., and Y.G. Mishael. 2010. Selenium removal from drinking water by adsorption to chitosan-clay composites and oxides: Batch and columns tests. Journal of Hazardous Materials 183 (1–3): 590–595. CrossRef
Na, P., X. Jia, and B. Yuan. 2010. Arsenic adsorption on Ti-pillared montmorillonite. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 85 (5): 708–714. CrossRef
Bulut, Y., G. Akçay, D. Elma, and I.E. Serhatlı. 2009. Synthesis of clay-based superabsorbent composite and its sorption capability. Journal of Hazardous Materials 171 (1–3): 717–723. CrossRef
Chaturvedi, A.K., K.P. Yadava, K.C. Pathak, and V.N. Singh. 1990. Defluoridation of water by adsorption on fly ash. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 49 (1–2): 41–69.
Sujana, M.G., R.S. Thakur, and S.B. Rao. 1998. Removal of fluoride from aqueous solution by using alum sludge. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 206 (1): 94–101. CrossRef
Toyoda, A., and T. Taira. 2000. A new method for treating fluorine wastewater to reduce sludge and running costs. IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing 13 (3): 305–309. CrossRef
Ayoob, S., and A.K. Gupta. 2006. Fluoride in drinking water: A review on the status and stress effects. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 36 (6): 433–487. CrossRef
WHO (World Health Organization). 1984. Fluorine and fluorides. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization: Environmental Health Criteria.
Thakre, D., S. Rayalu, R. Kawade, S. Meshram, J. Subrt, and N. Labhsetwar. 2010. Magnesium incorporated bentonite clay for defluoridation of drinking water. Journal of Hazardous Materials 180 (1–3): 122–130. CrossRef
Kamble, S.P., P. Dixit, S.S. Rayalu, and N.K. Labhsetwar. 2009. Defluoridation of drinking water using chemically modified bentonite clay. Desalination 249 (2): 687–693. CrossRef
Ma, Y.X., F.M. Shi, X.L. Zheng, J. Ma, and J.M. Yuan. 2005. Defluoridation from aqueous solutions by Zr-loaded bentonite. Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology (New Series) 12 (1): 224–229.
Dhillon, A., and D. Kumar. 2015. Development of a nanoporous adsorbent for the removal of health-hazardous fluoride ions from aqueous systems. Journal of Material Chemistry A 3: 4215–4228. CrossRef
Dhillon, A., and D. Kumar. 2015. Nanocomposite for the detoxification of drinking water: Effective removal of fluoride and bactericidal activity. New Journal of Chemistry 39: 9143–9154. CrossRef
Tomar, V., S. Prasad, and D. Kumar. 2013. Adsorptive removal of fluoride from water samples using Zr-Mn composite material. Microchemical Journal 111: 116–124. CrossRef
Bejaoui, I., A. Mnif, and B. Hamrouni. 2014. Performance of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration in the removal of fluoride from model water and metal packaging industrial effluent. Separation Science and Technology 49: 1135–1145. CrossRef
Kotecha, P.V., S.V. Patel, K.D. Bhalani, D. Shah, V.S. Shah, and K.G. Mehta. 2012. Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a District of Gujarat, India. Development Foundation, New Delhi. Indian Journal of Medical Research 135: 873–877.
Cui, H., Y. Qian, H. An, C. Sun, J. Zhai, and Q. Li. 2012. Electrochemical removal of fluoride from water by PAOA modified carbon felt electrodes in a continuous flow reactor. Water Research 46: 3943–3950. CrossRef
Guo, Q., and E.J. Reardon. 2012. Fluoride removal from water by meixnerite and its calcination product. Applied Clay Science 56: 7–15. CrossRef
Ramanjaneyulu, V., M. Jaipal, N. Yasovardhan, and S. Sharada. 2013. Kinetic studies on removal of fluoride from drinking water by using tamarind shell and pipal leaf powder. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development 5: 146.
Sakhare, N., S. Lunge, R. Rayalu, S. Bakardjiva, J. Subrt, S. Devotta, and N. Labhsetwar. 2012. Defluoridation of water using calcium aluminate material. Chemical Engineering Journal 203: 406–414. CrossRef
Chakrabarty, S., and H.P. Sarma. 2012. Defluoridation of contaminated drinking water using neem charcoal adsorbent: Kinetics and equilibrium studies. International Journal of Chem Tech Research 4: 511–516.
Boubakri, A., N. Helali, M. Tlili, and M.B. Amor. 2014. Fluoride removal from diluted solutions by Donnan dialysis using full factorial design. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering 31 (3): 461–466. CrossRef
Babu, J.M., and S. Goel. 2013. Defluoridation of drinking water in batch and continuous-flow electrocoagulation systems. Pollution Research 32 (4): 727–736.
Andey, S., P.K. Labhasetwar, G. Khadse, P. Gwala, P. Pal, and P. Deshmukh. 2013. Performance evaluation of solar power based electrolytic defluoridation plants in India. International Journal of Water Resources and Arid Environments 2 (3): 139–145.
Takdastan, A., S.E. Tabar, A. Neisi, and A. Eslami. 2014. Fluoride removal from drinking water by electrocoagulation using iron and aluminum electrodes, Jundishapur. Journal of Health Science 6 (3): 39–44.
Sandoval, M.A., R. Fuentes, J.L. Nava, and I. Rodríguez. 2014. Fluoride removal from drinking water by electrocoagulation in a continuous filter-press reactor coupled to a flocculation and clarifier. Separation and Purification Technology 134: 163–170. CrossRef
Naim, M. M. Moneer, A. A., and El-Said, G. F. 2015. Predictive equations for the defluoridation by electrocoagulation technique using bipolar aluminum electrodes in the absence and presence of additives: A multivariate study. Desalination and Water Treatment, 1–13.
Mena-Duran, C.J., M.R. Sun Kou, and T. Lopez. 2007. Nitrate removal using natural clays modified by acid thermoactivation. Applied Surface Science 253 (13): 5762–5766. CrossRef
Murray, H.H. 2000. Traditional and new applications for kaolin, smectite, and palygorskite: A general overview. Applied Clay Science 17 (5–6): 207–221. CrossRef
Camazano, M.S., and M.J.S. Martin. 1983. Factors influencing interactions of organophosphorus pesticides with montmorillonite. Geoderma 29 (2): 107–118. CrossRef
Ainsworth, C.C., J.M. Zachara, and R.L. Schmidt. 1987. Quinoline sorption on Na-montmorillonite: contributions of the protonated and neutral species. Clays and Clay Minerals 35 (2): 121–128. CrossRef
Khoshnood, M., and S. Azizian. 2012. Adsorption of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid pesticide by graphitic carbon nanostructures prepared from biomasses. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 18 (5): 1796–1800. CrossRef
Rodriguez, J.M., A.J. Lopez, and S. Bruque. 1988. Interaction of phenamiphos with montmorillonite. Clays & Clay Minerals 36 (3): 284–288. CrossRef
Shu, H.T., D. Li, A.A. Scala, and Y.H. Ma. 1997. Adsorption of small organic pollutants from aqueous streams by aluminosilicate-based microporous materials. Separation and Purification Technology 11 (1): 27–36. CrossRef
Torrents, A., and S. Jayasundera. 1997. The sorption of nonionic pesticides onto clays and the influence of natural organic carbon. Chemosphere 35 (7): 1549–1565. CrossRef
Danis, T.G., T.A. Albanis, D.E. Petrakis, and P.J. Pomonis. 1998. Removal of chlorinated phenols from aqueous solutions by adsorption on alumina pillared clays and mesoporous alumina aluminum phosphates. Water Research 32 (2): 295–302. CrossRef
Konstantinou, I.K., T.A. Albanis, D.E. Petrakis, and P.J. Pomonis. 2000. Removal of herbicides from aqueous solutions by adsorption on Al-pillared clays, Fe-Al pillared clays, and mesoporous alumina aluminum phosphates. Water Research 34 (12): 3123–3136. CrossRef
Sun, D., W. Cai, C. Shi, X. Mu, Y. Song, and H. Qi. 2000. Advanced oxidations of chloroacetic acids present in drinking water. Journal of Environmental Science and Health A 35 (10): 1811–1816. CrossRef
Pervova, M.G., V.E. Kirichenko, and K.I. Pashkevich. 2002. Determination of chloroacetic acids in drinking water by reaction gas chromatography. Journal of Analytical Chemistry 57 (4): 326–330. CrossRef
Gu, L., X. Yu, J. Xu, L. Lv, and Q. Wang. 2011. Removal of dichloroacetic acid from drinking water by using adsorptive ozonation. Ecotoxicology 20 (5): 1160–1166. CrossRef
Lu, J., and Pan, J. 2010. Removal of carbon tetrachloride from contaminated groundwater environment by adsorption method. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (iCBBE’10) Chengdu, China.
Rivera-Jimenez, S.M., M.M. Lehner, W.A. Cabrera-Lafaurie, and A.J. Hernández-Maldonado. 2011. Removal of naproxen, salicylic acid, clofibric acid, and carbamazepine by water phase adsorption onto inorganic-organic-intercalated bentonites modified with transition metal cations. Environmental Engineering Science 28 (3): 171–182. CrossRef
Senturk, H.B., D. Ozdes, A. Gundogdu, C. Duran, and M. Soylak. 2009. Removal of phenol from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto organomodified Tirebolu bentonite: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study. Journal of Hazardous Materials 172 (1): 353–362. CrossRef
Gu, L., X. Zhang, L. Lei, and X. Liu. 2009. Concurrent removal of humic acid and o-dichlorobenzene in drinking water by combined ozonation and bentonite coagulation process. Water Science and Technology 60 (12): 3061–3068. CrossRef
Jiang, J.Q., and C.G. Kim. 2008. Comparison of algal removal by coagulation with clays and Al-based coagulants. Separation Science and Technology 43 (7): 1677–1686. CrossRef
Gao, Z., X. Peng, H. Zhang, Z. Luan, and B. Fan. 2013. Montmorillonite-Cu(II)/Fe(III) oxides magnetic material for removal of cyanobacterial Microcystis aeruginosa and its regeneration. Desalination 247 (1–3): 337–345.
Undabeytia, T., S. Nir, J. Sánchez-Verdejo, J. Villaverde, C. Maqueda, and E. Morillo. 2008. A clay-vesicle system for water purification from organic pollutants. Water Research 42 (4–5): 1211–1219. CrossRef
Rytwo, G., Y. Kohavi, I. Botnick, and Y. Gonen. 2007. Use of CVand TPP-montmorillonite for the removal of priority pollutants from water. Applied Clay Science 36 (1–3): 182–190. CrossRef
Bonina, F.P., M.L. Giannossi, L. Medici, C. Puglia, V. Summa, and F. Tateo. 2007. Adsorption of salicylic acid on bentonite and kaolin and release experiments. Applied Clay Science 36 (1–3): 77–85. CrossRef
Wang, T., R.L. Zhu, F. Ge, J.X. Zhu, H.P. He, and W.X. Chen. 2010. Sorption of phenol and nitrobenzene in water by CTMAB/CPAM oregano bentonites. Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science 31 (2): 385–389.
Carmichael, W.W. 1988. Freshwater cyanobacteria (blue-green algal) toxins. In Natural toxins: Characterization, pharmacology and therapeutics, edited by C.L. Ownby and G.V. Odell, 3–16. London, UK: Pergamon Press.
Cohen, P., and P.T.W. Cohen. 1989. Protein phosphatases come of age. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264 (36): 21435–21438.
Yoshizawa, S., R. Matsushima, and M.F. Watanabe. 1990. Inhibition of protein phosphatases by microcystis and nodularin associated with hepatotoxicity. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 116 (6): 609–614. CrossRef
Honkanen, R.E., J. Zwiller, and R.E. Moore. 1990. Characterization of microcystin-LR, a potent inhibitor of type 1 and type 2A protein phosphatases. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265 (32): 19401–19404.
MacKintosh, C., K.A. Beattie, S. Klumpp, P. Cohen, and G.A. Codd. 1990. Cyanobacterial microcystin-LR is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A from both mammals and higher plants. FEBS Letters 264 (2): 187–192. CrossRef
Nishiwaki-Matsushima, R., S. Nishiwaki, and T. Ohta. 1991. Structure- function relationships of microcystins, liver tumor promoters, in interaction with protein phosphatase. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research 82 (9): 993–996. CrossRef
Nishiwaki-Matsushima, R., T. Ohta, and S. Nishiwaki. 1992. Liver tumor promotion by the cyanobacterial cyclic peptide toxin microcystin-LR. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 118 (6): 420–424. CrossRef
Fujiki, H., and M. Suganuma. 1993. Tumor promotion by inhibitors of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A: The okadaic acid class of compounds. Advances in Cancer Research 61: 143–194. CrossRef
Lawton, L.A., B.J.P.A. Cornish, and A.W.R. MacDonald. 1998. Removal of cyanobacterial toxins (microcystins) and cyanobacterial cells from drinking water using domestic water filters. Water Research 32 (3): 633–638. CrossRef
Heidarpour, F., and Wan. W. 2011. Complete removal of pathogenic bacteria from water using nano silver coate cylindrical polypropylene. Journal of Toxicology—Toxin Reviews 17(3):385–403.
Xagoraraki, I., Yin, Z., and Svambayev, Z. (2014). Fate of viruses in water systems. Journal of Environment Engineering, 140. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000827.
Lu, R., D. Mosiman, and T.H. Nguyen. 2013. Mechanisms of MS2 bacteriophage removal by fouled ultrafiltration membrane subjected to different cleaning methods. Environmental Science and Technology 47: 13422–13429. CrossRef
Antony, A., J. Blackbeard, and G. Leslie. 2011. Removal efficiency and integrity monitoring techniques for virus removal by membrane processes. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 42: 891–933. CrossRef
Hirani, Z.M., Z. Bukhari, J. Oppenheimer, P. Jjemba, M.W. LeChevallier, and J.G. Jacangelo. 2014. Impact of MBR cleaning and breaching on passage of selected microorganisms and subsequent inactivation by free chlorine. Water Research 57: 313–324. CrossRef
Cabral, J.P.S. 2010. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7: 3657–3703. CrossRef
Luo, W., F.I. Hai, W.E. Price, W. Guo, H.H. Ngo, K. Yamamoto, and L.D. Nghiem. 2014. High retention membrane bioreactors: Challenges and opportunities. Bioresources Technology 167: 539–546. CrossRef
Amin, M.T., A.A. Alazba, and U. Manzoor. 2014. A review of removal of pollutants from water/wastewater using different types of nanomaterials. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering 23 (4): 23–28.
Botes, M., and T. Eugene Cloete. 2010. The potential of nanofibers and nano biocides in water purification. Critical Reviews in Microbiology 36: 68–81. CrossRef
Homaeigohar, S., and M. Elbahri. 2014. Nanocomposite electrospun nanofiber membranes for environmental remediation. Materials 7: 1017–1045. CrossRef
Semblante, G.U., F.I. Hai, H.H. Ngo, W. Guo, S.J. You, W.E. Price, and L.D. Nghiem. 2014. Sludge cycling between aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic regimes to reduce sludge production during wastewater treatment: Performance, mechanisms, and implications. Bioresource Technology 155: 395–409. CrossRef
- Application of Biomaterials for Elimination of Damaging Contaminants from Aqueous Media
in-adhesives, MKVS, Neuer Inhalt/© Zühlke, Technisches Interface Design/© scyther5 | Getty Images | iStock