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12.06.2019 | Original Paper: Sol-gel and hybrid materials for optical, photonic and optoelectronic applications | Ausgabe 2/2019

Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology 2/2019

Application of Taguchi method to optimize the sol–gel dip-coating process of the semiconductor Cu2ZnSnS4 with good optical properties

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology > Ausgabe 2/2019
Autoren:
Ahmed Ziti, Bouchaib Hartiti, Hicham Labrim, Salah Fadili, Mounia Tahri, Amine Belafhaili, Abderraouf Ridah, Philippe Thevenin
Wichtige Hinweise
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Abstract

This paper presents the optimal configuration of parameters for the elaborated Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) absorber layer, using the sol–gel method associated with dip-coating technique on ordinary glass substrates. Taguchi design of experiments with L27 (38) orthogonal array, a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to determine the best optical properties for photovoltaic applications (optical bandgap energy) of CZTS thin films. Eight factors named annealing temperature, Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio, Zn/Sn ratio, S/metal ratio, number of pre-annealing and dip coating, dip-coating cycle, annealing time, and dip-coating speed were chosen. To conduct the tests, we apply Taguchi method; three levels were fixed for each factor. The most important factors of the deposition approach on the optical properties of the fixed as-synthesized CZTS films were determined. The analysis of the obtained results indicated that the important parameters are the Zn/Sn ratio and annealing temperature in air by employing Taguchi approach. A validation test is also carried out to check whether the found optimal combinations of the parameter are correct. CZTS thin-film synthesis with optimal conditions has been characterized, using an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–visible spectrophotometer, and four-point probe method. XRD data show a kesterite structure with a preferential orientation along the (112) plan; UV–visible spectrophotometer indicated that the bandgap energy of the CZTS thin film is 1.51 eV and a cross section showed the suitable film thickness in the order of ~1.80 µm.

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Literatur
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