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Über dieses Buch

This book highlights the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) and nature based algorithms to solve the problems of water and water based renewable energy resources. The irregularity in availability of resources and inefficiency in utilization of the available resources has reduced the potentiality of water and water based renewable energy resources. In recent years various soft computation methods (SCM) along with GIS were adopted to solve critical problems. The book collects various studies where many SCMs were used along with GIS to provide a solution for optimal utilization of natural resources for satisfying the basic needs of the population as well as fulfilling their burgeoning energy demands. The articles depict innovative application of soft computation techniques to identify the root cause and to mitigate the uncertainty for optimal utilization of the available water resources. The advantage of SCM and GIS were used to maximize the utilization of water resources under cost and time constraints in face of climatic abnormalities and effect of rapid urbanization.



Water Based Problems


Chapter 1. Review of Reservoir Sediment Inflow Estimation for Teriang Reservoir, Malaysia

The purpose of this review is to summarize the current standard of practices for estimating reservoir sediment inflows for the entire duration of their useful service life, normally 100-year ARI design period. To achieve this objective, a review of the past and contemporary literatures and conventions on sedimentation issues in Malaysia as well as other regional countries is imperative. A case study was carried out using the proposed Teriang reservoir. (CA = 59 km2) that is located mainly in the forested headwater region of Sg. Teriang which eventually joins Sg. Pahang further downstream in the state of Pahang, Malaysia. Both the low and high (Type I and II respectively) curves are adopted for predicting the suspended load concentration (mg/l) using normalized flow discharge per unit area (Q/km2; m3/s/km2). Alternative method by coupling the sediment rating and flow duration curve (both daily and monthly) are also used for checking purpose. The limitations and insights of total sediment loadings estimates for the case study are discussed in order of importance.
Ching Poon Hii, Hock Hwee Heng

Chapter 2. Analyzing Extreme Events Using Standardized Precipitation Index During the 20th Century for Surat District, India

The study of floods and droughts requires the knowledge of wet and dry event sequences. They are the two important extreme conditions which directly or indirectly affects every field of environmental science. These extreme conditions are due to the change in one, of the many but most important parameter, rainfall. The standardized precipitation index is designed to quantify the rainfall for multiple time scales. These time scales reflect the impact of drought/floods on the availability of the different water resources. The modified classification by Agnew is referred for the classification of wet and dry events during the 20th Century for Surat district. The monthly rainfall data from 1901 to 2000 is utilized to determine the SPI values. SPI was calculated for 4, 6, 12, 24 and 48 months time scales. The area experienced more than 20% years of dry and wet events for the 20th Century. It is observed that the years 1942, 1945 and 1959 are identified as severe wet events for all the time scale. Year 1998 is identified as moderate wet event for all time scale. Years 1936 and 1987 are identified as severe dry events and year 1935 is identified as moderate dry event for all the time scales. No extreme wet event was observed. For extreme dry scenario all the years identified for different time scales are different.
N. R. Patel, T. M. V. Suryanarayana, D. T. Shete

Chapter 3. An Approach to Develop an Alternative Water Quality Index Using FLDM

One of the major drawbacks of WQI is the manner, in which magnitude of the weights are assigned to the water quality parameters to their relative importance. Most of such methods are rather subjective and does not include the impact of the parameters to create hazards, cost to mitigate the hazard and utility to asses water quality. That is why; the present investigation proposes an objective method to determine the magnitude of weight, incorporating such factors and thus depicts the holistic quality of water. To achieve this objective FLDM was used to integrate the importance of parameters, on the basis of expert and literature survey, to represent actual situation of water quality more accurately. A case study of assessing the water quality of the sample water bodies in North East India with the proposed WQI is also incorporated to verify the applicability of the proposed index. The results show that the values of proposed WQI are close to that of NSF WQI and also in parity with available data.
Ritabrata Roy

Water Based Renewable Energy Problems


Chapter 4. Development of Financial Liability Index for Hydropower Plant with MCDM and Neuro-genetic Models

The population overgrowth along with technological advancement has increased the demand for Electricity all over the World. The cost of Electricity has been increased simultaneously. As the resources of conventional fuels are limited, alternate energy sources to replace fossil fuels are now preferred to supply the excess demand. Among all the sources of alternate energy, hydropower was found to be the most reliable but inexpensive source of alternative Energy. But locational implications and variation in kinetic Energy of water flow during the monsoon and non-monsoon seasons attracts sufficient amount of financial liability. Thus for any hydropower projects the financial liability are evaluated before approving the installation of the project. The conventional practices of liability analysis give equal importance to all the considered factors. But in reality not all the factors have the same importance on liability analysis of Hydropower projects. Thus some factors are overrated and some other under rated which resulted in erroneous decision making. The present investigation proposed a new method of liability analysis where all the major factors were given separate importance as decided from literature, Expert and local surveys. A financial liability index was also proposed to represent the financial liability of the project. The index was applied to hydro-power plants of different capacity and efficiency. The results are found to be coherent with the actual scenario. The index utilized various MCDM techniques followed by ANN architecture to create a flexible but cognitive instrument to analyse the financial liability of new hydro power project.
Priyanka Majumder, Apu Kumar Saha

Chapter 5. Wave Energy Potential Site Selection Based on MCDM and Neural Network Analysis

The present study, an improved wave energy potential estimate has been made. Based on various parameters such as physical site characteristics, environmental conditions and socio-economic regional state, the selection criteria have been suggested. This would form the basis for energy device selection for the decision makers. If analytical network process (ANP) is used to determine the weight vector to be assigned to the criteria considered for a certain decision-making problem, the output of the result will be more logical and the haziness of the conversion to a crisp rating will not influence the decision. Thus, we investigated a hybrid ANP method to identify the most suitable location for a wave energy potential site. The index also provided a heuristic and cognitive optimal value to way from a suitability of small scale hydro power plant installation. Both models were able to fit the data well, with R2 values of 0.98462 and 0.9964 for the linear regression model and the ANN model respectively. According to the results, wave height was found to have maximum importance followed by wind speed, wave period, water depth and salinity. The total three different neural networks were developed to predict the same output, all the models of five input to have a optimal performance.
Soumya Ghosh

Chapter 6. A MCDM-NBO Approach for Selection of Installation Location for Wave Energy Power Plants

Wave energy is deemed to be one of the major options to substitute conventional energy sources. But due to the irregularity in wave patterns, technical shortcoming of converters, hostility from local populations and many other factors the cost of installation for wave power plant is expensive compared to other forms of renewable energy of the obstacles seems to be location dependent. That is why; selection of an ideal location for wave energy production can ensure optimal conversion of wave into electrical energy. The present study first tries to identify the most important parameters for location selection by MCDM methods. Then it attempts to identify the single most significant parameter for which production potential can be maximum. In this regard this study utilized three population based nature oriented optimization algorithms. The results from the study will reduce the search space of finding ideal location for installation of wave energy power plants. After applying the method in coastal region of Europe the results encouraged further applications of the method.
Tilottama Chakraborty

Chapter 7. Cost Optimization of High Head Run of River Small Hydropower Projects

Small hydropower (SHP) is one of the most reliable and environment friendly source of electrical power among different renewable energy sources. For making a decision regarding development of a SHP project, its financial viability is to be assessed along with technical feasibility. In the present study, a methodology has been developed for cost assessment of high head run of river (ROR) SHP projects in order to determine their techno-economic viability before undergoing detailed investigation. This will enable the planners and developers to carry out detailed investigation and implementation of only those projects which are financially feasible. In the analysis of cost, capacity and head have been considered cost-influencing parameters. The correlations for cost based on different types of head race conduit, penstock materials, types of turbine and types of generator for various layouts have been developed. The project cost determined from the developed correlations is validated by the cost data collected from recently developed projects. It has been found that the developed correlation for cost may be used for reasonable cost estimation of hydropower projects for planning of such projects. The cost analysis of different layouts based on generation cost and installation cost were evaluated. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based technique has been employed to work out the optimal layout. Based on cost analysis, nomogram has been developed for selection of optimum layout for high head RoR SHP projects.
Sachin Mishra, S. K. Singal, D. K. Khatod

Chapter 8. An Approach for Wind-Pumped Storage Plant Scheduling Under Uncertainty

The combined operation of wind-pumped storage plant (PSP) system under day-ahead market has been carried out by applying stochastic technique considering uncertainty in the wind data. Such uncertainty causes risk to the scheduling of wind-PSP system. The orthogonal arrays based Taguchi method is used to manage the risk during the scheduling of wind-PSP system by maximizing the total revenue, where the numbers of experiments are performed in order to access the criticality of possible outcomes. In this study, an adjustable speed type PSP unit is considered for better reliability.
J. Dhillon, A. Kumar, S. K. Singal


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